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Dec. 3, 1946.
.1. vnNToN E-r AL
2,412,018
RAILROAD FUS EE
Filed Sept.' 20, 1943
mVjENToR
Doug/a5 Mac M//lan
BY
Jahn
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V/‘rn‘on
ATTORNEY.
Patented Dec. 3, 1946
7.x»,
2,412,018
’ STATES Parent o¿FFrolt?> ~' f
RAILROAD FUsEEjy
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«- John Vinton', San Francisco;` and Douglas'Mac‘
MillamßerkcleygCalif..
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Application >settantina 20, 1943*,1seria1zNò. 503,074 '
aolaims. (01402-318)
2
Referring to the drawing, the- signal device'
The invention relatesF vto- a fuseer or flare >con
struction particularly adapted for signaling pur
poses in the operation. of railroads and of truc-ks.
Atypical _prior art device of- this character i `
shown- in- Patent 21,327,899; ~ -
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One type of- railway signaling devices consists
ofa'strontium'nitrate fusee or flare giving only
a visible signaly upon burning. To be at all use
ful- in the daylightV it is.- necessary that the
strontium nitrate fusee: be deposited on the
ground» in a. location having some shade sov that
the ñame from the fuseeV will be visible to an
of the present invention comprises an outer con
tainer 6. This 'is' shown :as-cylindrical inl ‘sec-l
tion but it may assu-me any other tubular formi.
The container includesA a bottom ‘if vs_ìhi’ch-r can.'
i'ffdesi'red, be -provided- with a spike`> 8`-or other
support meansif desired. Thev upper end ofthe»
container 6 is closed by a cap H- held in place
by a» U¿~sl`1aped> adhesive strap l2 secured lover
the cap and tothe container B. A friction»y start
ing element, indicated by numeral i3, is pro-i
Vi‘d'edfon the outside of the cap and is normallyl
oncoming train'.` i Even when this is done it is
covered and? protected by the strap |‘-2_.'` Tneïcon'»
hard to distinguish the fusee flame:` Torinsu-re.
tainer is filled with the smoke 'si’gnalingfeorn-i
f position 155, On--topof this is» placed aïpelïlet' of
that an oncoming train will not overrun the
signallvseveral of them are usually employed in
ignition starting 'material |ï`6_~ which, Iupon ibo-è
the hope that'at least one of ithem will be-seen.
ing rubbed with the. friction material I3~ enti-‘1e
When itis-pointed out that the' fusee is usually
cap .-l l.; ignitesI the signaling composition». «The
thrownfrom a moving train after burning vhas
cap‘lïlv is vspacedY from the pellet lïlìl by' af-wadfl 'f1/Í
been initiated the difficulty in placing the `fusee` 20 of’i'ibr'ou'sïmate'ri’al' which acts asa safetyfcushión
where» it >is* readily visible will be further appre
to prevent linadvertent ignition. «The’coin'p'os'ifél
ciated. -The material employed in > the fusee
tion of a suitable friction starting element-is?
burns with a hot iìame.,A VAs- a consequence it
presents a very considerable hazard from a ñre
well- known in the' art. I and» various ’compositions
protection standpoint; _ numerous grain, grass
25 lizedl one comprising, by weight»,*13'v parts' 'each'
and forest. fires have been traced directly to the
The- f_usee. of this invention uti.->
lizes a composition giving a smoke. signalwhich
is readily visible in daylight and `which is never
theless comparatively cool so that the iirev hazard
is ¿greatly reduced.l
use of fusees.
wTo* insure adequate headway is maintained
can be employed> successfully. We have futi
ofv ferrous sulphide and antimony trisul-phi‘de;
21 parts of potassium nitrateïand 3» parts of
dextrin.
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To use the‘d'evice, tape |42 isV broke, cap Il` is
removed! andîwad` IT lifted oif the `pellet I6. » The
capi isi then reversed! in position> and its friction
element is applied to the frictionpellet - I6; caus--
ing ignition of the'pellet and of the’fupper `Yend
of `chemical composition'. As the"l pellet Vis'
device of the. present invention utilizes a` min 35 ignitedf. it fuses» to the side of the'- container; _sub-v
imum of combustible material to. provide a burn
stantially sealing the upper end; of the container,>
ing period of from eight to teni minutes..
forcing the gases generated outl through the;
`The general and broad obiectl of the present
several apertures 2| i'n- the- side wallof the con“
between trains it is desirable that the tusee or
id_are> burn forl an extended period of time. " The
invention _is to provide a. novel smoke fusee con.
struction- and. composition.
'
tainer, and permitting release of the colored,
40 gas. or vapor without ignition and-'without the’ `
Another object of the present invention is to
gas or vapor ltravir-ig-V to- pass through va hot ash'.`
provide a fusee construction enabling a minimum
Usually twoY opposite rows- of holes suffice;
of Acombustible composition to be employed to
In. the> form» of the- device- illustrated",4 con
provide a smoke fusee having a relatively long
tainer lìY includes apertures» `2 l1 in its; sidewall
period of eiîective smoke emission.
45 with an outer cover wall 22 extending over the
apertures. This cover is preferably made of a '
The invention includes other objects and fea
tures of advantage, some of which, together
combustible material such as cellulose nitrate or
with the foregoing, will appear hereinafter
cellulose acetate which burns away rapidly over
wherein the present preferred form of device
each aperture as ignition travels down through
and composition of our invention are disclosed.
50 the composition in the container. The cover
In the drawing accompanying and forming
can also be made of a material having a high
a part of this specification.
ignition point such as paper or Cellophane.
Figure 1 is a side elevational view of one form
However, in this case, it is desirable that the
of fusee or ñare construction of the present in
area adjacent each aperture be treated with
vention.
55 potassium chlorate or other combustion faclli~
Figure 2 is a side elevation ofthe device shown
tating material to insure that each aperture is
in Figure 1 partly cut away to illustrate the con
uncovered as the composition burns away.
struction.
By utilizing a container having smoke emission
Figure 3 is a section taken along the line 3--3
means which become eifective only when the
in Figure 1.
60 burning composition is adjacent to them, We en
2,412,018
3
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sure release of the generated smoke or vapor at a
red can be varied; however, utilizing the mate
rials in the ratio speciñed insures a deep red.
The greater the quantity of rhodamine the deeper
point immediately adjacent to the region where
the generation occurs.
If one attempts to em
ploy smoke `emission means which are always
open and capable of release, by-passing of- the
the red.
occur in the
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ployed the following novel composition of our in
generated smoke can and will occur with the re
sult that at least some of the smoke is forced '
through the hot ash residue in the container.
When this happens, undesirable chemical changes
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To make up a yellow smoke, we have also em
’ vention:
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Parts
Coal tar____
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smoke, generally resultingrlin its 10 Aurimine` yellow O _______________________ __
Paranitro aniline yellow __________________ __
Because of the difficulty insecur- »
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6
6
losing color.
Dextrine ________________________________ __
6
ing an adhesive bonding satisfactorily to cellulose
Postassium chlorate ______________________ __ 6
acetate or nitrate iilm, the cover wallis ordinar-'
ily stopped just short of the cap Il so thatthe
The coal tar should be of the grade which is eas
strap l2 can be secured directly to the tube 6. 15 ily ground and is quite brittle.
A short length of ash residue at the top of the ~
It is essential to a smoke composition that the
tubeis not objectionable. ~
material in the container B be in ñnely divided
In place of using a separate cover on either the
form and not packed so tightly that it is, in effect,
inside or outside of the container, the sidewall of
in solid form in the container. If the mate
the container can be selectively weakened or se
rial is too tightly packed or is Ain solid form, the
lected portions can be made to burn out asthe
gas emitted will be- colorless, the gas will surge
composition burns down in the container. The
out and the burning time cannot be made uni
container 6 can be made of any suitable material.
form and, finally, an extended burning time of
We have used paper successfully, rolling it into a
about six or more minutes cannot be secured from
tube and then perforating; if desired, the per 25 a small mass of composition.
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forated tube can be unwound and the cover Wall
This is a continuation in part of our applica
material wound inl with the paper as an inter
tion Serial No. 414,034, ñled October 7, 1941, by
mediate layer, the tube being then secured With
us with Albert Paiva, Patent No. 2,398,545, issuedV
asuitable adhesive.A
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April 16,1946.
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_ Inrpractice a signal v,of the form described will 30
burn about 10 minutes when made with a V8”
diameter tube 10 inches in length. We have
found that the quantity of material in the tube
can be decreased and the burning time increased
by including aninert tubular member extending
centrally in the container.y rI'hus inFigure 2 we
have rshown central member 23~'extending cen
trallyof- the Ícontainer and spaced anv equal dis
tance >from each side of the container. By in
We
claim:
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1. A fusee or flare consisting of an elongated
tubular container y.having an open` end and an
outer wall in'which are formed a plurality of
35
spaced perforations-«aJ porous colored gas evolv
ing composition ñlling said> container and adapt-’~
ed to burn therein for a substantialïti'me periodfrom one end to the other end of the container,
said composition forming asubstantially solid4
mass of ash upon ignition in said container, seal
cluding the central member we have found that 40 ing off unburned composition from said end'and
more smoke emission'is secured than when the
forcing gas evolved from the burning- portion of
same vquantity of composition is burned in Va
said composition to Vissue through those perfora
smaller container but omitting the central mem
tios adjacent to the burning portion, and a fric
ber. In addition, the central member assists in
tion ignitable pellet positioned over said open
retaining the fused ignition pellet and the com 45 container end, said pellet upon ignition inducing.
position ash or coal so that thegas is forced out
burning of said composition and sealing over said
through the apertures.
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open end to force initial gas emission through
As a suitable signaling material one can em
the perforate side wall.
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ploy any suìtablesmoke compositions. We have
2. A device as in claim 1 wherein an outer cover
had a considerable success, however, with com 50 of a combustible material is provided over the
positions of our invention. To make up a, red
perforations in the container wall to burn away
signal _we utilize the following materials in 4the
following Weight proportions:
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with the composition.
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3. A device as in claim 1 wherein an outer cover
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Parts
Paranitro aniline red ___________ ___ ____ __
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Rhodamine ____ ___ ___________________ __
4
Potassium chloride ________________ ___---
81/3
Dextrine ______ _______________________ __
12
The quantity of rhodamine to paranitro aniline
of cellulose acetate is provided over the perfora
»tions in the container wall to burn away with the
composition.
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DOUGLAS MACMILLAN. -
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