close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

код для вставки
Dec. 3, 1946.
2,412,168
A. F. HOESEL
I VAPOR HEATING SYSTEM
Filed July 10, 1944
32
33,
_
_
I INl/Z/VTOR
Patented Dec. 3, 1946
' 2,412,168
'UNlT-ED ~STAT1ES PATENT OFFICE.’
VAPOR HEATING SYSTEM
Anthony F. Hoesel, Chicago, Ill'., assignorto Peer
less of America Inc., Chicago, 111;, a corporation
of Illinois
Application July 10, 1944-, Serial No; 544,306
6 Claims.‘ (Cl. 237—9)
I
2
,
,
portion 1., I mount a shell 8, which, being of great
The present invention. relates torvapor heating
systems and especially relates to, such systems
er inside diameter than the'outside diameter of
the portion 1, provides an annular-space 9, which,
wherebythe heating of-rthe vapor isiaccomplished
by waste heat‘ such as is rejected in the exhaust
during normal operation, is at least partly ?lled
discharge of an-internalcombustion engine.
with. the vapor generating liquid. ' Both ends, 10
and H, of the shell 8, are. hermetically sealed,
One of the advantages of my invention is that
by. weldingror otherwise, to the exhaust pipe
the maximum vapor pressure is automatically
portion ‘if The immediate above comprises the
controlled to some predetermined point, irrespec
vapor generator. ,
tive of the amount and/or intensity of the heat
At I2 I indicate a vapor condenser comprising, a
generating the vvapor and also irrespective of the 10
vapor header I3 having vapor tubes l4 'upon which
amounttof vapor condensed. by means of reject
are mounted fins 15' in order to increasethe effec
ing its heat to some other medium of a lower tem
tive heat transfer area...
perature than that of» the» vapor temperature.
I A motor I6, driving the fan ll, serves to blow
Because of the controlled pressures, it is pos
sibleto use vapor generators (generally called '_ air over the exterior surfaces of the tubes . l4
and ?ns l5v therebyheating such ‘air andcon
boilers), vapor condensers (generally called radi
densingvapor within the tubes M.
ators) and connectingvapor conduit means of
The tubes l4’drain into a condensate collector
a- considerably-lighter construction than thatused ‘
lsirom the bottom of which projects a conden
in conventional systems of-the vapor‘pressure
sate return conduit IQ‘connected to the low end
type'
.
ofthev shell .8‘ as indicated. Immediately below
In view of the fact thatv the vapor pressure is
its connection, to the shell 8, the condensate‘re
automatically controlled, I .?nd it possible, to
turn. conduit vl9 is provided with a liquid vtrap 20.
dispense with the usual'self- seating type safety
The upper end, of the shell ‘8, is provided with
a vapor conduit 2| leading to the inlet 22 of the
Another advantage stems from the iact that
pressure control 23 whose outlet 24 is connected
mysystem is completelyplosed and, while.v in a
to'the vapor header I3 by means of the con
cold state, is under a partial vacuum, which
valve. \
>
duit .25.
decreases the boiling point temperature, ofv the
contained ->liquid-, so that‘the transfer .of'heat
begins rather rapidly‘ when the system starts up.
The vapor condenser l2 isprovided with a filler
capi26' whereby thelsystem may be charged with
a de?nite quantity of vaporizable liquid‘. This
quantityis generally slightly, in excess of that
Since many'systemsyof thistype, have to with
stand’ sub-freezing temperatures,‘ my closed- sys
tem has the advantage of preventing vtheescape
or any (anti-freeze flu-id having a low- boiling point.
In the drawing:-
which will?ll the annular'space 9. '
In Fig. 2, they pressure control 23 comprises
a body 21¢having a vapor inlet'22 'and'vapor out
let 24 ‘between which isa valved passage‘ 28'hav
_
Fig.2 1 is anlelevationalview of. a heating.- system
ing a. seat 29 cooperative with the valve 33 having
a guide portion ,3] which, plays in'the bore 32 ‘of
the cap 33 threadedly engaging the‘ bore '34‘01’
embodying- Ethe invention.
Fig-2 is an. elevationalvview, partly in cross
sectiornofl a. pressure-control used in the sys
tem>Fig.. ,1.
40
Fig; 3 is a cross-sectional view-along; line 3-—3 ‘
Referring toathe drawing: 1
,
,
In Fig.1, I show an/exhaustdischarge mani
fold 5 of the type generally-used to carry away
thehot exhaust gases from a six cylinder internal
combustion engine,.not shown because the gen
eral' form and operation thereof is well under
stoodin-the art.‘
An exhaust pipe 6- connects to the manifold 5,.
as indicated, and serves .tocarry the hot exhaust
the body I 21.
‘
'
The‘ valve 30, constantly urged to the valve
seat 29 by means of the spring 35, has a stem
36, pressing against a. diaphragm 31, which is her
metically sealed to the body 2'! and the diaphragm
cover 38 as indicated at 39.
.
The diaphragm cover 38 has a breather hole
Ml vand athreadedbore 4| in the latter of which
an adjusting screw .42‘ serves to put a proper pres
sure upon the diaphragm spring 43,‘ mounted
up'onthe diaphragm pusher disc 44, thereby tend-_
ing to move the‘valve'30 away from itsjseat 29.
Having described the various elements jofl the
gases to > a. muf?er, not shown.
system, I shall now describe its operation. As
It should be particularly noted that the ex
sume thatthe pressures, 'oi'the springs .35 and’
haustfpipe? hasa downwardly leading portion 1
which. shall be referred. to later. Around the 55 43,‘_are of sucnvalues' that ‘a gage’pressure of say
5,412,165
4
4 p. s. i., at the outlet 24, results in the diaphragm
31 moving downwardly and the valve 30 engag
ing the seat 29. Further assume that the valve
haust gases, through the exhaust pipe 6. We
would ?nd that the vapor pressure would quickly
the valved passage 29 is completely closed.
condensate collector [8. Since the wetted sur
face, of portion 1, is practically zero,.jthere can
rise to 4 p. s. i. and that the valve 30 would be
seated. Under this condition the entire liquid
30 is in open position, as shown, at 1 p. s. i. and
has an increased throttling action with increase UK volume, in the annular space 9, tends to recede
into the condensate return conduit 19 and the
'of pressure until 4 p. s. i. is reached at which time
__ We now remove the ?ller cap 26 and pour in
be no further generation of vapor. '
a de?nite quantity of liquid. The annular space
As explained previously, the header I3 and the
9 is practically ?lled and the liquid extends up :10
tubes I4 are ?lled with vapor and, as soon as
into the condensate return conduit 19 to approxi
sufficient vapor condenses. the 4 p. s. 1. pressure
mately the level 48. We now start the source of
drops. Since the diaphragm 31 is subject to the
heat; The liquid, in the annular space 9, starts
pressure, obtaining. in the vapor header I3, a drop
to boil and vapor issues from the hole in ‘which
the ?ller cap 28 screws. The vapor tends to drive 15 in the pressure-from the previous 4 p. s.'i.allows the diaphragm 31 to push the valve 30
out the air in the system and after a su?icient
away from its seat 29 thereby reestablishing a
period of time we replace the filler cap 26. The
throttled vapor flow, which is accompanied by
system is now pressure tight.
some liquid again. entering the annular space 9
During various operations, the vapor condenser
I2 will have di?erent condensing capacities. If 20 and wetting su?icient of the exhaust pipe, por
tion 1, to maintain a pressure of somewhat less
the motor I6 is stopped then the condensing
than 4 p. s. i. and more-than 1 p. s. i. ' .
capacity is at a minimum. If the motor I 6 is
Whenever the system is at rest, it tends to
in operation and the entering air is cold, then
arrive at ambient temperatures, which are con
the condensing capacity will be at a maximum.
Between these two extremes there will be numer 25 siderably lower than the boiling point of the liq
uid, consequently the previously generated vapor
ous variations in condensing capacity.
condenses and produces a partial vacuum within
During ‘the operation, of the engine rejecting
the system. To clearly illustrate the advantage
heat to the exhaust manifold 5', there will be
of this, let us assume the liquid to be water and
varying volumes and heat intensities of the ex
haust gasespassing through the exhaust pipe 30 the vacuum to be 20 inches mercury. The boil
ing point of water, at atmospheric pressure, is
6.‘ Since the amount of heat transfer surface,
212° R, and this temperature must be reached
of the portion ‘I, is constant, the potential vapor
before effective heat transfer vapor (steam in this
izing capacity ‘thereof will vary accordingly and
case) can be forced through a conventional
the‘ actual vaporizing capacity will be a function
(steam) heating system.
of both the amount of surface area, of the por
tion ‘I, wetted by the vaporizing liquid and the
volume and heat intensity of the exhaust gases
passing therethrough.
With my system
starting with a 20 inch mercury vacuuml-ave
?nd that the boiling point would be 160° F., there;
fore my system starts to transmit vapor-for the
heat transfer purpose—at a 52° F. lower tem
perature. This is conducive to a quick warm up
‘ Let us assume a static condition of operation
wherein a certain constant exhaust discharge
heats the liquid su?'iciently to maintain a con
stant vapor pressure of 1 p. s. i. in the vapor con
duit2l. The valve 30 is in the wide open posi
of the space to be heated.
'
'
While the speci?c embodiment of the inven¢
tion is of a preferred form, it is to be understood
that there may be various modi?cations theretion and, the vapor condenser I2 is assumed to
reject heat at the same ratethat it is generated. 45 of without departing from the spirit and scope ‘
of the invention, which is to be limited only to
Obviously the vapor flow, through the conduit
the hereto appended claims.
'
2|, the pressure control 23, the conduit 25 and
I claim:
the vapor condenser I2‘, involves a pressure drop.
'1. A vapor heating system for a body enclosure:
Let us assume that this pressure drop is on the
associated with an internal combustion. engine,
order of 3." water. Under this condition we ?nd
comprising: an exhaust pipe for the engine, a
that the static liquid level 48 will change to liq
chamber adapted to contain a body of liquid in
uid level 49, which presumably is 3” higher than
its lower portion and to be heated by said pipe,
previously.
a vapor-condenser disposed above said chamber;
There‘ now exists a differential of 3” in the
liquid levels of the annular space 9 and the con 55 for heating the enclosure, a vapor-conduit be
tween the upper portion of said chamber and the
upper portion of the condenser, pressure control
means in the vapor-conduit for restricting the
the vapor condenser l2, has increased in tem
flow of vapor to the condenser responsively to~-an»
perature and/or decreased in volume. Obviously
its (heat absorption capacity is decreased and the 60' increase of vapor pressure in the vapor-conduit,
a constantly open'condensate return conduit be
generated vapor pressure tends to increase. The
tween the lower portion of the condenser and the
valve 30‘moves towards its seat 29, thereby in
lower portion of said chamber, the system being
creasing the ?ow pressure drop, and the liquid
sealed against atmosphere and containing a pre
level rises to point 50 of the condensate return
densate return conduit [9.
Let us now suppose that the air, passed over
conduit
l9.
'
'
65
determined quantity of liquid.
_»Of course, as the liquid recedes into the con
densate return conduit [9, the liquid level lowers
2. A vapor heating system for a body enclosure
associated with an internal combustion engine,
in they annular space 9 and with the consequent
comprising: an exhaust pipe for theengine, a
chamber adapted to contain a body of liquid in
,decreased wetted surface, of the portion 1, the
vaporizing .capacity is reduced accordingly and 70 {its lower portion and to be heated by said pipe,
automatically to the condensing capacity of the
a vapor-condenser disposed above ,saidchamber,
‘for heating the enclosure, a vapor-conduit be
vapor condenser l2.
'
tween the upper portion of said chamber and
7 Assuming Ya condition of no heat demand, on
the part of the vapor condenser l 2, and a passage
the upper portion of the condenser, pressureicon
of maximum volume and heat intensity, of ex 75 trol means in the vapor-conduit for restrictingv
2,412,168
6
the ?ow of vapor to the condenser responsively
atmosphere and containing a predetermined
to an increase of vapor pressure in the vapor
conduit, a valveless condensate return conduit
quantity of liquid.
tem being sealed against atmosphere and con
quantity of liquid.
.
5. A vapor heating system for a body enclosure
associated with an internal combustion engine,
betwen the lower portion of the condenser and
comprising: an exhaust pipe for the engine, a
the lower portion of said chamber, the system
chamber surrounding the exhaust pipe and
being sealed against atmosphere and contain
adapted to contain a body of liquid in its ‘lower
ing a predetermined quantity of liquid.
portion and to be heated by said pipe, a vapor
3. A vapor heating system for a body enclosure
condenser disposed above said chamber for heat
associated with an internal combustion engine,
comprising: an exhaust pipe for the engine, a 10 ing the enclosure, a vapor-conduit between the
upper portion of said chamber and the upper
chamber surrounding a portion of the exhaust
portion of the condenser, a pressure control valve
pipe and adapted to contain a body of liquid in
in the vapor-conduit for restricting the flow of
its lower portion and to be heated by said pipe,
vapor to the condenser responsively to an in—
a vapor-condenser disposed above said chamber,
crease of vapor pressure in the. vapor conduit,
for heating the enclosure, a vapor-conduit be
a valveless condensate return conduit between
. tween the upper portion of said chamber and the
the lower portion of the condenser and the lower
upper portion of the condenser, a pressure con
portion of said chamber, the lower portion of
trol valve in the vapor-conduit for restricting
which includes a trap-portion through which the
the ?ow of vapor to the condenser responsively to
an increase of vapor pressure in the vapor-con 20 column of liquid from the chamber is variable
responsive to variations in pressure in the vapor
duit, a constantly open condensate return con
in the condenser, the system being sealed against
duit between the lower portion of the condenser
atmosphere and containing a predetermined
and the lower portion of said chamber, the sys
taining a predetermined quantity of liquid.
_
6. A vapor heating system for a body enclo
sure associated with an internal combustion en-J
4. A vapor heating system for a body enclosure
gine, comprising: an exhaust-pipe for the en
associated with an internal combustion engine,
gine, a cylindrical chamber surrounding the ex
comprising: an exhaust pipe for the engine, a
haust-pipe adapted to contain a body of liquid
chamber adapted to contain a body of liquid in
in its lower portion and to be heated by said
its lower portion and to be heated by said pipe,
pipe, a vapor-condenser disposed above said
a, vapor-condenser disposed above said chamber
chamber, for heating the enclosure, a'vapor
for heating the enclosure, a vapor-conduit be
conduit between the upper portion of said cham
tween the upper portion of said chamber and the
ber and the upper portion of the condenser, pres
upper portion of the condenser, a normally open
sure control means in the vapor-conduit for re
pressure control valve in the vapor-conduit for
stricting the flow of vapor to the condenser re
restricting the flow of vapor to the condenser
sponsively to an increase of vapor pressure in
responsively to an increase of vapor pressure in
the vapor-conduit, a valveless condensate return
the vapor-conduit, a constantly open condensate
conduit between the lower portion or the con
return conduit between the lower portion of the
condenser and the lower portion of said cham 40 denser and the lower portion of said chamber,
the system being sealed against atmosphere and
ber, in the lower portion of which the column of
containing a predetermined quantity of liquid.
liquid from the chamber is variable in height re
sponsively to variation in pressure in the vapor
in the condenser, the system being sealed against
ANTHONY F. HOESEL.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
499 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа