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Dec. 10, 1946. r
l`D. H.l KALLAs lETAI.
2,412,221
WEAR TEST MACHINE
7
DANos H KALLAS
Amar-'<1' w_c,|zEK.uR.
HOWARD NEST L EN
2,412,221
Patented Dec. 10, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,412,221
WEAR TEST MACHINE
`Danos H..'Kallas, Brooklyn, Albert W. Cizek,~Jr.,
East Elmhurst„and Howard Nestlen, Wood
haven, N. Y
Application August 12, 1944, Serial No. 549,252
9 Claims. (Cl. 73-7)
(Granted under the act of March 3, 188s, as
amended Apri; 3o, 192s; 37o o. G. 757)
2
This invention relates totesting >machines and
more particularly to machines for testing the
wearing qualities of sheet material such as deck
a wear inducing member I 4,V the shoe and wear
inducing member beingmounted on the base in
such a manner as intermittently to be brought
together and rotated in directions yto impart
« .
Itis highly desirable to test the wearing quali Cl Wearing action to the Wear test sample which
will simulate the action of Walking, that is the
ties of the material under conditions which are
recurring impact and scouring action incident to
as nearly like normal as possible. While testing
the act of placing the foot on the ground and
machines have been designed for simulating the
subsequently picking it up.
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conditions to whichthe material being tested is
The base I0 has a horizontal supporting sur
normally subjected, the present invention has for
coverings, canvas, etc.
face I6 in which there is formed a central open
ing I8 adapted to receive a conical shape recep
its object the provision of an improved wear test
machine which is simple in design, easy to use
and especially suitable for testing the wearing
tacle 20, the receptacle being supported in _the
quality of deck coverings.
opening I8 by a horizontal ilat bar 2I which is
The invention as shown herein is designed es
pecially to stimulate the wear imparted to the
deck covering by the action of persons Walking
on a deck covering. To this end and in accord
ance with the invention novelty resides in a com
bination of elements in Which a wear test shoe
adapted to support a test sample and a wear
passed diametrically through the walls of the
receptacle, rectangular slots 22 being formed in
the Walls for this purpose. The opposite ends of
the bar 2I are fastened to the top surface of the
base I0, and hence, rigidly ñx the receptacle 2Ilin
place. The bottom of the receptacle is provided
with an opening Il below whichis placed 4a pan
I9 >for a purpose which will appear hereinafter.
inducing member are adapted to be brought to
In order to support the wear test shoe I2 and
gether -in surface to surface contact and means
the Wear inducing member I4 in cooperating rela
is provided for rotating the shoe and wear in.
ducing member in the plane of their contacting 25 tion t0 eachother, there is provided a frame 23
which consists of a horizontal bar 24 fastened to
surface and relative to each other. In order to
the top side of the bar 2| and vertical walls 26
include in the wear action not only the scouring
fastened to the opposite ends of the bar 24, by
action produced by the sliding movement and
screws 3‘û. The Walls 26 are joined by a hori
turning movement of the foot as in walking, but
also the effect of the impact of the foot as it is 30 zontal Web 28 which extends transversely between
the Walls at a point spaced from the bar 24, screws
picked up and put down and the abrasive action
3| being employed for securing the ends of the
of grit, sand etc., ground between kthe shoe and
Web to the Walls. The web is apertured in the
wear inducing surface there is also means for in
number of places, as will appear hereinafter for
termittently moving the shoe away from> the
the reception of bearings'V and shafts for driving
surface of the wear inducing member and then
bring it into engagement with the surface with an
the machine.
The shoe I2 is fastened to the lower end of a
impact and >means for spreading abrasive .par
spindle> 32 which is disposed in a vertical posi
ticles on the surface of the wear inducing mem~
tion for rotation about'its vertical axis, the spin
ber 'so that they are brought beneath the wear
40 dle being journalled in a bearingv 34 set into the
test sample.
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web 28 and a bearing 36 set into a bracket 38, the
The details ofthe invention Will“v now be de
latter being fastened byv screws 40 to the upper
scribed With reference to 4the' accompanying
end of one of the Walls 26. A block 42 is pro
drawing, in which:
vided for bracing the bracket 38, the block being
Fig. 1 is a vertical section of the preferred
45 secured in the corner between the wall and
form of the machine;
bracket by screws 39. The connection between
Fig. 2 is an enlarged view showing the shape
the shoe I2 and the spindle 432 is such that it has
ofthe lifting cam;
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Fig. 3 is a fragmentary View showing th
substantially universal movement at the end of
the spindle. To this end a coupling 43 is fas
weights supported at the upper end' of the spindle
50 tened by a pin 44 between the walls' of a bifur-'
32; and
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cated boss 45 fastenedto the shoe I2 and by a
Fig. 4 is an enlarged vertical section along the
pin 46 which runs at right angles tothe pin 44
line 4_4 in Fig. 1.
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to the lower bifurcated end of the spindle 32.
Referring to Fig. 1 the invention is illustrated
in general as comprising aV base I0, a shoe I2
It is evident, therefore, that the shoe I2 is free
adapted to support a wear test sample S and 55 to tilt about the axes ofthe pins.“ andv 46 in sub
4
3
herein, this means comprises a tube |32 disposed
beneath the disc and extending radially inward
to the bearing 16. The inner end of the tube |32
extends through the wall of bearing 16 and the
stantially any direction. In order to rotate the
shoe I2 in the plane of its surface, a sprocket 41
is splined on the spindle 32 and is connected to
a driven sprocket 48 by way of a chain 50. The
means for driving sprocket 418 will appear here
inafter. The shoe I2 is moved to and from the
surface of the wear inducing member |4 to simu
outer end of the tube is bent upwardly near the
peripheral edge of the disc so that its free end ex
tends above the rim of the receptacle 20. It is
late the impact of the foot by mechanism de-v ’ "
signed to lift the spindle away from the surface
of the wear'inducing member and then to allow
it to drop by gravity. To this -end a plate 52 (Fig.
evident, therefore, that the bearing may readily
be lubricated by dropping oil in the open end of
the tube |32.
To provide for wearing action which is similar
to that vwhich may be met in ordinary conditions,
3) having a downwardly extending sleeve 54 fas
it is necessary >to introduce abrasive particles be
tened to its underside is placed over the upper end
tween the wear test sample S and the surface of
of the spindle 32 and is adapted to support a plu
rality of weights W. In order 'to hold the weights 15 the disc I4 against which it is being rubbed. To
in place on the plate 52, vertically disposed rods». , this end abrasive particles a preferably No. 80
56 are fastened at one end to the plate 52 and
are joined at their upper ends by a plate 58. The
. aluminum oxide particles are distributed on the
ment of the collar 62 on the spindle 32. The shoe
I2 consists of a flat plate 68 against the under
surface of which is fastened a test sample S. A
steel block 69 having its ends cut away at 1| is
provided to support the test sample which may be
cemented thereto. A pair of bands 10 are em
ployed for clamping the block 69 to the plate
68, the bands being slipped over the ends of the
plate and reduced portion of the block and held
the cover to facilitate rotation of the head 88 with
respect; to the sleeve |06 without binding.' The
upper surface of the disc by a distributing head
88 which is journalled for rotation about a ver
number of weights employed at any given time
will depend upon the force of the impact desired 20 tical axis above the disc in a bearing 90 set into
the web 28, The head 88 is a hollow cylindrical
and of course will vary the wear for a given num
ber -of rotations of the spindle. The impact im
shaped member, the lower end of which extends
through the web 28 to a point adjacent tothe
parted to the, wear inducing member is provided
surface of the disc so that >the abrasive particles
for vby cam means ,adapted tov lift the spindle
32 away from the surfaceY of the wear inducing 25 may be deposited on the surface of the disc with
out undue turbulence that is in a manner to pro
member and then allowing the spindle to drop
duce as great uniformity as possible. The head
under the force of the weights. 'I‘othis end a
88 is rotated by a sprocket 92 .fastened to the
pair of cams 60 (Fig. 2) are mounted on the up
lower end thereof and connected to a sprocket 96
per surface of the bracket 38 at points substan
fastened to the spindle 1‘8 by way of a chain 94;
tially 180° apart with reference. to the spindle
32'. It is to be observed by reference to Fig. 2 that
The inside of the headv 88, is divided into upper
and lower chambers by a transverse horizontally
the cams have sloping upper surfaces 6| which
positioned wall 98 through which there is >formed
slope upwardly in the direction of rotation of
a plurality of openings ‘|00 arranged peripheral'-`
the spindle 32. Cooperating with the cams 60
are a pair of diametrically disposed cam follow 35 ly thereof. The upper chamber |02 is adapted
ers 66 which `are journalled in arms 64 extending
to receive an agitator |04. The agitator |04 con
sists of aplurality of radially extending blades
downwardly from the underside of a collar 62,
the collar 62 being fastened to the spindle 32.
fastened on edge to the lower end of a sleeve |06,
.the sleeve> |06 being fixed in an aperture |08
During each rotation of the spindle it is raised
twiceby the passage of the cam followers 66 over 40 formed in a horizontal bar I|0, the bar in turn
being fastened at opposite ends to the upper edge
the'sloping surface of the cams 60 and allowed
to fall, thereby causing the shoe to strike the sur
of the wall 26 and a wall ||2. The wall ||2 is
ñxed in a vertical position to the web 28. A cover
faceV ofthe wear inducing member while it is ro
member ||4 having an aperture I I6 therein
tatingr about the axis of the spindle. The shoe
drops aboutit.r of an inch and, dropping contact
for the passage of the sleeve |06 is fastened to
between the sample and the surface |4 may be
the open end of the head 88 thereby to close the
chamber |02 and a ball bearing ||8 is set into
maintained as the test sample wears by adjust
thereon by screws 12.
" '
head 88 is supplied with abrasive particles from
a hopper |22,'the lower endof which is threaded
and adapted to be set into the lupper end of the
sleeve |06 which is in turn threaded in acorre
sponding manner. It is evident that as the abra
sive particles flow from the hopper into the cham
ber |02 Vthe agitator ’pushes the abrasive "par
ticles radially outward toward the 'openings |00
thereby insuring aconstant supply of particles
^ The wear inducing member I4 which is inthe`
tothe disc. '
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111'
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I
form of a steel disc and will be referred to here
inafter as a disc issupported in a horizontal po 60 i In order to record the rotations ofthe disc,- a
counter |24 is fastened tothe bar ||0 insuch
sition- by means of boss 14 formed on its under
a. position that its shaft |26 is substantially inline
surface which is seated in a bearing 16, the lat
with the axis of thespindle 18. _The.shaft |26
ter'being set into the bar 24. In order to hold
is connected for rotation tothe spindle 18 by a
the disc I4 steady,a spindle 18 is fastened to its
upper side, thespindle being journalled in a bear 65 radially extending finger |28 fixed to the lower
end of the shaftV |26 for cooperationwith a radi
ing 80 set into the web 28.l The spindle extends
ally disposed finger v|30 set into the upperend of
upwardly through the web 28 and has fastened
near its upper end a pulley 82 which is connected
In order to take up the slack in the chain,50
by a belt or other driving means to Va source of
power for rotating the spindle 18 vand hence` the 70 which connects the sprockets 46 and 48 (Fig. 4),
there is provided a takeup member r| 34 Which‘co'n
The'bearing for the disc I4, that is the boss 14
sists of a cylindrical roller mounted on a vertical
and bearing 16 are quite inaccessible due to the
stud I 36, the ends of which are 'journalled ina
yoke |38. The yoke |38 rests 'ony the upperïs'urface
construction of the machine and hence means isV
provided for lubricating this bearing. As shown 75 of the web 28 and may be moved" toward or away
the spindle
disc.
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18.
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@741252211
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from` one/run of theY chain »50? by aqscrew MII
6
in'said` zone, meansfor‘i'mparting intermittent
threaded through -a plate H2 ina position -to-bear
impact» betweenv said shoe f_ and ‘ wear >inducing
against the rear surface ofA the-yoke.- Thev plate
I42 is fastenedr to the rear edge‘of the web 28 by
member duringr-elative rotation comprising load-v
means of bolts |44 extending through -ears formed
at opposite sides -of the plate.
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Inoperation a sample ofthe mater-iai to be
testedvis ¿prepared and fastened to the under sur- 4
face of" the «shoe I2 by means ofthe bands 20.
Abrasive particles of the desired characteristics
are placed in the hopper |22, a'sufiicient number
of‘weig'hts'are placed on the plate 52 to give the
desiredfimpact and the machine `is set» in opera
tion. It is> evident from the description of the
machine asset forth above that the spindle 32 is 15
in'g~»means forï urging said shoe toward the-.sur
face` of' the wear inducing member,:mean'sf'f‘or
varying the load’of saidloading means,- and cam
means for intermittently moving sai'dshoe away
from the `surface of thewear inducing member
andthen releasing it.
,
.
3.- A wear test machine comprising’ vashoe
adapted to support a test sample, a wear inducing
member vcooperable with the shoe, means for. ro
tating said `'shoe vand vwea'rfinducing memberì vrela
tive to'each other in the plane of the'irï contacting
surfaces and 'means' for imparting intermittent
impact »between saidl shoe and» wear inducing
member comprising «a spindle to one'- end iofîwhich
rotated 'inthesame Ydirection as spindle 18 and
hence theshoe carrying the test sample is rotated
l the shoe` israttached, said spindle'lbeing mounted
in the plane of its surface about the aXis 0f the
for rotation about its longitudinal axis and for
spindle 32 and the surface of the disc is rotated
relative thereto in the same direction with the 20 reciprocation to and from the wear inducing
member, a support on the other end of the spin
spindle l8. This imparts both sliding and twist
dle adapted to receive a weight for urging the
ing action between the surfaces. During the ro
spindle and consequently the shoe toward the sur
tation of the shoe I2 and relative rotation be
face of the wear inducing member, a cam follower
tween the shoe I2 and disc I4 the shoe is
given a reciprocating motion by the cams B0 and 25 on said spindle and a cam cooperable with the
cam follower to cause the spindle intermittently
the followers 66 so that the shoe is lifted away
to be moved away from the wear inducing member
from the surface of the disc and then allowed to
and then released.
drop against that surface to simulate the impact
4. A wear test machine comprising a' shoe
of the foot on the surface. During the movement
of the shoe and the disc the abrasive particles are 30 adapted to support a test sample, a wear inducing
distributed on the surface of the disc and as the
disc rotates they are carried beneath -the surface
member cooperable with the shoe, means for ro
tating said shoe and wear inducing member rela- '
tive to each other in the plane of their contacting
of the wear test sample. The abrasive is con
surface and means for imparting intermittent im
stantly pushed over the edge of the disc as the disc
rotates and falls with bits of the test material into 35 pact between said shoe and wear inducing mem
ber during relative rotation comprising a, spindle
the receptacle 20 and thence into the pan I9 from
to one end of which the shoe is attached for uni
which it may be recovered for reuse after sifting.
versal movement with respect thereto, said spindle
It is obvious, however, that the machine can be
being mounted for rotation about its longitudinal
used without employing abrasive particles on the
surface of the disc and this may be desirable in 40 axis and for reciprocation to and from the wear
inducing mem-ber, a support at the other end of
cases where wear between the surfaces of the test
the spindle adapted to receive a variable number
sample and wear surface would normally take
of weights for urging the spindle and consequently
place under conditions in which there would be
the shoe toward the surface of the wear inducing
no abrasive particles present. It is also apparent
member, cam followers mounted on the spindle
that the machine is not limited in its use to the
and cams cooperable with the cam followers to
testing of deck coverings but that it is equally use
cause the spindle to be intermittently moved away
ful in testing the wearing qualities of other floor
from the wear inducing member and then re
coverings such as linoleum or for testing the wear
leased.
ing' qualities of sole leather.
5. A wear test machine comprising a shoe
The invention described herein mayl be manu- .'
adapted to support a test sample, a wear inducing
factured and used by and for the Government of
member, means for intermittently imparting im
the United States of America for governmental
pact between said shoe and said wear inducing
purposes without the payment of any royalties
member, means for rotating said shoe and wear
thereon or therefor.
inducing member in the plane of their contact
What is claimed is:
with each other and relative to each other and
l. A wear test machine comprising a rotary
means for uniformly distributing an abrasive on
wear inducing member, a shoe adapted to sup
the surface of said wear inducing member.
port a test sample eccentrically of said wear in
6. A wear test machine comp-rising a shoe
ducing member in an annular zone thereof, means
for rotating said shoe and wear inducing mem 60 adapted to support a test sample, a wear inducing
member, means for intermittently imparting im
ber relative to each other in their plane of con
pact between said shoe and said wear inducing
tact in said zone, and means for imparting inter
member, means for rotating said shoe and wear
mittent impact between said shoe and wear in
ducing member during relative rotation compris
ing means for urging said shoe toward the sur
face of the wear inducing member and cam means
for intermittently moving said shoe away from
the surface of the wear inducing member and
then releasing it.
inducing member in the plane of their contact, a
hopper for abrasive particles, a distributor asso
ciated with said hopper adjacent to the surface of
the wear inducing member and means for rotating
the distributor to cause uniform distribution of
the abrasive on the surface of the wear inducing
y
2. A wear test machine comprising a rotary 70 member.
7. A Wear test machine comprising a ' shoe
wear inducing member, a shoe adapted to sup
adapted to support a test sample, a wear inducing
port a test sample eccentrically of said wear in
member, means for intermittently imparting im
ducing member in an annular zone thereof, means
pact between said shoe and said wear inducing
for rotating said shoe and wear inducing member
relative to each other in the plane of their contact 75 member, means for rotating said shoe and wearv
2,412,221 '
8
inducing member in the plane of their contact
with each other and relative to each other, a hop
per for abrasive particles, a distributor head asso
ciated with the hopper, said distributor head being
adapted to receive a flow of abrasive particles from
the hopper by gravity, and having a -delivery open
ing adjacent to the surface of the wearinducing
member and means for rotating theA distributor
for uniformly vdistributing an abrasive on thesurface of the wear inducing member and means
for> recovering the used abrasive.`
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9. A wear test machine comprising a rot
disc, a rotary shoe adapted to support a, test
sample eccentrically of said disc, means for in-_
termittently imparting impact between said shoe
and said disc, means for rotating the shoe and disc
in the plane of their contact relative to each other
head relative to the hopper and in the same di
rection of rotation as that of the Wear inducing 10 whereby to eilect engagement therebetween in an
annular zone of said disc, means for constantly
member.
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depositing a uniform distribution of abrasive upon
8. A wear test machine comprising a shoe
the surface of sai-d disc directly in saidvannular
adapted to support a test sample, a wear inducing
zone.
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member, means for intermittently imparting im
DANOS H. KALLAS.
pact between said shoe and said wear inducing 15
ALBERT W, CIZEK, JR.
member, means for rotatingV said shoe and wear
inducing member in the plane of their contact
with each other and relative to each other, means
HOWARD NES'I'LEN.
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