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mm Dec. 3, 1946
UNITED ‘STATES’a411,”:PATENT orrlci-z
amc'mou mscmaca nsvi'ca
Robert L. Vance, Weehawken, N. 3., assignor to
Bell Telephone Labor-atoriea, Incorporated, New
.York, ‘N. Y., a corporation of NewYork
Application April 17, 1042, Serial-No. 439,375
This invention relates to electron discharge de
vices and more particularly to such devices op
erable at very high‘ frequencies, such as frequen
Theinvention and the above-notedg/nd other
features thereof will be understood more clearly‘
and fully from the following detailed description
cies corresponding’to wave-lengths in the cen-, - with referenceto the accompanying drawing in
timeter range, and embodying cavity resonatorv
type circuits associated with the electrodes.
In one form of ultra-short wave electron dis
Fig.1 is a side view mainly in section of an
electron discharge deviceillustrative of one em
bodiment of this invention: and
charge device of the general construction disFig. 2 is an enlarged perspective view, partly in
closed in the application Serial No. '388,043,>?led
April 11, 1941, of John R. Pierce, a cavity resoi 10 section, of the device illustrated in Fig. 1 showing
nator is provided within the» enclosing vessel Iofl: .‘ ‘ the cavity ‘resonator de?ning elements and the
tuning mechanism therefor.‘
the device, the resonator being defined by a pair -
Referring now to the drawing, the electron
discharge deviceillustrated in Fig. 1 comprises an
The resonant frequency of such a resonator is:
dependent upon the form and dimensions of the 15' enclosing vessel includinga metallic shell having
a cylindrical portion Ill and an inverted cup
resonator, and small changes in the form and di
of electrodes and a portion ‘of the enclosing vesseLT I '
mensions are attended by relatively large changes
in the resonant frequency of the resonator. -
shaped portion ll coaxial with the portion In and
joined thereto by a ?exible, metallic annular
wall member l2, which may be integral with the .
manufacturing tolerances do not allow ready de 20 cup-shaped portion II as shown. The cylindrical
portion l 0 is closed at one end by a base or header
sign of such resonators to have the extremely
accurate determination of the resonant frequency '
l3, for example of metal, having hermetically
joined thereto a plurality of metal eyelets l4
thereof necessary for optimum operation of the
device in the centimeter wave-length range.
through'which leading-in conductors l5 extend ,
Furthermore, for any given device, capability of
and to which the conductors are sealed hermet
operation at any frequency within a relatively
wide band of frequencies may be desirable and.
base or header‘ is a coaxial transmission line
ically by vitreous beads l6. Also secured to the
which includes an outer tubular conductor I1
and an inner conductor l8 hermetically sealed
One object of this invention is to enable the 30 to an eyelet I9 by a vitreous bead 20, the inner
conductor i8 being looped at its inner end as
accurate tuning of cavity resonators. More
shown at 2i and connected to the outer conductor
specifically, one object of this invention is to
I‘! at the inner end thereof.
facilitate the accurate tuning of cavity resonators
The cup-shaped portion II has hermetically
in electron discharge devices wherein the cavity
resonant is within the enclosing vessel of the 35 joined thereto a metallic eyelet 22 through which
a leading-in conductor 23 extends, the conductor
23 being sealed hermetically to the eyelet 22 by
One illustrative embodiment of this invention
a vitreous bead“. Seated upon and secured to
comprises an enclosing vessel including two hol
the end wall of the cup-shaped portion H is a
low, for example cylindrical, sections of metal
in end to end relation and joined at the juxta 40 cup-shaped metallic shield or support 25.
Mounted upon the base or header I3 is an elec
posed ends by a flexible member, such as a metal
tron gun which comprises a cylindrical indirectly
lic annulus which constitutes a wall portion of
heated cathode 26 having an electron emissive
the enclosing vessel. A pair of electrodes are
surface 21 and a cylindrical beam-forming elec
mounted within the enclosing vessel and related
trode 28 coaxial with and encompassing the cath
with the ?exible member so as to de?ne therewith 45 ode, the beam-forming electrode having a ?ared
realization of this desideratum entails tuning of
the resonator to the desired operating frequency.
a cavity resonator.
In accordance, with one feature of this inven
inner end 28.
As shown clearly in Fig. 2, the metallic portion
tion, a linkage including a toggle element is pro
vided external to the enclosing vessel and cou
10 of the enclosing vessel is provided with an in
pling the two hollow sections, the toggle element
being adjustable to effect ?exure of the?exible
member and thus to alter the form of thecavity
resonator. In one specific form, this linkage
comprises a pair of bands secured to the hollow 55
the ?exible wall member l2, and having a central
tubularportion 3| across which a dished grid 32
extends. The ?ange 3'0 is provided with an aper
ture in which the outer coaxial‘ conductor i1 is
sections and connected by a toggle element in
cluding a pair of strips mounted in face to face
relation and having a micrometer screw threaded
an annular metallic support 33 which carries a
wardly extending annular ?ange 30 underlying
Mounted within the cup-shaped portion l l is
dished grid 34 opposite and axially aligned with
the grid 32 and conforming thereto.
thereto whereby the strips may be bowed relative
to one another and the effective length of the 60 The leading-in conductor 23 supports a metal
lic bridge or yoke 35 which mounts a dished target
toggle element thereby adjusted.
2,411,919 '
or re?ecting electrode “opposite and in align
ment with the grid 34.
The grids 32 and'34 together with the. supports
' understood that various modi?cations maybe
30, 3| and 33 therefor and the annular wall l2
de?ne a cavity resonator which is excited during
the operation of the device and from which energy
may be taken by way of the coaxial transmission
line l1, l3,
Although a speci?c embodiment of the inven
tion has been shown and described, it will be
made therein without departing from the scope
- and spirit of this invention as de?ned in the ap
pended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. An electron discharge device comprising an
enclosing vessel including a pair of spaced por
During operation of the device, for example, as
an oscillation generator, the electrons emanating 10 tions mounted in end to end relation and a ?ex
-from they cathode surface 2‘! are concentrated
ible member connecting said portions, means in
into a beam which isprojected through the grids
cluding said ?exible member de?ning a cavity
32 and 34 and toward the target or re?ecting elec
resonator within said vessel, said cavity resonator
trode 36. In traversing the gap between the grids
having. an aperture therein, electrode means ad
32 and 34,_the electrons are in?uenced by the high 15 jacent thereto-for exciting said‘resonator, and
frequency?eld between these grids ‘and are thus
means for tuning said resonator, said tuning
means including a pair of adjacent ?exible mem
velocity varied so that the-beam issuing from the
bers extending between said spaced portions and
grid 34 is composed of accelerated and decelerated
electrons. In the space between the grid 34 and
a?lxed thereto and means coupled thereto for
adjustably ?exing said'adjacent ?exible members.
the target or re?ecting electrode 36., the electrons
2.vAn electron discharge device comprising ‘an
are reversed in direction and are then projected
in time spaced groups back into the gap between
the grids in ‘such phase relation as to deliver
enclosing vessel including a pair of hollow por
tions mounted in end 'to end relation and a ?exible
member connecting the opposed ends of said por
‘energy to the ?eld within the cavity resonator
whereby oscillations are produced and sustained. 25 tions, means bounding a cavity resonator within
said vessel, said means including an electrode
The frequency of these oscillations will be de
supported from one of said hollow portions and
pendent, upon, among other factors, the resonant
frequency of the cavity resonator. E?icient op
asecond electrode supported from the other of
said hollow portions, electrode means adjacent
eration requires that this resonator be tuned ac
curately to the desired operating frequency. This 30 thereto for energizing said resonator and means
for tuning said resonator, said ,tuning means
invention enables the realization not only of such
comprising a pair of adjacent strip members ex
accurate tuning but also thereof in an expeditious
tending between and having their ends secured
to said hollow portions and means coupled thereto
The metallic portions I0 and -II are coupled by
a linkage of adjustable length whereby relative 35 for adjustably bowing said strip members.
‘,3. An electron discharge device comprising a
axial movement between the portions I 0 and I I of
pair of members having juxtaposed electrode
the enclosing vessel may be effected and, due to
portions, means including said members and a
the ?exure of the annular wall l2 and attendant
?exible wall member de?ning a cavity resonator,
relative movement between the grids 32 and 34,
the con?guration of the cavity resonator may be 40 said ?exible wall member extending between and
altered with a. consequent change in the resonant
connecting said pair of members, electrode
means adjacent thereto for energizing. said cavity
frequency of the resonator. As shown particu
larly clearly in- Fig. 2, this coupling linkage in
resonator, and means for tuningsaid resonator,
said tuning means comprising a pair of strip
cludes a metallic band 31 and 3 metal strips 38
secured to the shield 25 and the portion In of the 45 members ‘mounted adjacent one another and in
enclosing vessel respectively. The band and strips
face to- face relation, means rigidly connecting
said strip members at opposite ends to said pair
are joined by a metallic strip 39 ai?xed thereto
and by a toggle element including a pair of me
tallic strips 40 and 4| mounted in face to face
relation and having a right-hand left-hand mi
of members, and a micrometer means coupling
said strip members to one another and, effective
to bow said strip members normal to the faces
4. An electron discharge device comprising an
enclosing vessel including a pair of hollow mem
_ crometer screw 42, extending therethrough and
threaded to nuts 43 a?lxed, as by welding, to the
strips 40 and 4 I.
Rotation of the screw 42 results in relative
movement of the strips 40' and 4| to bow the strips
either toward or away from one another. Such
bowing of the strips results in a, change in the
effective length of the toggle element with a cor
responding relative movement between the por-,
bers in end to end relation and a ?exible wall
connecting the opposed ends of said hollow mem
_ bers, means bounding a cavity resonator within
said vessel, said means including said ?exible
wall, an electrode mounted from one of said hol
low members and a second electrode in juxtapo
sition to said ?rst electrode and mounted from
the other of said hollow members, one of said
electrodes having an apertured portion, means
within said vessel. for projecting an electron
stream into said resonator through said aper
tions I0 and I I of the enclosing vessel and ?exure '
of the annular wall I2,- and an attendant change
in the resonant frequency of the cavity resonator.
It will be appreciated that very ?ne and ac
curate tuning of the resonator is thus enabled;
inasmuch as extremely small increments of dis
placement or movement may beimparted to the
?exible wall member I2 by means of the great
tured portion, and means for tuning said resona
tor, said tuning means comprising a pair of bands
each secured to a corresponding one of said hol
mechanical advantage provided by the toggle ele
low members; a pair of adjacent strip members
mounted in face to face relation and secured at
ment. It will be appreciated further that such
a toggle system, rigidly connected as it is to por 70 their ends to said bands, and a micrometer screw
threadably coupled to both of said strip members
and effective to ?ex said strip members relative
tions III and II of the enclosing vessel, admits of
no appreciable or effective play or slack to be
to one another.
translated to the ?exible wall member I2, and
this obtains- without the introduction of locking
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