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. 3,_v 194.6.
2,41 1,998'
Original lFiled Sept. 18, 1939
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Patented Der; '3, '194e
i UNiTE-D srA'rssi-rA'rßur oFFlc
John n.` 'Kelly and wlmm J. muy, mm,
W. va., asslgnors to Kelly Foundry and Mag
chine Gompanbßlkins, W. Va.
Original application September 18. 1939, Serial
No. 295,551, now Patent No. 2,326,730, ’dated _
» August 10, 1943. Divided and >this application Y
June 12, 1943, Serial No. 490,580 ' _
x ._
1`Claim. ' (CL 76-107)
application Serial Number 295.551 flied Septem
of making same.” The present application has to
surface Y
'I'he prior art has r
’ both cast iron as well as pure nickel have been.
proposed as materials for such molds.- With such .
limitations as cost, a nickel glass mold cannot be >
molds and to the method of making as well as
made thick enough so that its outer surface has
enough area to_ effectively- dissipate the heat. It
The primary object of this invention is to pro
such a nickel insert. however, in absence of fusion
between the cast iron and the nickel insert there
one surface thereof suited for glass molding work
and in which the two parts of the construction are
so fused together as to enable eillcient transmis
sion of heat away from` the cavity to the other
of a glass mold must be free from oxidation, and
to the process of making such constructions.
More specifically, the invention relates to glass
Other objects of this invention' will appear as
other dimensions to be produced. f
do with the process involved in said application.
This invention relates to bi-metallic construc
tions wherein two metals are united together and
surfaces of the mold.
certain dimensions that the mold may be ma
chined vto a new shape' thus enabling articles of
'730, dated August;` 10, 1943, for Mold andmethod
duce a low cost bi-metallic construction having
As Yan
example of this latter feature, we point out that
afterl using the mold for producing articles of
ber 18, 1939, which matured as Patent No. 2,326,
the method of using suchmolds.
I for several different shapes of articles.
This application is a division of our co-pendihg
would be considerable resistance to heat iiow at
the junction of the nickel and iron. l The present
invention contemplates a glass mold in which the
of cast iron, which outer layer is made very thick
this description proceeds.
In carrying out the above object, we use an
and a large heat dissipating area. Such a glass
inner layer of a chilled, corrosion resistant cast
mold characterizes the present invention, and we
iron which deñnes the cavity of said mold. 'I'he
material which we employ in the construction u have found it to be a very marked improvement ‘
over glass molds known to the prior art.
of the glass forming implements hereof, which
A proposal that has been made by inventors
comprise a. glass" mold and a plunger,-is prefer
of the prior art is to weld, by ordinary welding
ably a nickel-iron alloy having a nickel content
methods, a non-oxidizable lcoating upon an»
well above 20% although this particular alloy is
not essential and our invention may be carried 9o oxidizable metal but that proposal differs consid
erably from our invention and it also has certain
_ out with various heat resistant materials. Dur
disadvantages which do not occur with our proc
ing the manufacture of this mold, the nickel cast
ess. Such prior art molds as we' just mentioned
iron part is machined on its >outer surfaces Iso it
are subject to the great disadvantage er being _
will be quite clean. It is essential to remove all
foreign matter from this surface by a good clean __” inicompletelyV welded, the disadvantage of having _
air pocketsv at the joints,»and they can ordinarily
ing process and we have found machining to be
q‘uite satisfactory. This part is then heated to j > >be built only when simple :cavities are used. Ac
1600° F. in a non-oxidizing medium, transferred.- c_ol'i'llngly,> it is apparent that when the mold of
our invention is compared with’molds of the prior
to a foundry mold in such a manner .that its con'
_ coated 4° Vart suchras the prior molds'recited above, it is _
tact with the air is very brief, and then
¿¿ with a very ¿thick layer of cast iron bythe step _ „seen thatweîhave made considerable improve»>
ments nomine standpointsengneat conductivity, Y C v
of casting
our `process,
iron about
cost, and _surface ch_arac‘tex'isti_cs.>
with the nickel-'iron 'alloypart and thereby creates
the _outer surfaces
the from
`Thep'resent invention-~v _satisfies
which‘was 'cast in a'sand _
mold.. v_When 'irmfis castfagainsta chill,_the
offthe `chill mold conducts heat
@am °f I
. i v'
iron__ makes'a muchbetter
__ _
_ glass
Y Y»away-"frolnfv the hot _iron causing' the latter to
ments'o'f aïfgoodglass mold in lthat it providesa-Í ,
the resultant casting
v efficient. louniformanddense.- Howevergincaßtináaglass "
- Y._ „ non-oxidizable-molding surface as _well as>
' heat dissipation from the molding cavity to
outer ' surfaces ,of thev mold. - Moreover,_f themew
mold is'inexpensive‘to manufacture, can b_e maná;
- .
ufactured withoutïappreciable'probabilityof uri--ï
_ reliable operation, _and may be
mold siichïasinventors of :the prior art.'
1t'is_„1m_.with usual casting methods to.
set vthe center
working section ‘of> tbecasting
a chill and since this insert is relatively thin it _
becomes very dense throughout. With our proc
the process. Instead of coating the part II with
lampblack, it may be coated with copper by elec
ess, ‘an outer layer may be cast onto as well as
troplating. The insert I l is then placed in cham
fused to this insert without destroying the nigh ` ber 22 which chamber is only slightly larger than
degree of density _of the insert. Hence, we can
the insert II. This chamber 'may have a char
produce a glass mold which is very dense in its
coal lining but this is not necessary. A removable
` central working section. To avoid cracking the
cement lid 23 is placed on-chamber 22. 'I'he
thin inner part or insert, it is desirable to use
.chamber 22 is then placed in a gas furnace 34
metals for both'the inner and outer layers which
of any suitable type but preferably a furnace in
have similar coemcients of thermal expansion as l0 which a large number of jets 2| emerge tangen
well as similar melting points.
tially from the inner surface of the furnace 34.
Inthe drawing:
The Jets 2| are so arranged that a smooth band
Figure 1 illustrates a machine for manufactur
ing glass articles and includes a'glass producing '
machine, a glass mold. a plunger, and a valve.
' - Figure il- is a top view of the mold of Figure
1 without the plunger, valve, or glass producing
machine being shown.
of flames exist, for-a distance of about three
inches from the inner wall of furnace 34. 'I‘he
overall diameter of the furnace is lthree to ñve
feet. 'I'he Jets all face in the same angular di
rection and propel the flames around the inner
wall of the furnace. The hot gases pass out the
Figure 3 illustrates apparatus that may be em- ' openings‘ua respectively located at the top and
ployed in carrying out the process which is 20 bottom of the furnace 3l. As a result, the llames
claimed to be our invention.
and hot gases act on al1 sides of chamber 22
Figure 4 is a sectional view of a chill mold that
4 may be used for casting nickel-iron -alloy inserts. V
In Figure 1, an outer grey or white cast iron
sleeve I0 surrounds- and is fused to the inner
forcing heat4 evenly into this small chamber to
such an extent that insert II is evenly heated to
'a temperature well above red heat and preferably
to a temperature above 1600’ F. ._
nickel-iron alloy part II. While this specifica
tion specifies that cast iron is used for layer III,
When suillcientv time has elapsed for heat to
fully penetrate the insert II to raise the same to
we recognize that any good heat conductor-such
say 1600“ F. yor~ slightly hotter, the entire
as copper or aluminum may be used in forming
small chamber_22 is removed to position 22a
. layer III without departing from the very broad 30 where it ls adjacent the foundry mold 35. If
est aspects of our invention. The insert or in
the insert II were transferred to position IIa
ner part II defines a cavity Isa 'of a shape, for
without using the chamber 22, the insert would
example, conforming to the outer surface of an
oxidize slightly and impair the resultant glass
- ordinary drinking glass. The surface I3 of insert
mold. When at position 22a, the lid 23 is re
‘ I I is machined to such a shape.
35 moved and the insert IIa removed and quickly
A plunger is often used in glass manufacturing
brushed so as to remove the carbon which was de
machinery and a suitable plunger is shown in Fig
posited or smoked on the insert previously. In
ure 1 directly above the mold cavity Isa. This
event the modified process is used wherein the
plunger has a cast iron 'section I4 with an outer
insert is coated with copper it is not necessary to
layer I5 -of nickel-iron alloy cast iron fused 40 remove the coating. After being brushed, the
thereto. 'I'he surf-ace of layer I5 conforms to the
insert I I is placed in the foundry mold 35 at posi
shape of the inner side of the glass articles to > tion IIb. The foundry mold' 35 is then quickly
be produced, for example, it may conform to .the
assembled and ordinary grey cast iron poured into
inner surface of said drinking glass. >In addition
the cavities 30a of this foundry mold. A ladle 3I
Ito the .mold and plunger, most glass manufac
is used to supply the grey cast iron into the sand
.turing equipment of the type being considered em
top 3U which defines the gate 30a. A vent 33 of
ploys a valve which in Figure 1 is shown directly
, dry sand core material is used to remove the hot
below the mold cavity Isa. This valve has a
gases from the molding chamber within 35. It
white or grey cast iron base I2 with a nickel-iron
is understood that the insert I I is substantially at
alloy coating I3 fused thereto.
50 1600° F. at the time the outer layer I0 is cast
The method of manufacturing glass molds such
thereon by the process Just outlined.
asvthose shown in Figure 1 will now lbe described,
Since the nickel-iron alloy part II is the only '
_reference being made particularly to-Figure :iL
although like parts von all figures are represented
by like numbers.
An alloy insert I-I, of suitable stainless metal
partof our mold that comes into contact with
the hot glass, it is not absolutelyessential that
» foundry mold 35 have chill walls although it is
desirable that it does. Ordinary sand walls will
such as the alloys described elsewhere in this dis
A be satisfactory. The nickel-alloy part II has ex
closure, is ilrst cast in` a cylindrical chill `mold
cellent heat and corrosion resistance yet a _melt
having thick chill walls. The cavity I3a may be
ing mint» approximately the same as ordinary ,
cast into the insert originally or it may be ma 60 cast iron.v All of the iron alloy compositions de
chined into the insert immediately after the cast
scribed indetail in this disclosure have melting
ing step is completed. Preferably, however, the
points between 1990° F. and 2280° F. and Vwhen
cavity Isa is machined into the mold asthe last
such alloys are used in making insert I I, it `is
step in the production of the mold.
necessary to'heat the <insert to only about 1600°
After being cast, the outer :surfacexwall Aof 'in-.
F. in furnace 34. The insert II is further heated
_sert II is thoroughly cleaned, preferably by ma
on its outer surface by the hot cast iron coming
chining the outer parts of this insert. Anyn'clean
ing method that thoroughly cleans the out`er sur'
face of part II will be within the teachings of
into the foundry mold 35 and the' temperature of
the insert is thereby raised to the fusion point.
Hence, the cast iron from ladle‘ 3| thoroughly
this disclosure, however. After being cleaned, .the 70 fuses with insert II and a wide band of alloy be
insert is then covered -with a coating of lamp
black, or it may be- smoked by the smoke from
an acetylene torch. This coating is placed on
the outer surface of the part II to prevent the
part from being oxidized by subsequent steps of
tween the two is formed in the mold. This wide
band is illustrated in Figure 1 and specifically
designated by reference number 36. With ordi
nary welding methods alloying between the parts
of the resistant mold would be restricted to a very
narrow band and asa result‘the iunction would
be quite inferior to the junction of our invention
Preferred Minimum, Maximum,
per cent
per cant
wherein very intimate association of the parts
I0 and I I is eiîected. If an insert I I is used which
has a melting point higher than 2280° F., it is
desirable to heat the insert II to a temperature
well above 1600“ F. before pouring iron from ladle
3|. On the other hand, if an insert II should be
used that has a very low melting point, perhaps
little or no preliminary heating of it would be
Carbon ..................... -_
2. 50
l. 50
Silicon ____ _-
l. 25
3 00
l0. 00
0. 50
12. Il)
0. 00
Tungsten ...... -_
‘ v Molybdenum ____________ ._
Balance is iron with usual impurities.
Another type of iron which may be used for
either the insert II or the plunger surface I5 is:
We also recognize that the glass mold of Fig
ure 1 can be manufactured by a modified process
now to be described. The outer part I0 is first
Preferred Minimum, Maximum,
cast in the foundry mold 35 with, a dry sand core
at IIb instead of the nickel-iron alloy insert. The
outer part I0 is then removed from the mol-d and
the cavity which was produced by the'core IIb
Total carbon _______________ _-
3 70
of. The outer part I0 is then placed-in the fur 20
nace 34 and heated almost to its fusion temper
per cent
2. 10
1. 00
3. Il)
" _
l. 00
0. 00
Molybdenum .............. _-
0. l0
0. 90
0. 00
0. 00
1. 00
.Nickel ..... __
machined so as to clean the innersurface there
per œnt
Balance iron with usual impurities.
ature at which time it is used as a mold and the
nickel-alloy inner part I I poured directly into the
cavity of the part I0. This may be done while
Thev above types of alloys as well as the ones
listed below are all melted in a cupola according
part I0 is still in the furnace 22 or it may be done 25 to standard foundry practice for these general
after the part I0 is removed from furnace 22, but
in any event it must be done while outerk part III
is hot. The cavity I9 is then machined into the
inner part II.
As shown'in Figure 1, both the plunger and the 30
types of irons and poured into permanent molds
having thick metal chill walls.
The cast `iron that is poured into the gating
30a of Figure 3, to form the outer layer III of Fie
valve may be of bimetallic construction. Either
may be produced by the processes recited above.
For example, the nickel-iron alloy piece I5 may be
illustrated also in Figure 1, has a preferred com- '
ure 1, and the iron used in making the section I4
position of total carbon 3.5%; and/silicon 2.20%.
The carbon content Works well between the lim
its of 3.00 to 4.00% and the silicon may vary
1600° F., transferred to a mold in a suitable small 35 within the limits of 1.50% and 2.75%. The bal-ance isiron with usual impurities. This latter
chamber similar to chamber 22, and cast iron I4
iron may be used for the insert Il and surface I5
poured thereinto. It is also apparent that part
but it is not as good/as the other alloys for that
Il may be cast first and partl I5 later.
use. It is quite satisfactory for the insert Il and
While the nickel-iron alloys contemplated by
this invention are relatively stainless it has been 40 in fact a mold constructed according to our proc
ess, even with this type of iron for the insert, is
_ found that after atime, in fact a rather long time
as compared to ordinary glass molds, their sur
superior to prior art molds inasmuch as our proc- .
ess enables fus to thoroughly chill such a cast iron
faces become less efficient than the surfaces of
and thereby greatly improve its qualities above
new molds. When this occurs, the mold surface
may-be machined to new dimensions I1, and the 45 the qualities that would be obtained if such ordi
nary cast iron were used in any ordinary glass
plunger I5 may be machined to new dimensions
I8. Further pouring of glass from 'I5 will pro
_ mold vof the prior art.
Those skilled in the art understand that any
duce glasses having a thick wall instead of a thin
of the cast irons disclosed above, as poured from
wall as originally.
machined to shape from the cast state, heated to
As heretofore stated, the broadest' aspects of 50 the cupola, have large quantities of combined
carbon but upon striking the chill mold precipi-V
tate most of this combined carbon into graphite.
The graphite makes the iron uniform and dense.
It is apparent that with our mold, _the combined
ferred composition for the insert Il is:
55 `carbon is very eillciently changed to graphite ‘ad
ljacent our molding surface I9.
this invention are not limited to any particular
material for either the insert' I I or the outer partA
III. Suitable materials are listed below. The pre
Preferred Minimum, Maximum,
per cent
.per een
Carbon ..................... ._
3. 00
2. 25
Silicon ____ _.
1. 00
0. 70l
3. 50
0. 50
0. 00
20. 00
1. 00
0. 00
Nickel. . _.
Molybdenum .............. _-
We claim:
'I'he method of making a steel liner'in a glass
‘ . mold which consists in the steps of casting a liner
60 of heat-resistant noncorrosive ferrous alloy 'with
thick chill wall to pro
duce a liner the outer wall layer of which is
` its outer‘surface against a
chilled, cleaning the perimetral surface >of the
liner, heating the liner, casting' a mass of cast
Usual impurities, balance iron.
65 iron around the perimetral surface of the heated .
liner to fuse the chilled portion of the liner and
The above alloy is suitable for use on vthe sur
face of the plunger as'well as for use in insert II.
the exterior mass, and machining out the inte- ~
ç rior ofthe liner to provide a thin glass forming `
m`old surface in the outer portion of ~the chilled
Another alloy suitable for either the insert II
70 Iwall layer of the liner.
or the plunger surface I5 is:
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