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Dec. 3, 1946.
2,412,159
|_. M.’ LEEDS ‘
DIRECTIONAL RAYD_IO SYSTEM
5' Sheets-Sheet 1
_ Filed Sept. 15, 1941
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Laurance M. Leeds,
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Dec.‘3, 1946.
2,412,159
L. M. LEEDS
‘DIRECTIONAL RADIO SYSTEM
Filed Sept. 15,- 1941
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Dec. 23,1946. -
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DIRECTIONAL RADIO
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SYSTEM
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Dec. 3, 1946.
2,412,159
L. M. LEEDS
DIRECITIONAL RADIO SYSTEM
Filed Sept. 15, 1941
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Inventor‘:
Laurance M. Leeds,
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Patented Dec. 3, 1946
UNHTED STATES PATENT @OFFECE
2,412,159
DHRECTIONAL RADIO SYSTEM
Laurance M. Leeds, Rotterdam Junction, N. Y.,
assignor to General Electric Company, a cor
poration ‘of New York
Application September 15, 1941, Serial No. 410,836
13 Claims.
(01. 250-11)
2
1
My invention relates to directional radio sys
tems and it has for one of its objects to provide
new and improved means whereby the directivity
of such systems may be altered or controlled.
In directive radio systems such as are em
ployed for the location of the moving objects, such
as air or water craft, it is highly important that
the directivity of the system be readily and
rapidly variable by electrical means. In this
way, a remote area, for example, in which a mov
type employed in connection with the form of
the invention shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 8 represents
a capacitance switch of the form employed in
the form of the invention shown in Fig. 4; and
Fig. 9 represeints the structure of the diode em
ployed in the invention.
Referring to Fig. l of the drawings, I have
illustrated therein four antenna elements l, 2,
3 and 4. Each of these elements comprises four
10 dipoles arranged in pairs, each dipole having a
ing object is located may be rapidly scanned by
variation of the directivity of the system thereby
to observe the movements of the remote object in
the area.
This may be effected without move
ment of the antenna itself.
Of course, as the
observed craft moves from the scanned area to
other areas, the antenna structure involved may
be physically moved to direct it to the new area
which may then be electrically scanned to observe
the movements of the body in the new area.
Such apparatus requires the use of an antenna
length equal to a half wave length of the wave at
which it operates; the dipoles of each pair being
arranged end to end, and the pairs being spaced
apart in parallel relation by a distance equal to
half of the wave length of the wave at which
the antenna operates. All of these antenna ele
ments I, 2, 3 and 4 are arranged in a single plane
upon an antenna mattress such as that shown at
5 in Fig. 2. This mattress may be supported in
any convenient way as by means of the support
6 for orientation in a horizontal plane, or azi~
muth, and the antenna mattress 5 is arranged
mattress mounted physically for orientation both
for rotation about the horizontal pivot l for
in elevation and in azimuth, or train. vMy in
orientation in the vertical plane, or in elevation.
vention has for its object to provide in connec
While the antenna elements I and 2 are ar
tion with such a system, improved means where 25
ranged directly end to end and the antenna ele
by the directivity of the mattress may be elec
ments 3 and 1! are arranged end to end, the ele
trically varied in order that a remote area to
ments 3 and 4 being spaced by half a wave length
which the antenna mattress is physically di
from the elements I and 2, the proportions of this
rected may be electrically scanned.
A further object of my invention is to provide 30 space relationship have been departed from in
Fig. 1 for purposes of clari?cation of the draw
such means by which the directivity of the pat
tern may be varied without movement, or me.
chanical alteration, of any physical structure on
the mattress.
A further object of my invention is to provide
such a system adapted for impulse transmission
and for reception of impulses resulting from re
?ection of the transmitted impulses from remote
re?ecting surfaces and in which the directivity
of the system is varied for both transmission and 40
reception.
ings.
Energy to be radiated by the antenna elements
I, 2, 3 and 4 may be supplied from a transmitter
8 through a transmission line 9, which extends
to a point it}, and which is there divided into four
branches H, l2, l3 and It each leading to a
respective antenna element thereby to transmit
energy from the transmitter to the different an
tenna elements. While each of these lines com
prises an outer shield preferably cylindrical and
The novel features which I believe to be char
acteristic of my invention are set forth with par»
which is grounded throughout its length, and an
method of operation, together with further oh~
jects and advantages thereof may best be un
derstood by reference to the following descrip—
tion taken in connection with the accompany
ing drawings, in which Fig. 1 represents an em~
ductors shown in the drawings.
inner conductor, to simplify the drawings, the
outer shield is shown only fragmentarily. This
ticularity in the appended claims. My invention,
itself, however, both as to its organization and 45 is true with respect to all of the concentric con
bodiment of my invention; Fig. 2 represents. in‘ '
a very conventional way, the antenna mattress
and mounting therefor; Figs. 3, 4 and 5 represent
simpli?ed modi?cations of the invention; Figs.
6 and '7 represent capacitance switches of the .'
Each of the antenna elements has feedpoint
terminals indicated at A, B, C and D respectively,
the opposite terminals of which are connected
respectively to the inner conductor of the trans
mission line, as for example, to conductor l2, as
shown in connection with the antenna element 2,
and to the shield l5.
Sincevthe impedance between the terminals
B of the antenna element is balanced with re
2,412,159
3
4
spect to ground, by reason of the form of the
antenna employed, it is necessary that the im
pedance looking into the end of the transmission
line. To this end, each of the lines II, I2, I3, I4
has a length equal to an odd number of quarter
wave lengths of the wave at which the system
To this end a
operates, this length being measured from the
cylindrical grounded sleeve I6 is provided about
feedpoints A, B, C, or D of the respective anten
nae elements to the common point I 9 where these
various lines are connected together. This point
is connected to the transmitter through the line
line shall also be so balanced.
the end of the shield I5 and insulated therefrom,
this sleeve having a length equal to a quarter of
a wave length of the wave at which the system
operates and being grounded. The enclosed in
9, which has a length equal to an even number
sulated end I’! of the shield I5 forms with the 10 of quarter wave lengths. Since the transmitter
sleeve I6 3, transmission line having a length
itself, may present a low impedance to the trans
equal to a quarter of a wave length, which line is
mission line 9, that low impedance appears be
short circuited at the point I8. Since the sleeve
tween the conductors of the transmission line at
I6 is grounded, the end I‘! of the shield I5 with
the point Illv because the transmission line 9 has
in the sleeve oscillates with respect to ground 15 a length equal to an even number of quarter wave
in opposed phase relation with respect to the
lengths. If the impedance of the transmitter is
oscillation at that point on the inner conductor
not low the length of line 9 may be chosen to
I2, and an impedance balanced with respect to
produce low impedance at point I6. Then, since
ground appears between the inner conductor I2
each of the lines II, l2, I3, I4 has a length equal
and the end of the shield I‘I. Thus, oscillations 20 to an odd number of quarter wave lengths it acts
balanced with respect to ground are supplied
as an impedance inversion network and produces
across the terminals B of the antenna element 2
a high impedance at the feedpoint A, B, C, or D
and a balanced line impedance is presented by
of the respective antenna elements. Thus, these
the transmission line to those terminals.
lines are in effect, not present during reception.
A similar means, including sleeve I6, is pro 25 The transmitter 8 is, of course, one adapted for
vided on each of the transmission lines II, I2, I3,
the transmission of impulses in rapid succession,
I4 at the end adjacent to the antenna elements.
these impulses being radiated to a remote point
Additional transmission lines over which recep
tion is had are connected to the diiTerent antenna
and then are again received as a re?ection from
any remote surface on which they may impinge,
elements. These transmissoin lines comprise the 30 the reception occurring during the intervals be
lines I9, 20. 2| and 22. These lines are likewise
tween the outgoing pulses.
provided with sleeves I6 at the end adjacent the
antenna element, thereby to present an imped
Since all the lines II, i2, I3, I4 supply oscil
lations in phase to all of the elements I, 2, 3,
and 4, these elements radiate together to project
ance balanced with respect to ground to the ter
minals of the respective antenna elements.
85 a beam of waves at right angles to the plane of
These lines I9, 20, 2| and 22 extend from the
the mattress comprising the elements I, 2, 3,
antenna elements to the respective corners AI,
and 4.
BI, CI and DI of a transmission line loop or, as
In the embodiment shown in Fig, 1, this di
I shall term it, “phasing rectangle.” This loop,
rection of transmission of the impulses may be
or phasing rectangle, comprises simply a concen 40 varied only by varying the physical orientation
tric transmission line arranged in the form of a
of the mattress itself. With respect to recep
loop. Preferably the points AI and CI are spaced
tion, however, the directivity may be varied by
apart on the loop equally with points BI and DI;
operation of the capacitance switch M. This
and likewise AI and BI are spaced apart equally
switch operates to confine reception to only one
45 of the transmission lines 23, 24, 25 and 26 at any
with points CI and DI.
Additional transmission lines 23, 24, 25 and 26
time.
extend from points midway in the respective sides
This capacitance switch, in addition to the elec
of the phasing rectangle to a common point 21,
trodes 31, 38, 39, and 40 comprises a rotor 42,
and are there joined together and connected
which may have the form of a disk with a ninety
through a common line 28 to the receiving equip 50 degree are removed therefrom so that the disk
ment.
cooperates with three of the stationary electrodes
At certain points KI, K2, K3 and K4, along
the length of these transmission lines 23, 24, 25
and 2B, stub lines 29, 30, 3|, 32 are provided,
each leading to a diode 29', 39', 3|’ and 32' re
speotively arranged to become conductive during
transmission, thereby. to protect the receiving
equipment, as will later be more particularly de
scribed.
At these same points KI, K2, K3, and K4 are
additional stub lines 33, 34, 35 and 36 each lead
ing to a respective capacitance electrode 31, 38,
39 and 49 of a capacitance switching device 4!
which I also will later describe. This switching
device is operated to effect the change in orienta
tion in a manner presently to be explained.
Referring now to the operation of the system,
it will ?rst vbe understood that for eiiicient re
31, 38, 39. 40 at one time, thereby to produce large
capacity between the disk and the cooperating
electrodes, whereas low capacity exists between
55 the disk and the third electrode.
Thus, with the
disk 42 in the position shown each of the elec
trodes 37, 38 and 49 are connected to ground at
the rotor 42 through high capacitance and hence
low impedance. These electrodes are joined by
0 transmission lines 33, 34, and 36 to the points KI,
K2 and K4, which lines have a length equal to an
even number of quarterwave lengths of the wave
at‘which the system operates. Thus, the trans
mission lines 23, 24 and 26 are each effectively
65
short~circuited at the points KI, K2, and K4, by
the respective transmission lines 33, 34 and 36,
while the transmission line 25 is not so short
circuited at the point K3 by line 35 because of
ception of energy from the elements I, 2, 3, 4,
the high impedance between the electrode 39 and
through the lines I9,"29, 2I and 22 respectively, 70 ground. Thus only transmission line 25 is in
it is necessary that the lines I I, I2,.I3 and I4
over which the energy is supplied to the antenna
elements shall present high impedance to the re
spective receiving lines thereby not to constitute
a low impedance path in shunt to the receiving
condition for reception. '
Short circuits at the points KI, K2 and K4 on
the lines 23, 24 and 26 do not impair reception
over the line 25 because these points are so po
sitioned upon the respective lines as to avoid such
2,412,159
5
6
impairment. That is, the-transmission lines ex»
tending ‘from the point 21 to the points Kl, K2,
normal of the mattress in the horizontal plane.
Similarly if we rotate the disk 42 so that elec
trode 31 has high impedance to ground the re
ception is‘ over transmission line 23, which ex
system operates so that a short at any of these til tends to the point TI on the’ phasing rectangle.
Maximum directivity is’again normal to the mat
points K produces a high impedance at the point
tress in the vertical plane but at an angle to the
27.
normal of‘ the mattress in the horizontal plane,
Similarly, each of thelines 23, 24, 25 and 26
K3'and K4 have lengths equal to an odd number
of quarter wave lengts of the wave at which the
has an odd number of quarter wave lengths in
length. from the respective point TI, T2, E! or E2
to which it is connected and its own K point so
that» a short circuit at any of the K points pro
the angle ‘being opposite to that occurring when
reception occurred over the line 26 extending
from point T2.
Thus by rotation of the condenser .42, rotation
of the directivity of the pattern may be had
through the four directions about the normal of
tion for reception since it is not short circuited 15 the mattress. The condenser 42 may be driven
by a motor to vary the directivity of the antenna
either at point E2, or 21, and since line 35 pre
through the four directions in rapid succession.
sents high impedancethereto.
The receiving equipment 43 may include means
Of course, reception may be had over any one
such as cathode ray apparatus for indicating
of the lines 23, 24, 25 and 26 by operating the disk
42 of the capacitance switch to the corresponding 20 the relative intensity of reception from each of
duces high impedance at the corresponding point
T4, T2, El- or ‘E2. Thus, the line 25 is- in condi
position.
'
the four directions. In this way the movement of
Let us assume now, again, that the disk 42 is in
a distant object, such as an airplane, in a limited
normal of the mattress and which are intercepted
ment in which the received signal is an echo, or
re?ection of the transmitted impulse from a re
area toward which the mattress is directed may
theposition shown in the drawings and that re
be observed through electrical scanning of that
ception is being had over transmission line 25.
area by variation of the beam cyclically through
This transmission ‘line is connected to the point
the four directions about the normal to the mat
E2 on the phasing rectangle. This point ‘E2 is,
tress.
in turn, connected to the antenna, elements 3 and
Of course, if the intense impulses produced by
4 through lines of equal length; and similarly the
transmitter 8 and supplied over lines H to l4
point E2 is connected to the antenna elements
I and 2 through lines of equal ‘length. The lines 30 were allowed to reach the receiver 43 over the
receiving lines with su?icient intensity, they
extending from the point E2 to the elements 'I
might cause impairment of the sensitivity of the
and 2, however, are longer than those extending
receiver during the reception period, or even cause
to the elements 3 and 4. Thus, waves arriving
permanent injury thereto. In uses of the equip
from a direction in the vertical plane above the
by the antennae l and 2 arrive at the point E2
in phase with waves arriving from the same di
mote surface, or when the received signal is one
rection and intercepted by elements 3 and 4.
Thus, the maximum directivity of the system is
transmitted from a remote object in response to
reception on that object of a ‘transmitted im
vertical plane although it is normal to the mat
tress in the horizontal plane. This angle to the
normal is, of course, dependent upon the length
of the sides of the phasing rectangle since the
lines I9, 20, 2| and 22 are preferably of equal 45
impulses and not during the transmission of any
at an angle to the normal of the mattress in the 40 pulse, the reception occurs between the outgoing
length.
'
Now let us suppose that the disk 42 is rotated in
a counter-clockwise direction through ninety de
outgoing pulse. Thus, during reception the high
potentials produced by the associated transmit
ters are not present. If, however, such high po
tentials are permitted to reach the receiver dure
ing transmission of the outgoing pulse, they are
likely to impair the sensitivity of the receiver to
such an extent that it does not recover its sensi
tivity in time to effect desired response to the ar
of electrodes 37, 38 and 39, and ground at the 50 riving signal.
To avoid such effect the diodes 29' to 32’ are
rotor 42, thereby producing a low impedance to
employed. The anode of each diode is connected
ground at the points Kl, K2 and K3 so that the
to the K point of its respective transmission line
lines 23, 24 and 25 are disabled. Electrode 40
through a stub line 29 to 32, respectively, having
however, has high impedance to ground and so
a length equal to a half wave length or integral
line 25 is in condition for reception. This line
multiple thereof. The cathodes of the diodes are
extends to the point T2 on the phasing square.
grounded and connected to the shields of the
The point T2 is equidistant from antenna ele
different lines. During transmission of any pulse
ments 2 and 4 and also from elements I and 3
these diodes rbecome conducting and effectively
but the distance from this point T2 to the ele
ground the respective K points through the stub
ments ! and 3 is greater than that to the elements
lines 29 to 3,2 or so reduce the impedance at the
2 and 4. Accordingly, waves arriving in the hori
K point that the intensity of voltage reaching
zontal plane at an angle to the normal which are
the receiver does not impair reception of the im
intercepted by elements 2 and 4 arrive at the
pulse to be received.
point T2 in aiding phase with waves arriving from
Fig. 3 represents a modi?cation of the inven
the same direction and intercepted by elements C, Q:
tion in which both transmission and reception
I and 3. Thus, the maximum directivity of the
takes place over the lines 23, 24, 25 and 26. These
system is now in the horizontal plane at an angle
grees, then high capacitance exists between each
‘shown through 180 degrees, reception is had over
lines 23, 24, 2.5 and 26 are joined together at the
point 21 and extend through a common trans
mission line 28 to a transmitter ,8. At anoint 48
on the transmission line 28 at .a distance equal
line 24. This line extends to the point El at the '
to an odd number of quarter wave lengths of the
top of the phasing rectangle. Reception now is
wave at which the system operates from the
transmitter 8 is connected a transmission line 44
to the normal, although it is normal to the mat
tress in the vertical plane.
Now, ‘ifwe rotate the dish .42. from the position .
had from a direction below the normal of the
mattress in the vertical plane and along the 75 extending to the receiving equipment 43.
2,412,159
7
8
To protect the receiving equipment from the
intense impulses produced by the transmitter, the
mission lines 23, 24,25 and 26 are connected to
diode 45 is provided connected through a stub
transmission line 45 having a length equal to half
of a Wave length, or integral multiple'thereof, to
corresponding electrodes 31, 38, 39 and.“ in the
capacitance switching device 4|. In this case
the rotor 42 of the switching device is of ashape
to cooperate with two-electrodes at any one time,
thereby to produce low impedance and high ca
a point on the line 44 distant from the point 48
by an amount equal to an odd number of quarter
pacitance between the cooperating electrodes and
wave lengths. In this way, when high voltages
ground. Thus, in the position shown in the draw
ings, low impedance exists between both elec-v
are produced by the transmitter on the inner con
doctor of line 28, the diode 45 becomes conductive LU trodes 39 and wand ground. Since these elec
and produces a low impedance which is effective
trodes are connected to-the points K3 and K4 re
at the point 41 on the transmission line 44 and
spectively on transmission lines 25 ‘and’ 26
thus the diode prevents transmission of the high
through transmission lines 35 and 36, respectively,
voltage wave to the receiver‘. ‘At the same time
which have a length equal to an odd number of
quarter wave lengths, high impedance -is pro
duced across the lines 25 and 26 at those points
this low impedance at the point 41', being dis
' tant from the line 28 by an amount equal to an
odd number of quarter wave lengths;produces a
high impedance at the point 43 at which it is con
nected to the line 28. Thus, this short circuit
B13 and K4 and thus the lines 25, 26 are in con-_
dition for transmission both for radiation and
reception. High impedance exists, however, be
tween the electrodes 31 and 38 and ground, which
electrodes are connected respectively through
lines 33 and 34 to the points KI and K2 on lines
same way previously described but in this case
23 and 24 and, again, since the lines 33 and 34
are an odd number of quarter wave lengths in
the direction of maximum effect of the antenna
array is varied for both' transmission and “ length, low impedance exists across transmission
reception.
lines 23 and 24 at the points KI and K3 and thus
A different form of condenser switching mecha
transmission over these lines either during radia
tion or reception is impaired.
nism is employed. In this case rotating electrode
42 of the switch cooperates at any one time with
The point Kl is spaced from the point A! on
only a single one of the stationary electrodes 37, 30 line 23 by a distance equal to an odd number of
quarter wave lengths and accordingly transmis
38, 39 or 43 Thus. in the position shown, all of
the electrodes 31, 38 and 40 have high impedance
sion over line 55 is not impaired at the point Al.
with respect to ground. These different elec
Similarly the point Kl is spaced from the point
2'! by an odd number of quarter wave lengths
trodes, however, are connected to the points Kl,
K2 and K4 through lines 33, 34 and 33, which
over line 23 and thus transmission over lines 25
have a length equal to an odd number of quarter
and 26 is not impaired at the point 21. Thus,
wave lengths, whereby high impedance at the
transmission and reception now takes place over
electrodes 31, 38_ and 40 produces low impedance
the lines 25 and 25 but not over the lines 23
and 24.
at the points KI, K2 and K4. Thus, three of
Lines 25 and 26 supply energy in phase to the
the lines 23, 24, 25 and 23 are disabled for both 40
transmission and reception.
antenna elements 2 and 4 and they supply en~
orgy in phase to elements l and 3 but the energy
Low impedance between electrodes 39 and 42,
supplied to the elements I and 3 is displaced
however, produces high impedance at the point
in phase from the energy supplied to elements
K4 and, accordingly, line 25 is in condition. for
2 and 4 by an amount equal, to the electrical
transmission of energy either for radiation or
reception.
length of the transmission line 53 between points
Of course, the phasing rectangle operates as
Bi and Ci, which amount'is preferably equal to
the distance between the points AI and DI on
previously described, and the direction of its
maximum effect is varied through the four di
line 5i. Thus,‘the direction of maximum effect,
rections at angles to the normal of the mattress 50 both for "radiation and reception by the system
is in the horizontal plane at an‘angle to the nor
for both transmission and reception.
Fig. 4 employs a further simpli?cation of the
mal of the mattress. In the vertical plane, how—
invention in that the phasing rectangle of Figs. 1
ever, it lies at the normal of the mattress.
and 3 is removed and in. its place is employed
Now by rotation of the switch through its suc
what I term as a “phasing cross” comprising 55 cessive positions in‘ clockwise direction, transmis
sion may be made to occur, in the second posi—
transmission lines 55 and 5|. The transmission
line 50 connects the feedpoints B and C of the
tion of the switch, over the lines 24 and 25; in
the third position of the switch over lines 23 and
antenna elements 2 and 3 which are arranged at
diagonally opposite corners of the rectangle.
24, and in the fourth position of the switch over
Similarly, transmission line 51 connects the feed 60 lines 23 and 23. In this way the direction of
maximum transmission or reception by the an
points A and D of the elements I' and 4. Points
tenna array may be altered about the normal
A! and DI on transmission line 5!, preferably
equally spaced from the feedpoints A and D, are
through the four directions in succession.
The form of the invention shown in Fig. 4 pos
connected through transmission lines 23 and 25
sesses certain advantages over the form of the
respectively to the common point 21 and thence
invention shown in Figs. 1 and 3 in that the
through common transmission line 28 to the
two lines extending‘from the respective antennae
transmitter. Similarly, points BI and Cl, also
preferably equally spaced from the points B and
to the receiver at any one time are free from any
cross connections therebetwe‘eri. For example,
C respectively, are connected through transmis
sion lines 24 and 26 to the point 21 and thence 70 in Fig. 3; if transmission and reception take place
over lin'e26, that line extends to antennae l and
‘through the common transmission line 28 to the
2 over opposite sides of the phasing rectangle
transmitter.
including respectively the points El and E2. These
The connection to the receiver is made in the
same way as described in connection with Fig. 3.
two opposite sides, however, are connected to
Points KI, K2, K3, and K4 on these trans 75 gether- by the side including the point TI. While
does not impair transmission over the line 28 and -
the line 23, 24, 25, or 26 to the antenna.
The directivity of the system is varied in the
9
2,412,159
the voltages at the points Al and Cl, during
' transmission over line 28, are equal and in phase,
no power ?ows through the side of the rectan
gle including point Ti. This side, however, does
present reactance at the points Al and Cl. This
reactance may readily be shown to be equal to
Z cotangent Q
2
10
comprises a segment having an angular width of
approximately 1.20 degrees. '
In the position shown, the rotor 98 is in high
capacitance relationship with the ?xed electrode
89 and in low capacitance relationship with elec
trodes 95 and 91. This means that lines 88 and
88 are disabled by the low impedance produced
thereonl'by the lines 9| and 93, whereas the line
81 ‘is in transmitting condition. This line trans
where Z is the surge impedance of the line and 0 IO mits energy to all of the radiating elements 83,
its electrical length. While this reactance, in
cases where the phase angle between voltages
84 and 85 but the distances over the respective
conductors to the di?erent elements are such as
supplied to the different antennae l and 3 is
to throw the beam at an angle to the normal of
the antenna mattress. ‘If the rotor 98 of the
is not objectionable, it does to some extent limit 15 switch 94 be rotated to one of its other positions,
then energy is supplied over the lines 818, or 88, to
the permissible angle between such voltages. For
all of the antenna elements and these radiators
example, if a phase shift of 180 degrees were de
would be energized in proper phase to throw the
sired between the antennae i and 3, the side of
beam at the same angle from'the normal but in a
the rectangle including point Tl would have an
plane with the normal spaced approximately 120
electrical length of 180 degrees. As such, the re
degrees away from the plane in which it was ?rst
actance presented thereby at points Al and Cl
projected. Thus, by rotation of the switch, the
is zero, or a short circuit.‘ Accordingly, the ap
direction of maximum e?ect of the combined
plication of those systems becomes limited to
mattress may be rotated through directions
smaller angles and hence to smaller variations of
small, and therefore the side is electrically short,
the direction of the maximum effect of the array
spaced from the normal of the mattress by a
predetermined angle in each of three di?erent
equally spaced planes.
'
‘The system of Fig. 4, however, is free from
If desired, six antennae elements may be em
any such interconnections and is thus capable of
ployedand located at the vertices of a six-sided
wider application and wider variation of the di
polygon but ordinarily a lower number of "an
rectivity of the antenna array.
30 tennae elements is to be preferred.
In addition, this system of Fig. 4 reduces the
Figs. 6 and '7 illustrate in plan and in elevation,
amount of transmission line required to be mount
the-capacitance switch of the type shown in Fig. 1.
ed on the antenna mattress. It also, together
The different stationary electrodes of the switch
with the system of Fig. 3, employs only one di
ode and that need not be mounted on the mat 35 are indicated at 31, 38, 39 and 88 equally spaced
from the normal.
‘
* tress but may be mounted on a ?xed part of the
equipment near the receiver.
The .form of the invention shown in Fig. 4 is
described and claimed in a copending application
of Richard C. Longfellow, Serial No. 412,452, en
titled Directional radio system and which is as
signed to the same assignee as my present appli
cation.
While in Figs. 1, 3 and 4 I have shown the ra
diating elements I, 2, 3 and 4 positioned at the
corners of a rectangle, it will be understood that
my invention is in no wise limited to such an
‘ arrangement since any suitable arrangement may
be employed capable of effecting the desired shift
about a circumference, the center of which is the
center of the rotating electrode M. The rotor
electrode is shown as mounted upon the shaft of
a motor-68 through which the rotor iii may be
grounded. The shape of this rotor is best shown
by the dotted line in ‘Fig. 6 although the top por
tion of the casing is shown as broken away at 8|
to indicate the shape of the rotor at 82 by full
lines. ‘It will ‘be seen that it comprises five arcu
ate or fan-shaped sections 82, separated by open
spaces 83, 64, 65, 86 and 81 so spaced about the >
periphery of the rotor that one of the stationary
electrodes is substantially always uncovered by
the ‘rotor, while all of the other‘stationary elec
in the orientation of the direction of the maxi 50 trodes are covered. Thus with the rotor in the
position shown in Fig. 6 the ‘electrode 38 is in
mum effect of the radiating system.
non-cooperating, or in low capacitance relation
In Fig. 5 different antenna elements 83, 84
with the ‘rotor, while electrodes 31, 39 and 48 are
and 85 are positioned at the vertices of a tri
all completely covered by the rotor and hence in
angle, each antenna element being connected
through a transmission line 88, 81, 88 respec 55 high capacitance relation thereto.
Now, {if the rotor be rotated through a distance
tively, to a common point 21 and thence through
corresponding to a third of the angular width of
the line 28 to the transmitter and to the receiver
one ofthe segments in the clockwise direction,
as described in connection with Figs. 3 and 4.,
electrode ‘39 is completely uncovered and in low
Lines 88, 81 and 88 are interconnected by lines
capacitance relation with the rotor, whereas elec
89, 9D, and 98' so that energy supplied over any
trodes 31,38 and 48 are in high capacitance rela
one of the transmission lines 86, 81, and 88 is
‘
‘tion with
the rotor. Upon further rotation by
supplied to all of the radiating elements 83, 84
another equal distance, electrode 48 is uncovered;
and 85.
and'thus each of the diiferent electrodes are 'un
Points on each of lines 88, 81, and 88 spaced
covered and in low capacitance relationship with
from the point 21 by an odd number of quarter
the rotor in succession.
wave lengths of the wave at which the system op
Fig. 8 shows the structure of the condenser
erates, and also spaced from the lines 89, 98,
switching‘ device employed in the equipment of
and 90' by an odd number of quarter wave lengths,
Fig. '4 in which the rotor 42 comprises a semi
are connected through transmission lines 9|, 92
circular disk arranged to cooperate at any time
and 93 to the electrodes of the capacitance switch
with .two of the electrodes 31, 38, 39 and 40.
94. These lines 9!, 92 and 93 have a length equal
This mechanism .ishoused within a housing 88 to
to an odd multiple of a quarter of a wave length.
whichthe outer shield conductors of the different
The electrodes 95, 98 and 91 of the capacitance
switch are spaced apart around a circumference
transmission lines 33, 34, 35 and 36 are connected.
by 120 degrees and the rotor 98 of the condenser 75 .iFi'g. 9 showsthe structure of the diodes em
theme
12
ployed in all of the different ?gures. This diode
comprises an anode ‘15] having a screw threaded
..
.
cuits at the points‘K3 and K4 whereas lines 33
and 34 amount to short circuits at the points KI
projection ll at the top thereof which, may be
and K2 and the overall action is as previously de~
screwed into the end of the inner conductor 12
of any transmission line to which the anode is to
scribed. This adjustment may require additional
adjustable, or trimmer, electrodes within the ca
pacitance device thereby to provide proper values
of the capacitance to produce the quarter wave
be connected. The outer conductor of the trans
mission line is shown at 13 as having a ?ange
'14 about the end thereof which may be attached
to a plate 15 but insulated therefrom by means of
insulation 16. The cathode ll of the diode which
may be indirectly heated by means of a ?lament
18, is mounted upon the plate '55 and a glass seal
80 is arranged between the anode 10 and the
and half wave modes of action but the improved
effect of the switching device well warrants the
provision of such additional electrodes. ‘Of
course, to produce the half wave mode of opera
tion some inductance within the switching device
is required. This inductance is present in the
plate 15 whereby ‘the interior space within the
path through the rotor and motor shaft of the
seal and between the cathode and anode may be 15 condenser to ground, which elements may be pro
portioned relative to capacitance between any
evacuated. The cathode may be heated by means
stationary electrode and ground to produce the
of alternating current supplied through a trans
desired half wave mode of action. Preferably
former M to the heater ‘it. Thus, whenever high
potential is impressed upon the inner conductor
the lines 33, 34, 35 and 36, for such operation may '
20 have an electrical length, of themselves, equal to
an eighth of a wave length, or equal to an eighth
tion’ of impulses produced by the transmitter,
the diode becomes conducting and produces a low
of a wave length plus a half wave length or mul
72 of the transmission line, as during the radia
impedance between the anode and the end ofrthe
conductor ‘32' and ground. Preferably a source
of potential 32 is connected between the ?ange
74 and the plate 35 therebyto render the anode of
tiple thereof. This type of action of the switch
ing device may be employed in connection with
any of the systems described.
This adjustment and action of the switching
the diode slightly negative with respect ‘to the
device is ‘better described and is claimed in co
cathode thereby to prevent the normal ?ow of
pending application of Franklin G. Patterson,
?led December 1, 1941, having Serial No. 421,126,
current to the anode due to thermal agitation and
30 entitled Transmission systems, and which is as
signed to the same assignee as my‘present appli
cation.
While I have shown particular embodiments of
nections within the transmitting and receiving
my invention, it will, of course, be understood that
apparatus.
35 I do not wish to be limited thereto since various ,
the like.
I
V
__
The connection for direct current between the
outer conductor ‘13 and the inner conductor 12
of the transmisison line is effected through con
In the descriptions of the different systems
illustrated, I have referred to lines an odd 'mul
tiple of a quarter wave length in length. It will,
of course, be understood that I include the mul
tiple one since very commonly such lines may be 40
of a single quarter wave length in length.
In connection with the capacitance switching
device which I have mentioned and described, I
modi?cations both in the circuit arrangement and
in the instrumentalities employed may be made
and I contemplate by’ the appended claims to
cover any such modi?cations as fall within the
true spirit and scope of my invention.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A directive radio apparatus having‘ maxi
have referred to it as having large capacitance
mum directivity in any of at least three different
between certain electrodes at one time and low 45 directions, said apparatus comprising a plurality
capacitance between the same electrodes at'an
of antenna elements arranged in a common plane
other time dependent upon the position of the
at the vertices of a polygon, transmission lines
electrode thereof, this electrode being movable to
cooperate with dfferent stationary electrodes.
Thus, the device acts as a switching device having
extending between different of said antenna ele
ments and having a plurality of points thereon at
"
each of which waves from a corresponding one ‘of
said directions at an angle to the normal of said
ment of the lines through which it operates, to
plane intercepted by different of said antenna ele
ments ‘arrive in phase, lines extending from each
of said points, and means selectively to receive
closed circuit and open circuit positions.
The effect of this switching device may be im
proved by adjustment thereof, and by adjust
change such lines from the quarter wave length 55 energy over any of said lines in accordance with
mode of action when the rotor of the switch is in
one position to a half wave length mode of action
the direction from which reception is desired.
2. In means to receive radio waves from any
when the rotor of the switch is in a diiferent posi
of a ‘plurality of directions lying in respective
tion.
planes radiating from a common line, the combi
Referring, for example, to the form of the in 60 nation of a plurality of antenna elements ar
I 'vent'ion shown in Fig. 4 in which the lines 33, 34,
ranged at the vertices of a polygon at right angles
35 and 35 are described as of a quarter of a wave
length in length, or odd multiple thereof, if de
to said line, transmissionllines extending between
different of said antenna elements, receiving ap
sired, these lines may be made of a length dif
paratus, connections corresponding to said dif
ferent from a quarter of a wave length or any 65 ferent directions extending from said ‘receiving
multiple thereof if the capacitance between the
apparatus to respective points on said lines, said
electrodes 31, 38, 39 and 49 and ground be ‘so ad
lines being so arranged that energy received from
justed, that when the rotor is in the position
any of said directions intercepted by different of
shown, lines 35 and 35 including the capacitance
said antenna elements arrives at a corresponding
between ground and the respective electrodes 39 70 one of said points in phase, and meansselectively
and 48 be of a half wave length in length, and
to interrupt reception over certain ofsaid connec
lines 33 and 34, including the capacitance between
tions while maintaining reception over another of
ground and the respective electrodes 31 and 38
said connections whereby energy may be selec
be adjusted to be of a quarter wave length in
tively received from any of said directions to the
length. Thus, lines 35 and 3t amount to open cir 75 exclusion of the other directions.
14
13
3. In a radio system having variable directivg
8-. In combination, 'a plurality of antenna 'ele'e
ity, means to change the direction of maximum
ments arranged at the corners of a. rectangle, a
transmission line loop, lines of ‘equallength ex
tending from each antenna element to corre
eii‘ect of said system to directions in any or‘ at
least three different planes radiating at prede
sponding points on said loop, said corresponding
points being spaced about said loop such that
energy intercepted by any adjacent pair of said
termined angles from a common line, a plurality
of antenna elements arranged at the vertices of a
polygon at right angles to said line, transmission
lines extending between different of said ele
ments, radio apparatus, connections from said ap
paratus to dinerent points on said lines, said lines
being so arranged that each of said points is un
equally spaced thereon from di?erent antenna
elements, and means to interrupt transmission
through any of said connections while main
taining transmission through another of said con
nections.
4. In a radio system having variable directivity,
means to change the direction of maximum effect
of said system to any of at least three different
planes radiating at right angles from a common
line, a plurality of antenna elements arranged at
the corners of a polygon at right angles to said
line, transmission lines extending between dif
ferent of said elements, radio apparatus, con
nections from said apparatus to different points
on said lines, said lines being so arranged that
each of said points is unequally spaced from dif
ferent of said antenna elements, and means selec
tively to produce a short circuit on any of said
connections at a distance from the correspond
antenna elements arrives at a certain point on
the loop in phase with energy from the same di
10 rection intercepted by the other pair of antenna
elements, whereby four of said certain points‘ are
produced on said loops at which energy from
respective directions intercepted by all of said
antenna elements arrive in phase.
15
9. In combination, a plurality of antenna ele
ments arranged at the corners of a rectangle, a
transmission line loop, lines of equal length ex
tending from each antenna element to corre
sponding points on said loop, said corresponding
20 points being spaced about said loop in such a
way that four points are produced on the loop,
each of which are equidistant from the different
antenna elements of each pair of adjacent an
tenna elements.
10. In combination, a plurality of antenna ele
25
ments arranged at the corners of a rectangle,
a transmission line loop, lines of equal length
extending from each antenna element to- corre
sponding points on said loop, said correspond
30 ing points being spaced about said loop in such
away that four points are produced on the loop
ing one of said points equal to a quarter of a wave
length, or odd multiple thereof, of the wave at
which said system operates.
5. In a radio-system having variable directivity,
means to change the direction of maximum e?ect 35
of said system to directions in any one of a num
ber of different planes greater than two radiat
each of which are equidistant from the di?erent
antenna elements of each pair of adjacent an
tenna elements, permanent connections from
each of said four points to radio apparatus and
means to interrupt transmission through any of
said connections while maintaining transmission
through other of said connections thereby to alter
the combined directivity of said antenna elements.
ing at right angles from a common line, a plural
ityof antenna elements arranged at the corners
11. In combination, a plurality of antenna ele
of a rectangle at right angles to said line, trans 40
ments cooperating to produce directivity in differ
mission lines extending between different of said
ent directions, a radio apparatus, transmission
elements, connections corresponding to said dif
line connections extending from each of said an
ferent directions extending from respective points
tennae to said radio apparatus, said lines being
on said lines to a common point and thence
interconnected at both ends the interconnection
through a common transmission line to a radio
at the antennae ends being such that the com
apparatus, said ?rst-mentioned transmission lines
bined directivity of said antennae is variable de
being so arranged that each of said ?rst-men
pendent upon the transmission line connection
tioned points is unequally spaced from di?erent
through which transmission between said di?er
antenna elements, and means to produce a low
impedance on each connection at a distance from 50 ent antennae and said apparatus occurs, a plu
rality 0f capacitances, each capacitance being
the respective one of said points on said transmis
connected across a corresponding one of said“
sion line and from said common transmission
line that all of said transmission lines remain in . lines at a point such that a low impedance there
at impairs transmission through the respective
line without impairing transmission through an—
65 other line, and means to vary said capacitances.
pedance.
12. In combination, a plurality of antenna ele
ments positioned in an arrayto produce maxi
6. In combination, a plurality of antenna ele
mum e?ect of said array with respect to certain
ments arranged at the corners of a polygon, a
directions, radio apparatus, a plurality of trans
transmission line loop, connections from differ
entantenna elements to correspondingly spaced 60 mission lines extending from said antennae to
said apparatus, and an interconnection between
points on said loop, radio apparatus, and connec
said lines so arranged that a path exists from all
tions from said apparatus to points on said loop
of said antennae over any one of said lines hav
intermediate said ?rst mentioned points.
7. In combination, a plurality of antenna ele 65 ing a length such that the array has maximum
effect in a direction corresponding to the line
ments arranged at the vertices of a polygon, a
over which transmission occurs, and means to
transmission'line loop, transmission lines of equal
length extending from the respective antenna ele
change the line through which transmission oc
ments to points positioned about said loop in
curs to change the direction of maximum effect
accordance with the relative spacing of the differ 70 of said array.
13. In combination, a plurality of antenna ele
ent antenna elements, radio apparatus, and means
ments positioned in an array to produce maxi
to establish transmission between said apparatus
mum e?ect of said array with respect to certain
and any one of those points on the loop which
directions, radio apparatus, a plurality of trans
are midway between adjacent of said ?rst men
transmitting
condition,
while
transmission
through said connection on which the low im
pedance is produced is impaired by said low im
tioned points.
75 mission lines extending from said antennae to
2,412,159
‘15
said apparatus, and an interconnection between
said lines whereby energy is transmitted between
said apparatus and all of said antennae over any
'
16
antennae through any one of said lines are of
lengths to produce maximum effect in a direc
tion corresponding to the line included in said
one of said lines, and means to select any one of
paths.
said lines, said interconnection being so arranged 5
that the paths between the apparatus and said
_
LAURANCE M. LEEDS.
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