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Dec._3, 1946-
R. c. LONGFELLOW V
DIRECTIVE RADIO
‘
SYSTEM
Filed Sept. 26, 1941
2,412,150
-
‘
'
3 Sheets-Sheet’ 1
75.3.1.
kg,
F"
31% '31?“
-
“
0%41.31‘
I
‘
' Re cel'ver
Fansm/éter
-
Inventor“:
Richard C.L0n Fellow,
byiv? 'éfii
His ‘ btorney.
'
Dec. 3, 1946.
_R. c. LONGFELLOW"
-
I 2,412,160
DIRECTIVE RADIO SYSTEM
Filed Sept. 26, 1941
‘
3 Sheets-éheet 2
Fig.2.
Invehtor":
Richard C. Longfellow,
His
tborney
Dec- 3, 1946-
R.‘c. LONGFELLOW
2,412,160 '
DIRECTIVE RADIO SYSTEM
' ‘Fig.5.
f/ .
'
Inventor‘
-..*-1'~_/:r Richard C. Lon gfellow
2
'- ' byHis
‘.mVZaaMM
t’cobney
_
‘2,412,160
Patented Dec. 3, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT oF-rice ‘
Richard C. Longfellow, Schenectady, N. Y., as
si'gnor- to“ General Electric Company, a corpo
ration‘ of New York
Application September 26, 1941, SerialENo. li12,452
10'Clairns‘. (Cl. 250-11)
.
14
. 2‘
.
which,- at the: same time. is somewhat simpler
My invention relates; to; directive radio sys
tems‘ and more particularly to means for vary-.
and more economical to- construct.
the location of distant objects-f moving’ craft,- and
the like, it is desirable that the directivity of
energy is carried are avoided.
‘
An object» of my invention is to provide an im
proved system for- varying. the ‘directivity of. such 0
systems.
‘
_
>
three or more directions by variationof the phase
relation of the waves supplied to the different
7
_
In copendingapplication of'Lawrence M. Leeds,
Serial No. 410,836} ?led-y, simultaneously herewith,
i
method of operation, together with further ob
Fig. 4 represents the capacitance switch utilized
entitled. Directive radio systems, and which is
in the form of the invention shown in‘ Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 represents the structure of the diode em-v
ployed in my invention, and Figure 6 is a dia
grammatical showing of a modi?cation. of my‘ in
assigned to the same assignee as my present ap- -
plication, is shown a system involving four ra
diators located at the corners of a rectangle.
Each’ of? these radiators is connected‘ through
transmissionlines to the respective corners of a
transmissionv line loop. or “phasing rectangle.”
’
The novel features which I' believe to be char
acteristic of my invention are set forthwith par
ticularity in the appended claims. My invention
itself, however, both as to its organization and
jects and advantages thereof, may best be im-v
derstood by reference to the following descrip
tion taken in connection with the accompany
ing. drawings in. which Fig. 1 represents a dia
grammatical showing of an embodiment of’ my
invention; Fig. 2" represents‘a modi?cation there}
of; Fig. 3' represents the antenna array employed;
Another object of my invention is to simplify
systems in which the 'directivity is variable in
antennae.
i '
leading ‘to, different antennae in which no useful
Li
the antennae arrays employed be readily and
electrically variable;
'
Another object of- my invention. is to provide
a system, in which interconnections betweenv lines
ing/ the directivity of such‘ systems.»
_
In directive systems‘ such as- are employed for
vention.
25
Transmission lines? then extend from interine~>
diate points on all of- the sides of the loop, or
’
"
Referring to‘ Fig‘. l of the drawings, I have
shown therein four antennae, I, 2, 3' and 4‘, ar
ranged at the respective corners of a rectangle.
Theseantennae preferably‘ are disposed in van
“phasing rectangle” to the radio apparatus,
array and mounted for orientation both in‘ eleva
which may comprise either a transmitter, orja
receiver,‘ or’ both. Means are‘ provided‘ whereby 30 tion and in‘ azimuth, or train. In Fig. 3, I have
shown the antennae l, 2, 3 and 4’ as mounted
transmission‘ over any three of these latter lines
in a suitable array and arranged for rotation in
may be simultaneously‘ interrupted thereby‘ to
the vertical plane about a pivot 5‘. This pivot 5
con?ne transmission to‘ any single one of the
is arranged in the support 6 which may be‘ ro
lines extending to the radio apparatus. Thus
energy transmitted‘ over any line excites one pair , tated in the‘ horizontal plane-whereby the array
of antennae'may be ‘oriented both in the_ hori
of adj acent' antennae inj phase‘,and' it excites the
zontal plane and in the vertical plane.
remaining‘ adjacent pair in phase; but the latter
In accordance with my invention as illuse
pair is excited in displaced phase relation with
respect to the ?rst‘ pair by an amount equal to
the electrical length of the‘ “phasing rectangle.”
Thus the antenna array has‘ maximum e?e'ct
‘dated in the embodiment of Fig. _1, the direction
4.0
directions about the normal ofthe array.
As illustrated in the‘ drawings, each of ‘the an
tennae: l, 2, 3 and 4- comprises four dipoles, a, b,
with respect to a direction at an angle to the
normal to the plane‘ of the‘ array. This effect
may be varied through any of four directions
about‘ the normal to the array by changing the
c and d, the dipoles a and b being positioned end
to‘ end and the‘ dipoles c and (1 being positioned
line through which transmission between the
radio‘ apparatus and. the “phasing rectangle” is
con?ned.
of maximum effect of the array‘ when oriented in
any'direction may be shifted to any one ‘of ,four
end to end parallel with the dipoles a and Debut
at a distance one half of a wave length there
‘
Such‘ a system possesses certain very desirable
from. The dipoles themselves, of course, have
advantages. An object of my invention is to pro- -
a length equal to half of a wave length of the
wave at which they operate. The end of di
pole b adjacent dipole d is connected to theend
of dipole 0 adjacent dipole d and similarly dipole
a is connected to dipole d. The antenna l is
also positioned in end-toeend. relation with the
Vide a system having improved capabilities with
respect to the angle through which the direction
of maximum effect of the antenna may be
shifted.v ,Aiurther object of my present invention
isto: provide such; an improved systemv and one
55
2,412,160
3
antenna 2, and similarly antenna 3 is positioned
in end-to-end relation with antenna 4, and an
tennae 3 and 4 are positioned a half wave length
from the antennae I and 2, all, of course, in the
same plane. While this relative spacing of the
different antennae has been departed from in
Fig. 1 for the purposeof clearness of that draw
ing, the antennae are shown so relatively spaced
in Fig. 3.
While I have shown and described a particular
form of directive antenna, it will of course be
understood that any desired form of antenna may
be used at the corners of the rectangle, as, for
example, simple dipoles.
'
-'
The antennae positioned‘ at diagonally oppo
site corners of the rectangle are connected to
gether through a transmission line; that is, the
antenna I is connected to the antenna 4 through
a transmission line ‘I, and antenna 2 is connected
to antenna 3 through a transmission line 8.
These transmission lines may be of the concentric
conductor type in which the outer conductor may
be -maintained at ground potential. The inner
conductor ‘I, or 8, is connected to one side of the
feed point of each of the antennae to which it
is connected. Conductor ‘I, for example, is con
nected to the left-hand terminal of the feed point
A of antenna I and to the left-hand terminal of
the feed point D of antenna 4. Since the imped
ance of the dipolesvat the feed points-A, B, C and’
D is balanced with respect to ground, means must
‘be provided to effect'the connection between the
balance'impedance of the antennae vand the sin
‘ gle-ended transmission line. This is effected by
means of a sleeve I9 positioned about the end of
each transmission line, this sleeve having a length
‘equal to a quarter of a wave length of the wave
at which the system operates. The sleeve is con
ductively connected to the outer sheath of the
transmission line at a vpoint'one quarter of a
wave ‘length from the end ‘of that sheath, and
,forms with the end quarter of a‘wave length of
the sheath a' transmission linehaving a length
of a quarter of a wave length and which ‘is'short
circuited at the end remote'from the antenna.
These sleeves I0 are grounded and insulated from
the end quarter of a wave length of the sheath.
Since they form a quarter .wave length transmis
Sion line with the end of the sheath, ‘those ends
oscillate with respect to ground in opposed phase '
relation to the inner conductor and .thus the
inner conductor and the end of the sheath have
an impedance between them which is balanced
.with respectv to ground and which may be con
nected directly across the respective feed points
A, B, C or D.
-
'
'
'
_ ~These antennae I, 2, 3 and 4 are connected
through transmission lines to radio apparatus
~comprising a transmitter I1 and a‘ receiver I9,
both shown near the bottom of the drawing.
These connections comprise transmission lines I I,
,I2, I3 and I4, as shown on the drawing, all of
which are connected together at the point I5 and
thence through transmission line It to the trans
mitter I'I and‘through transmission line I8 to the
receiver 1I9.. Transmission lines II-and I2 are
connected to points on the line] removed from
Lines I3 and I4 are similarly connected to
line 3.
Means are provided whereby only two of these
II, I2, I3 and I4 are employed at a time, one
being connected to the line 'I and the other to
the line 8, This means comprises the capaci
tance switch 20.
e y
This capacitance devicev comprises four station
ary capacitance electrodes 2|, 22, 23 and 24, each
of which is connected through the inner conduc
tor of concentric transmission lines 25, 26, 21, 28
to a point on-the respective transmission lines II,
I3, I2 and I4 respectively. This capacitance de~
vice also comprises a rotating capacitance elec
trode 29, which is grounded as at 30 and which
may be in the form of half of a disk whereby it
simultaneously cooperates with any two of the
electrodes 2I, 22, 23 and 24 depending upon its
position about pivot point 3I. Thus in the po
sition shown, this ‘electrode 29 cooperates with
electrodes 2I and 22 producing high capacitance
between it and electrodes 2I and 22. 7' Similarly,‘
low capacitance exists between electrodes 23 and
29, and between electrodes 24 and 29.
'
_
’
Electrode 2| is connected through the line 28,
which has a length equal to’ an odd number' of
quarter Wave lengths, to the point 32 on line I4.
Since line 28' is an odd number of quarter wave
lengths in length, the low impedance between
electrodes 2| and 29 produces a high impedance
at the point 32 whereby the line 28 has little effect
upon the transfer of energy through the line H
past point 32.
'
_
>
"
Electrode 22 is similarly connected through the
line 2'! to the point 33 on line I2 and for vthe
same reason has little e?ect upon the transfer
of energy through the line I2 past point 33. "
Electrodes 23 and 24, being similarly connected
to points 34_and 35 respectively on transmission
lines II and I3, have very great e?‘ect upon the
transfer of energy through the lines I I and‘ I3
since high impedance exists between these elece
trodes and the electrode 29. That is, these var
ious lines 25, 26, 21 and 28 operate as impedance
inversion networks producing high impedance at
the respective points 32, 33, 34‘ and 35' when low
impedance exists between the corresponding ?xed
electrode and the rotor 29,'and producing low
impedance at the points 32, 33, 34, 35 when high
impedance exists between the respective ?xed
capacitance electrode and the electrode 29'.
Thus it will be seen that with‘, electrode 29 in
the position shown, conductorsII' and I3 are vef
fectively short circuited in the points 34 and 35.
A short circuit at the'p'oint 34 does not affect
transmission of energy through line, 7, however,
.because the length or" lin'e'I I between point, 34
and the point of connection with line 7 is also
an odd number of quarter wave lengths in length.
Also a'short circuit» at point 34 does'not impair
transfer of energy past point I5 on‘any of the
other circuits because the length of 'line II from
point '34 to point I5 is also an odd number of
quarter wave lengths in length.
This same re‘
' llationship between the lengths of'the different
sections of the transmission line I I is true of each
of the other transmission lines I2, I3 and.I4.
;the midpoint of that line so that each line II. or
Thus, with electrode 29 inthe positionshown, ,
,I2 is connected to the line ‘I at a point nearer to
transfer of energy over lines- II'and I3, either in
one of the antennae I and 4 than it is to the other. 70 transmission or reception, is interrupted. Such
Thus if energy be suppliedv over linev II to the
transmission, however, takes place over lines I2
vlines‘! itexcites antennae I and 4 with a phase
fdi?erence equal to the electrical difference in the
lengths of the path over which thewaves are
‘supplied to the'respective antennae.
' '
v
and I4.
1'
‘
'
During transmission, energy is supplied rover
"lines I2 and I4 and lines ‘I and 8 to all of the
different radiators‘ I,l2»,~ 3 and-4. 5This» energy
2,412,160.
5
6
is supplied to the radiators 2 and It in phase since
transmitter, high voltageis produced upon the.
the lengths of the paths leading to these radia
anode of the diode 31 and this diode becomes
conducting, producing'low impedance across. the
end of the stub transmission line 38 during. the
transmitted impulses. This low impedance, how
ever, does not exist during reception because the
diode is. not then conducting. 'This low imped
ance of the diode 31 doesnot impair transmission
tors are equal. It is also supplied to the radi
ators I" and 3 in phase since the lengths of the
paths'leading to these radiators are equal. The
energy supplied to the radiators I and 3 is de
layed in phase with respect to the energy sup
plied to radiators 2 and 4, and accordingly the
direction of maximum e?ect of the array is shift.
over the line I6 because the stub line 38 has a
ed~ from the normal of the array in the horizontal 10 length equal to a. half of a wave length so that
plane by an angle corresponding to the difference
the diode 3'I-v produces. low impedance at the point
in the length of the’ paths leading to the an
39. The distance between the points 39'I‘and1 36
tennae 2 and- l% from those. leading to the an
is an odd number of quarter wave lengths so
tennae I and 3.
that the. diode has the effect of producing high
Nowlet- us suppose thatr the capacitance elec 15 impedance at the point 36.
trode 29 is rotated clockwise through 90°. Then
Fig. 2 shows a form of my invention involving
low impedance exists between electrodes 22 and
only three antennae I, 2 and 3-, these antennae
29-, and between electrodes 24 and 29. This ren
being positioned at the vertices of a triangle
ders lines I72 and i3 free for transmission of en
rather than at the corners of a rectangle as in
ergy between the radio apparatus and the an
20
tennae, and produces short circuits at the p ints
32 and 34 thereby interrupting transfer of en
ergy- through conductors I I and I4. Now for the
Fig. 1. Each of these: antennae is connected to
the transmitter through respective transmission
lines 59, El and 52, these lines being- intercon
nected by lines 53, 54 and‘ 55', which may bewof
same reason as that previously described, an
equal lengths.
tennae‘ I and 2 are energized with currents in
delayed phase relation with respect to the cur
rent supplied to antennae 3 and 4, and the direc
tion of maximum effect of the array is shifted
from the normal in the vertical plane by an
amount corresponding to the electrical difference "
in the length of the various paths.
If condenser 29 be shifted from the position
shown through 189°, the beam will be shifted
from the normal in the horizontal plane in the
opposite direction and- by an equal amount from
Capacitance device» 564 is also employed but is
of slightly different character from that‘ shown in
that in which it is shifted with the condenser
28in the position shown.
If it be shifted through 2'70°- in clockwise direc
tion, then the beam will be shifted downward in
the vertical plane.
The receiver i9 is connected to the transmis
sion line at the point 35 distant from the trans
Fig. 1 in that its rotor is in the form of an arc
40
low the connection to the receiver is made at a
point 36 distant from the transmitter by a quar
ter wave length or odd multiple thereof, whereby,
because of the impedance inversion effect of the
section of line between point 35 and the trans
mitter, the transmitter impedance, as viewed
from point 36 is high.
System such as that described may be em
ployed in'connection with echo systems in which
impulses are transmitted at a very rapid rate
and echoes thereof are received in the intervals
between the transmitted impulses. It is desirable,
therefore, that the receiver be protected from
the'inten‘se impulses produced by the transmitter.
Unless such protection is provided the intense
transmitted impulses may impair the sensitivity
subtending approximately 120° rather than 180°.
This condenser com-prises three ?xed electrodes
51, 58 and 59, each connected to the‘ respective
transmission line 50, 5|, 52 through transmis
sion lines 80, SI‘ and 62 respectively. These lat
ter lines 69, BI and (52V have a length equal to an
odd‘ number of quarter wave lengths, as explained
before whereby, with the" capacitance electrode 63
of- swi'tching- device 56 in the position shown, the
electrodes 5-? and 59 produce low“ impedance at
the points. 64 and‘ I56 on the‘lines 5i] and 52' and
thus impair transmission over‘ these lines. These
points, however, arepositioned an odd number of
quarter wave lengths from the point I5. so that
the short circuit at the'points 64 and 66 does not
mitter by an amount such that the impedance
of- the transmitter as viewed from the point 35
is high.
For example; if the transmitter impedance be
,
Li
impair transmission over line 51' past the point
l5. Electrode 58', having low impedance‘ to elec
trode 63, produces a high impedance at the point
55. and thus line El is in transmitting condition.
Energy is transmitted up line 5| to the point 68
Where it ‘divides one portion passing to antenna
2 and another portion passing, to antennae I and
3 through’ line 55-, and line '53 andiil in one case,
and 515‘v and 52-1 in the, other. The 'sec'tionlof line
between'points ‘61 and 65 is an odd number‘ of
quarter wave lengths in length so that the short
at point ?é'does not impair transmission-from line
53 to antenna I past point 61‘. The same‘ is true
with respect to the section of line between points
so. and s9 and also-between points. as and 63. -'
The-points 61‘, 68' and'?dv are so positioned‘ and
‘the connections 53, 54 and 55v are of such length
that the array, when operating through the line
51, has a maximum effect in the vertical plane at ‘
an. angle to the» normal.
'
of'vthe receiver and the receiver will not have suf
If electrode 63 be rotated through 120" in clock
ficient time in which to recover before reception
wise direction, then transmission takes place over
by- it is required. The result is that it may be 65 line 52‘ and transmission over lines 50' and 5| is
insensitive during the time when the impulses
interrupted. ‘ The beam is now shifted through
tobe received arrive. For this reason the diode
.3115 is employed, the anode thereof being con~
nected to the end- of the inner conductor of a
an’ arc of approximately 120° about the normal to
the plane-of the array.
If the-electrode 56 be rotated to its third posi
stubtransmission line 33 extending from the 70 tion, theidirection of maximum effect of the array
pointx39 on transmission line IS. The cathode of
‘willbe shifted through a further 120°.
.thediodeB'I is connected to ground and through
Fig. 4 shows in greater detail'the condenser
albattery 40 to the outer conductor of the con
structure of the form of theinventionshown in
.centric. transmission line, 38. During the trans
Fig. 1,, the electrodes 2|, 22', _23,' 24‘and. 29 all
mission of'the intense impulses produced b‘y'the‘ 75 ‘being
housed‘ within ‘a housing 65‘to which the
2,412,100.
7
8
outer conductors of the various transmission
lines are securely connected electrically as indi
cated at 66. These electrodes are equally spaced
26, 21 and 28 in association with the capacitance
about a circumference to cooperate in succession
device 20 is more particularly described and is
claimed in the copending application of Franklin
G, Patterson, Serial No. 421,126, ?led December 1,
with rotating electrode 29.
.Fig. 5 represents the diode employed in con
is assigned to the same assignee as my present
1941, entitled Transmission systems and which
application.
nection with my invention. It comprises an an
ode 10 and a cathode ‘H, the latter of which may
I have found, when operating. at certain fre
quencies, that di?iculty may be encountered in
be indirectly heated by heater ‘I2 energized from
a transformer 13'. The cathode is mounted upon 10 obtaining the impedances within the capacitance
switching device necessary for operation of the
a conducting plate 14 which closes the end of the
transmission line 15 but which is insulated there
from by means of insulating material 16.
The anode 10 of the diode is provided with a
screw-threaded projection 11 at the top of which 15
lines connected thereto in the two modes de
scribed. No difficulty is encountered in producing
the quarter wave length mode of operation be
cause this merely requires adding capacity be
tween the stationary electrodes and ground. This
may easily be done by adding trimmer electrodes
the transmission line. This anode is provided
arranged in adjustable spaced relation with re
with a ?ange portion 19, the outer periphery of
spect to the stationary electrodes. In the half
which is sealed in the edge of a glass cylinder 80,
the lower edge of which is securely sealed to the 20 Wave mode of operation larger capacity between
the rotor electrode and stationary electrode is
plate 14 whereby the interior space between the
present. The circuit then extends from the sta
electrodes may be evacuated.
tionary electrode to the rotor, which is in mesh
_ If desired, a source of potential 40 may be con
therewith, and then through the shaft of the r0
nected between the plate 14 and the outer con
tor to ‘ground. This path not only has capacity
ductor 15 of the transmission line thereby to ren
but also inductance, which must be adjusted for
der the anode of the diode somewhat negative
the half wave mode. This may be done by proper
with respect to the cathode normally in order
proportioning of the parts.
to prevent the ?ow of electrons to the anode by
reason of thermal agitation and the like. The
In accordance with my invention, however, the
arrangement of Fig. 6 may be employed. In this
connection to the anode for direct current is, of
Fig. 6 I have shown conductors H and 25 of Fig.
course, completed through any apparatus that
l joined at point 34. Conductor 25 leads to the
may be connected between the outer conductor
electrode 23 of the capacitance switch 20. In this
and the inner conductor of the transmission line.
switch the capacitance between the electrode 23
I have described certain transmission line sec
tions as having a length equal to a odd multiple
and ground, when the rotor is removed from elec
trode 23, is represented by the dotted linesat 80.
of a quarter of a wave length. It will, of course,
This capacity may be adjusted, as by trimmer
be understood that I include the multiple one
since frequently any of these lines may be of but
electrodes, to produce the quarter wave mode of
screws into the end of the inner conductor 18 of
operation.
a quarter of a wave length in length.
I have mentioned lines 25, 26, 21 and 28 as 40
being of an odd number of quarter wave lengths
in length; if desired, however, these lines may be
of different lengths. For example, the line it
self may, if desired, have a length equal to an
A further component of impedance between
electrode 23 and ground, when the rotor meshes
with this electrode is represented as comprising
a series combination of capacitance 8| and an
eighth of a wave length, or to an eighth of a wave
inductance 82, in parallel with capacitance 80.
These impedances may be adjusted for the half
length plus a half wave length, or multiple
wave mode of operation.
thereof. If line 25, for example, has such a
venient, however, to provide the stub line 83 at
point 34, this stub line being of adjustable length,
length, the capacitance between electrode 23 and
ground, assuming electrode 29 in the position
shown, may be adjusted, as by means of variable
I have found it con
as by telescoping inner and outer conductors, as
conventionally represented on the drawings. The
length of this stub line may be adjusted to cause
it to resonate with any reactance presentedby
tance device to cooperate with the line 25 to cause
line 25 at point 34 to produce very high shunt im
it to have an electrical length equal to a quarter
pedance between point 34 and ground. That is,
ofa wave length and thus to produce an effective
short circuit at the point 34. The same may be 55 capacitance 88 may now be adjusted to- produce a
short circuit between the inner and outer con
true with respect to the line 26. The lines 21
ductors at point 34 when the rotor is in its most
and 28 being connected respectively to electrodes
22 and 2| having higher capacity to ground, as
remote position from electrode 23, and line 83
may be adjusted in length to produce very high
suming electrode 29 in the position shown, may
then have a wave length equal to a half a wave 60 impedance between the inner and outer conduc
length such that they produce high impedance at
tors at point 34 when the rotor meshes with
trimmer electrodes, not shown, within the capacie
the points 33 and 32. That is, the lines 25, 26, 21
and 29 operate in either of two modes, the open
circuit quarter wave mode or the open circuit half
electrode 23.
7
It will be observed that my invention offers a
very satisfactory system for shifting, in two or
65 more planes at an angle to each other, the direc
tion of maximum effect of the antenna array,
whether it be a radiator, a receiver, or both, the
wave mode dependent upon the capacitance be
tween the respective ?xed electrode within the
capacitance device 20 and ground, and these ca
pacitances for the two modes may be separately
shift being brought about by simple rotation
adjusted within the capacitance device 20. In
of the rotor Of the capacitance switch. Any in
this way the overall operation previously de 70 terconnections between lines leading to different
scribed may be secured but the action may be
somewhat improved by reason of thesharper
antennae, and which, at least at times, carry no
useful energy, are avoided. The avoidance of
resonance effects of the various lines 25, 26, v2'!
such interconnections increases the capabilities
of the system with respect to the angle through
‘and 28 when so adjusted.
‘
This proportioning and tuning of the lines 25, 3 75 which the direction of maximum effect of the sys-
.
2,412,160
'10
tern may be shifted. This results from the~ avoid
of transmission lines extending from said appara
‘tus to respective points on each‘ of said intercon
ance of reactance, or impedance effects‘, of such
interconnections upon the system. Moreover, the
nections, said points being so positioned that the
avoidance of such interconnections very greatly
path from any antenna to said apparatus is
simpli?es the problem of impedance matching
longer over one of said lines extending from the
throughout the length of the lines between the
respective interconnection than the other, and
radio apparatus and the different antennae. In
means to select one line in each pair to transfer
fact, in the systems Of my invention the problem
energy between said apparatus and each corre
of impedance matching throughout these lines
sponding pair of antennae thereby to control the
is no more di?‘icult than it is in the usual trans 10. direction in which said array has maximum ef
mission systems between a radio apparatus and
fect.
‘
one or more antennae.
4. In combination, a plurality of antennae po
While I have shown particular embodiments of
sitionedv at the vertices of a polygon, ‘a plurality
my invention, it will, of course, be understood that
of interconnections, each interconnection'extend
I do not wish to be limited thereto since different 15 ing between antennae positioned at opposite cor
modi?cations both in circuit: arrangements and
ners of said polygonyradio apparatus, a pair of
in the instrumentalities employed may be made,
transmission l-inesextending from said apparatus
and I contemplate by the appended claims to
to respective points on each of said interconnec
cover any such modi?cations as fall within the
tions, said points being so positioned that the
true spirit and scope of my invention.
20 path from any antenna to said apparatus is longer
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
Letters Patent of the United States, is:
1. In combination, a plurality of antennae po
sitioned in an array to produce maximum eifect
of said array with respect to certain directions,
radio apparatus. a plurality of permanent trans
mission lines, each line extending from said appa
ratus to a corresponding one of said antennae, a
connection between different of said lines near
over one of said lines extending from the respec
tive interconnection than the'other, and means
to interrupt transmission through either line in
each pair while maintaining transmission through
the other line of each pair thereby to Vary the
directivity of the array comprising said antennae.
5. In combination, a plurality of antennae po
sitioned at the vertices of a polygon, a, plurality of
interconnections, each interconnection extending
the antenna ends thereof, the path through any 30 between antennae positioned at opposite corners
line to its corresponding one antenna being
of said polygon, radio apparatus, a pair of trans
shorter than the path through the same line to
mission lines extending from said apparatus to
any other of said antennae, means to select'any
respective points on each of said interconnections,
of said lines in accordance with the direction in
said points being so positioned that the path from
which said array is to have maximum effect, the
lengths of the paths from said apparatus to all
the antennae being so proportioned as to produce
maximum effect in the direction corresponding to
the line selection made by said means, said means
comprising an impedance device having a moving 40
member, and means whereby said lines are al
ternately shorted at respective points thereof in
response to movement of said moving member,
said points being so positioned on the respective
lines as to prevent impairment of transmission
through another line to an antenna correspond
ing to a line shorted by said impedance device.
2. In combination, a plurality of antennae po
sitioned in an array to produce maximum effect
of said array with respect to certain directions,
a radio apparatus, a plurality of transmission
lines, each line corresponding to one of said an
tennae and extending from said apparatus to its
corresponding antennae, a connection from a
point near the antenna end of one line to a point
near the antenna end of another line, the path
from said apparatus through said line to the an
tenna corresponding thereto being shorter than '
the path through said line to another antenna,
means to short ?rst one and then another of said
lines alternately while maintaining unshorte'd
lines in energy transferring condition, the dis
tance of any short on any line from said connec—
tion being such that transmission through said
connection is not impaired by said short and the
lengths of the said connection being such that the
any antenna to said apparatus is longer over one
of said lines extending from the respective inter
connections than over the other, and means to
produce low impedance across either line in each
pair to impair transmission therethrough, said
low impedance being produced‘ at a point such
that high impedance is presented by the respec
tive line to the other lines over which transmis
sion is not impaired.
6. In combination, a plurality of directive an
tennae arranged at the corners of a rectangle,
the antennae at diagonally opposite corners of
said rectangle being connected together through
respective transmission lines, radio apparatus,
two pairs of transmission lines, the lines of each
pair of extending from respective points spaced
apart on one of said ?rst mentioned lines corre
sponding to the respective pair, all of said two
pairs of lines extending to said apparatus, and
means to interrupt transmission through any two
of said last-mentioned lines while maintaining
transmission through the other two of said lines.
7. In combination, a plurality of directive an
tennae arranged at the corners of a rectangle,
the antennae at diagonally opposite corners of
said rectangle being connected together through
respective transmission lines, radio apparatus,
two pairs of transmission lines, the lines of each
pair extending from respective points spaced
apart on one of said ?rst-mentioned lines corre
spending to the respective pair, all of said two
pairs of lines extending to a common point and
direction with respect to which said array has
thence to said apparatus, and means selectively
maximum e?ect is dependent upon the line over
to produce low impedance across any two of said
which energy is transferred between said appa
two pairs of lines at points thereon such that
ratus and said array.
70 transmission over the other lines of said two pairs
3. In combination, a plurality of antennae po
‘of said antennae and said apparatus is not im
sitioned at the vertices of a polygon, a plurality
paired by such low impedance.
‘of interconnections, each interconnection extend
8. In combination, a plurality of antennae ele
ing between antennae positioned at different
ments arranged at the vertices of a triangle, an
vertices of said polygon, radio apparatus, a pair ‘ individual connection from each antenna element
2,412,160
11 ’
to a common point, a radio apparatus, an indi
12
10. In combination, a transmission line, a sec
ond line connected to a. point on said ?rst line
vidual transmission line extending from each of
said connections to said apparatus, and means to
and having a length different from any'integral
disable all but one of said lines while maintaining
said one line in condition to transmit energy be
multiple of a quarter of a wave length, a capaci
tance connected across the end of said second line
tween all of said antennae and said apparatus.
9. In combination, a plurality of antenna ele
proportioned to produce low impedance at said
point substantially equal to that of an open line
having a length equal to a quarter of the operat
ing wave length and variable to increase said im
pedance, and a third transmission line connected
ments arranged at the vertices of a triangle, an
individual connection from each antenna vto a
common point, radio apparatus, an individual
connection extending from a point on each of said
to said point .to resonate with reactance pro
connections to said apparatus, means to con?ne
duced by said second line when said impedance is
transmission of energy between said apparatus
increased by variation of said ?rst-mentioned ca
and the different antenna elements .to one of said
pacitance thereby further to increase the imped
last-mentioned connections at a time, said points 15 ance at said point to‘a value approaching that of
being so positioned that said ‘antenna elements
an open transmission line having a. length equal
have a direction of maximum effect dependent
upon that one of said last individual connection
to which transmission is~ con?ned.
to half of the operating wave length.
"
RICHARD C. LONGFEILOW.
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