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Dec. 3, 1946.
, c. WEBER
I 2,412,185
METHOD OF ENCASING-DRIVEN FILING
Filed June 7, 1945 "
3.7
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
.
36"
}
35
24,
....I l
INVENTOR
‘OAIFL WEBER
‘BY WV”
ATTORN EYS
Dec. 3, 1946.
2,412,185
Q WEBER
' METHOD OF ENCASING DRIVEN FILING
Filed June '7, 1945 '
2 Sheets-—She_et 2
’
INVENTOR
CARI. WEBER
ATTO R N EY§
Patented Dec. 3, 1946
2,412,185
UNITED ‘STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,412,185 '
METHOD OF ENCASING DRIVEN PILING
Carl Weber, New York,,N. Y.
Application June 7, 1945, Serial No. 597,995
(01. 61-54)
6 Claims.
1
2
This invention comprehends a method of en
within the narrow forms frequently prevents so]
casing with concrete wooden piles located under
wharves, clocks, piers, bridges, trestles and similar
downward flow of the concrete mixture thus leavé
lidi?cation of the concrete by obstructing the
maritime structures as protection against the
ing large un?lled hollow spaces therein. Such
hollow spaces form honey-combed sections that
ruinous attacks of teredoes, limnoria, and other
marine borers and to prevent‘ decay from dry-rot,
cannot be detected until the forms are removed
fungus growths, termites and other wood destroy
and which must be repaired which is cost1y,'very ,
ing in?uences, and which also provides effective
di?icult and providing at best an. unsatisfactory
protection against damage to the piling from
patch-work encasement. Should permanent
abrasion caused by ice and floating debris while 10 forms be ‘used and allowed to remain “in vplace
eliminating ‘or greatly reducing ‘the ?re hazard
after pouring the concrete mixture, defects in the
to which such maritime structures are frequently
‘encasement may remain‘hidden‘until the ‘forms
exposed.
'
are
,
Concrete encasements are also employed for
the reconditioning of‘ wooden piling that has be
come weakened or deteriorated byboreeworms or
other destructive elements or for restoring piling
v
~
"
r
. The aforesaid di?iculties encountered in‘ the
formation of concrete encasements about driven
piling have led to the formation of concrete en
that has been ‘ruptured by impact or injured by
?re or overloading and the same is also'used for
increasing the load carrying capacity of existing
piling should it be necessary‘to increase the load
carryingcapacity thereof. Concrete encasements
consumed by rust -or other destructive
agencies.
u
4..
casements about piling before the samelis inserted a
in place. In carryingout this method a suitable
wire mesh is fastened around the piling and a con
crete shell of the required thickness formediover
the wire mesh by means of a pneumatic, cement or
vmortar'gun. While a more perfect encasement
are also employed for the protection of steel piling
to prevent deterioration by rust of sections that
maybe produced by this method, the ‘Waste of ‘the
are exposed to alternate dry and wet conditions 25 mixture resulting from the use of the'vpneumatic
and to preserve piling placed in corrosive ground
gun, the inconvenience‘and cost‘involved in this
or contaminated ‘Water.
method are so great that the same is only em
Concrete encasemen'ts are frequently applied to
ployed for exceptional conditions and require
the exposed tops of wooden piling or to the upper
ments. The'use of the pneumatic gun in this
portion of piling located within‘ the ‘tidal range, so method necessitates a rich "mixture of sand "and
between extreme low and high water marks where
cement, thereby eliminating a more effective and
the‘destructive effects of bore-worms, crustacean
economical cement mixture‘with ‘coarse aggro
and fungus growth and deterioration by abrasive
gates. The use of‘ the pneumatic gun also ‘re
action are most prevalent. For the reason, how
quires that the piling be disposed in a horizontal
ever, that many species of marine borers enter the
position for the application ofthe concrete; en
piling at or slightly below the 'mudline, it is'the
casement thereto which necessitates extensive
more usual practice to extend the concrete casing
space for the work and for storage and curing of
a few .feet below ground level especially if large
the encasedpiling. Furthermore piles so encased
and important structures requiring permanent
are heavy and cumbersome and ‘necessitate ‘the
safe protection are‘to be provided. .
40 use ‘of heavy equipment for handling and trans
. It has been the practice to form concrete en
casements about wooden piling either before or
after'the piling is driven-in place. The former
method has beenemployed so as to prevent pre
mature contact of .fresh concrete with sea or
brackish water and because it has been found
practically impossibleto'form'a comparatively thin
porting the same. The ‘handling and driving of
such encased piling into place frequently result in
damaging the encasement although-the same has
been ‘allowed to become cured and hardened which
' is not always possible where cramped working
space and ‘limited time prevent proper aging
and below the low water line withoutexposing the
thereof. This method also entails the en'casing
'of a ‘longer portion of the piling than is usually
necessary since the correct length of penetration
fresh concrete mixture to in?ltration or admix
of the piling cannot always be predetermined.
ture with sea water which weakens the concrete
and greatly reduces its protective quality. Afur
Inorder to overcome the aforesaid disadvan
tages in and objections to the use of the afore
ther obstacle‘to the formation of concrete encase
ment about driven piling is that the reinforce
ment in the form of wire mesh- or the like located,
an improved method of encasing with concrete
wooden piling .or the like at anytime after ‘the
shell of concrete around driven piling under water
said methods, the present'invention comprehends.
2,412,185
3
same has been driven in place to the required
depth. This method embodies the enclosing of
the portion of the piling about which the encase
4
mating members together in annular formation.
A valve l5 of any commercial construction is se
cured in an opening in the member ID for eject
ing by air pressure the water which accumulates
ment is to be formed with an air-tight and water
tight sectional casing which is spaced from the Cl in the casing during the assembly thereof. The
said valve is adapted to permit of the passage of
piling to provide an annular cavity for receiving
the concrete mixture for producing the encase
ment of the desired thickness.
The method contemplates the assembly of the
sections of the casing about the pilingabove the
water from the casing and the same is of a type
which automatically closes when the air pressure
is released to prevent the re-entry of water into
the casing through the valve. The member I0 is
waterline and the step by step lowering thereof
also formed with an opening in which'is thread
into position as each section is assembled and
connected to its adjacent upper section respec
tively. The method also includes the steps of
subjecting the casing to air pressure to expel the
water accumulating therein and thereafter forc
Y edly engaged the lower end of a pipeline l6 ex
ing the concrete mixture in plastic condition into;
the casing at the bottom thereof with su?icient
' ?uid pressure to cause it to rise within and to»
the top of the casing to thereby compress and
compact the concrete into a dense mass ?lling
the entire cavity surrounding the piling and em
bedding therein the reinforcement secured to the
tending upwardly therefrom and connected with
a concrete injector or pump (not shown) for forc
ing the concrete mixture through said pipeline
intothe casing.
The bottom section A also includes an annular
plate ll consisting of abutting semi-circular
members which are secured against the underside
of the mating members It) and II by bolts l8
extending through the peripheral ?anges l3
thereof. The inner periphery of the plate I1 is
spaced from the pile when the, bottom section A
is disposed in surrounding relation therewith and
piling.
The invention further includes the retaining
, and protection of the concrete within the casing
until the concrete has su?iciently hardened so as
to safely permit the removal of the temporary
casing forms.
'
V
'
With'the foregoing and other objects in view
reference is. now made to the following speci?ca
tion and accompanying drawings in which is illus
trated the preferred forms of the casing for carry
ing out they method embodying the invention.
In the drawings:
.- ,
:
~
.
‘
Fig. 1 is‘a'verticalsectionalview of ‘a casing
employed’ in carrying out the method embodying
the invention.
‘
-
'
Fig. 2 is a top plan view thereof with parts
broken away and the pile shown in section. -
‘V
Fig. 3 is a horizontal sectional view on line. 3-3
of-Fig. l.
in order to form a water-tight jointbetween the
plate and the pile a plurality of arcuate ?aps l9
fashioned from canvas impregnated with rubber
are arranged within the section A with the outer
edges of the ?aps secured to the inner edge por
tion of the plate l'l- and with the inner edge por
tions of said ?aps bent upwardly and impinged
against the pile.
--
'
g
-
‘
g
The top or uppermost section B similarly con
sists of oppositely disposed matingmembers 20
and 2|‘ of semi-circular formationin cross-sec
tion which are formed with peripheral ?anges 22
and 23 at. the upper and lower ends thereof re
spectively and with longitudinally extending ra
dially projecting ?anges 24 at the opposite ver
40 tical edges of said members, the'said ?anges 24.
being formed with ‘openings therethrough adapt
‘ ed to receive bolts for securing said semi-cylin
f “Fig. 4 is a typical ‘horizontal sectional vview‘
through a portion of the intermediate sections
illustrating one of the clamping devices in po
sition ‘on thevertical ?anges.
drical members together in annular relation.
The said section also includes an annular plate
' 26 consisting of abutting semi-circular members
which are’secured upon the-upper surface thereof
~
Fig.5 is'a view inv elevation of said clamping
by bolts 21 extending through the peripheral
?anges 22 and superimposed upon said annular
plate‘ are abutting semi-annular members v28
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view
illustrating ‘a pre-cast concrete bottom section 60 secured thereto by said bolts 21. The said mem
employed in carrying out the method when the
bers 28 are rabbeted about their inner periphery
to provide an annular recess 30 with said. annular
piling is to be encased below the mud-line.
plate 26 in which is clamped the outer edge of
Fig. 7 is a horizontal sectional view on line L-l
an elastic annular collar 3| having its inner por
of view‘ 6.
'
‘The casing employed in carrying out the 55 tion curved upwardly and secured about the pile
device,
I
‘
>
method consists of a bottom section A, a top sec
tion B and a plurality of intermediate sections
C and D which are of tubular-formation and
so as to close the space between the‘ inner periph
adapted'to be disposed in surrounding spaced re
32 for discharging the impurities that may be
ery'of the annular plate and the pile; vThe semi
circular member 20.is provided with a cock valve
lation with a driven or standing pile E and se» (ill forced to the top of the concrete mixture in. the
cured together in end to end relation so as to
.cavity 9. The said member 20 is also provided
provide an annular cavity 9 between the pile and
with a pipe 33 secured in an opening therein and
the casing for receiving a concrete mixture which
‘connected to an air pressure pipe 34 in'which is -
is forced into the bottom thereof to thereby pro
interposed a valve 35 and connected therewith is
duce a concrete encasement surrounding the pile 65 a pressure gauge 36 and an exhaust valve 31, the
throughout the desired length thereof.
I
r
latter being manually actuated for controlling
The bottom section A consists of oppositely dis
the pressure within the casing.
'7
'
'“
posed mating members In and l l of semi-circular
The intermediate sections C are- of ‘inverted
formation in cross-section which are formed with
truncated formation each consisting of oppositely
peripheral ?anges l2 and I3 at the upper and 70 disposed mating members 38 and 39701 semi-elm
lower ends respectively and with longitudinally
cular formation in cross-section which ‘are fash
ioned from sheet steel and have flanged angle
bars 40 and 4| secured thereto at the‘ upper-and
l4 being formed - with openings therethrough
lower ends thereof and longitudinally extending
adapted to receive bolts for securlngthe said 75 angle bars 42 secured thereto along the opposite
extending radially projecting ?anges 14' at the
opposite vertical edges thereof, the said flanges
2,412,185
5
6
vertical edges thereof. Any desired number of
intermediate sections-C may be employed in the
casing arranged with the horizontal ?anges of
the upper bars 40 secured by bolts 43 to the hori
tion .A is. secured in position upon the ‘uppermost
.intermediate section C .thus completing the cas
ing.
The ‘steel reinforcement, indicated :by the
reference character 58 such as wire mesh, .ex
zontal?anges of the lower bars 4! of the adjacent . C: panded metal, steel bars or the like is inserted
into the casing and secured ‘in position therein
upper section, the upper horizontal ?anges'of the
bars 410 of the uppermost section ~C being bolted‘
as'the sectionsare assembled.
The pipeline 16 is connected with the lower
to the horizontal ?anges 20 of the top section B.
The members 38 and 39 are releasably secured ' section A during the assembly :thereof and when
vthe casing is completely assembled and is in the
together in assembled annular formation by
(‘desired position longitudinal of thejpile ‘the pipe
means of clamping devices 44 which are spaced’
line I6 is connected with a concrete injector or
longitudinally along the angle bars 42 and which
pump (not shown) for forcing ‘the concrete into
consist of a lever 45 pivoted intermediate its
the casing. When the top section B is in posi
length to a bracket 46'having an enlarged outer
tion the piping 33 together with the valves 35
end formed with a cam face against which the
and 3;‘! and gauge 36 are connected thereto and
lever :is pivoted. The inner ends of the brackets
to the pipeline 3d leading to a-source of air pres
46 preformed with an annular projection or boss
41 adapted to engagein-openings 48 in the angle
sure (not shown).
-
As the sections of the casing are lowered into
curing the device in position so that the inner 20 position the same ‘become ?lled with water which
is discharged vafter ‘the casing is completed by
ends of the levers 45 may be cammed against
means of air pressure forced into the casing
the adjacent angle bars 42 of the opposite mem
through the pipeline 34 'so as to expel the water
her.
through the valve 15. The concrete mixture
The intermediate sections D also consist of op
is then forced into the bottom of the casing
positely disposed mating members 49 and 50 of.
through the pipeline it which is continued until
semi-circular formation in cross-section which
the cavity 9 surrounding the pile is ?lled'while
are fashioned from sheet steel and have angle
the exhaust valve 31 may be ‘manipulated ‘to
bars 52 and 53 secured thereto at the upper and
maintain pressure upon the top of the concrete
lower ends thereof and longitudinally extending
angle bars 54 secured thereto along the opposite I as the same rises in the casing to thereby 'com
press and compact the concrete about the piling.
vertical edges thereof. Any desired number of
Any» impurities that may ‘be ?oating on top ‘of
said intermediate sections may be employed in
the concrete in the casing ‘are discharged by
the casing in accordance with the length of the
manipulating the valve 32.
pile to be encased. The sections are arranged
The sections A, B, C and D of the ‘casingzare
with the horizontal ?anges of the upper bars 52 u
secured together so as to render the casing liquid
secured to the horizontal ?anges of the lower
bars 42 of one of saidmembers 38 and 39 for se
angle bars 53 of the adjacent lower section by
bolts 55. The horizontal ?anges of the upper
angle bars 52 of the uppermost section D is so
cured by the bolts 55 to the horizontal ?anges of
the lower angle bars 4| of the lowermost inter
mediate section C. The members 49 and 50 are
similarly releasably coupled together in assem
bled annular formation by means of the clamping
devices 44 engaging at longitudinally spaced in
tervals over the adjacent vertical angle bars 54
as described in connection with the intermediate
sections C. Chains 56 are connected to the outer
ends of adjacent levers 45 whereby the levers
may be swung on their pivotal connections with I
and air-tight and for this purpose gaskets :80
are interposed between the mating horizontal
and vertical ?anges thereof. This construction
prevents the entrance of water into the casing
which would dilute and ‘weaken the concrete
and also renders it possible to maintain ‘the de
sired pressure within the casing during the forc
ing of the concrete mixture therein. The valve
35 ‘is closed during the ?lling of the casing with
the concrete material while the cock valve 32
and the exhaust valve 31 are regulated by hand
to vdischarge impure or watery material ?oating
on top of the concrete mixture or to maintain any
desired pressure upon the top thereof. The con
the brackets 46 by an upward pull on the chains
crete mixture being subjected to pressurefrom
so as to release the clamping devices 44 from en
below forcing the same upward within the casing
to the top thereof compresses and compacts the
gagement with the vertical angle bars of the in
termediate sections C and D to thereby discon
nect the oppositely disposed members 38 and 39
of the intermediate sections C and the oppositely
disposed members 49 and 50 of the intermediate
sections D.
In practicing the method the pile which isdis
posed in standing position is ?rst cleaned if nec
‘essary. The members I0 and H of the bottom
concrete therein and causes the same to extend
into and ?ll all crevices‘in the piling. The en
casement thus formed about the piling is ex
tremely dense and hard'and is tightly bonded to
the piling. When the concrete is su?iciently
hardened the casing sections are removed for
further use.
When it is necessary to provide a concrete
section A are assembled in surrounding relation
with the pile which members are supported by
means of ropes or chains above the level of the
water While the same are being secured together.
The members 49 and 50 of an intermediate sec
tion D are then secured in assembled relation
encasement extending about the ‘piling into ‘solid
ground below the mud level, a concrete pre
molded section F illustrated in Figs. 6 and '7 of
the drawings is provided which takes the place
of the bottom section A of the casing previously
described. The pare-molded section F is formed
about the pile and fastened to the bottom section
of oppositely disposed mating members BI and
A which is then lowered and additional interme
52 of semi-circular formation in cross-section.
The said mating members are formed with lon
diate sections D and. C are assembled in sure ~
rounding relation with the pile and secured in
end to end relation with adjacent sections.
When the required number of said intermediate
sections are arranged in position depending upon
the length of the pile to be encased the top sec- '
gitudinally extending rabbeted vertical edges 53
at the opposite sides thereof which provide verti
cally extending recesses at the juncture of the
members when arranged in mating relation which
recesses are ?lled by quick hardening cement and
72,412,185
7
8
.
"upward pull on the clamping devices when the
in which are embedded‘ the projecting ends of, the
--reinforcement 64 for securing the .said members ,
concrete hardens and removing the'ca'sing sec
together in assembled relation about the piling.‘
'The section F is similarly provided with a valve [5
for ejecting water from the casing and secured
5 '3. A method for producing concrete encase
ments about piling driven into water-covered
to the lower reduced end thereof are arcuate
?aps l9 having their upper ends disposed in sur
ground and projecting upwardly through the
waterjconsisting in' assembling the sections of
a water-tight casing about the piling in spaced
tions.
'
»
rounding relation with the piling for closing the
relation thereto to completely enclose a longi
bottom of the casing.
The section F is secured to the adjacent upper 10 tudinal portion thereof above and below the
water-line, lowering said sections into position
section D by bolts 65 extending through the
as the same are assembled and fastened to the
horizontal ?ange of the angle bars 53 thereof '
I and through angle bar 61 secured in surrounding
relation with the upper end of said section F.
adjacent section, forcing air into said casing to
A pipeline similar to the pipeline l6 extends into
the "casing through the section F thereof and
through which the concrete mixture is forced into
mixture into said casingr at the bottom thereof
and upwardly therein to ?ll the space between
the piling and the, casing, and'removing the cas
the casing.
ing when the concrete hardens. '
'
When the pre-formed‘ section F is employed,
the same becomes an integral part of the con
crete encasement and remains in position in sur
rounding relation with the portion of the piling
located below the mud-line.
The concrete mixture employed in the forma
tion of the encasement is composed of any de
sired proportions of cement, sand and agglomer
ate which are mixed into a plastic consistency so
"as to‘ provide a dense and hard concrete when
solidi?ed.
r
I
What is claimed is:
1. A method for producing concrete encase
eject 'water therefrom, forcing plastic concrete
‘ '
‘
‘4. A method for producing concrete encase
‘ments about piling driven into Water-covered
ground and projecting upwardly through the
water consisting in enclosing a longitudinal por
tion of the piling below the mud-line with a sec‘
tional concrete casing portion disposed in spaced
25' relation with the piling, enclosing an upper lon
gitudinal portion of the piling with a metallic
casing portion disposed in surrounding spaced
relation with the piling, fastening said concrete
and metallic casing portions together, forcing
plastic concrete mixture into said casing at the
bottom thereof and upwardly therein to ?ll the
space between the piling and the casing, main
taining pressure upon the top of the concrete
ments about driven piling subjected to the ac
tion of sea-water and the like consisting in com
pletely enclosing a longitudinal portion of the
mixture as the same rises within the casing and
removing the metallic portion of the casing when
piling with a liquid tight metallic casing com
pressed at its ends against the piling and dis
the concrete hardens.
t
5. A method for producing concrete encase
posed between its ends in surrounding spaced
ments about driven piling subjected to the ac
‘relation to the piling, forcing plastic concrete
tion of seaéwater and the like consisting in com
mixture into said casing at the bottom thereof
‘and upwardly therein to ?ll the space between 40 pletely enclosing a longitudinal portion of the
piling with a liquid tight metallic casing dis
the piling and the casing, maintaining pressure
posed in surrounding spaced relation to the pil
upon the top of the concrete mixture as the same
ing, forcing plastic concrete mixture into said
rises within the casing and removing the metallic
casing at the bottom thereof and upwardly
casing when the concrete hardens.
,
therein to ?ll the space between the piling and
2. A method for producing concrete encase
the casing, and'removing the metallic casing
ments about piling driven into water-covered
' ground and projecting upwardly through the
when the concrete hardens.
water consisting in assembling semi-circular
6. A method for producing concrete encase
sections of a water-tight casing about the pil
ments about piling driven into water-covered
ground and projecting upwardly through the
ing in spaced relation thereto and above the
water consisting in assembling a sectional me
water-line, securing said semi-circular sections
together by clamping devices releasable by up
tallic casing about the piling in spaced relation
ward movement, coupling said clamping devices
thereto‘ above the water-line, securing said sec
together for simultaneously releasing the same;
tions'tog‘ether by releasable clamps, lowering
lowering said sections into position as the same
said sections into position as the same are as
are assembled and fastened to the adjacent sec
sembled and fastened to adjacent sections, forc
ing air into said casing to eject water there
tion, forcing air into said casing to eject water
therefrom, forcing plastic concrete mixture into
from, forcing plastic concrete mixture into said
‘said casing at the bottom thereof and upwardly
casing ' at the bottom thereof and upwardly
therein to ?ll the space between the piling and 60 therein to ?ll the space between the piling and
the casing, maintaining pressure upon the top
the casing, and releasing the clamps and re
moving the casing when the concrete hardens.
er the concrete mixture as the same rises within
‘the casing, releasing the semi-circular casing by
CARL WEBER.
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