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Dec. 10, 1946.
Eiled March 15, 1945
2 Sheets~Sheet l
CZZI'Z 7171231962‘
Dec; 10, 1946.
Filed March 15, 1945
_2 Sheets-Sheet 2
GarZ Weber
Patented Dec. 1%, 1946
vCarl Weber, New York, N. Y.
Application March 15, 1945, Serial No. 582,913
10 Claims. (01. 61-57)
This invention comprehends a method of pro
ducing piling employed for various purposes
such as for the support of buildings, bridges,
piers and the like, the invention being particu
larly directed to what may be termed built-in
place piles of concrete or any equivalent com
. The invention primarily aims to facilitate the
production of piles of this character of improved
quality, at lower cost than heretofore and to
provide the same with reinforced steel bars, rails
or structural shapes of any.form in order to re
sist- bending and. tensional stresses wherever
necessary, the method employed offering nu
a completed built-in-place pile located in the
ground well.
Fig. 4 is an enlarged sectional plan view taken
approximately on the line 4-4 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view taken
on the line 5-5 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is a collective perspective view of one
of the mating clamping sections for the gasket
and the angulated lug in juxtaposition thereto.
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary sectional view show
ing the three-way valve mounted on the pres
sure head.
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary sectional view of a
modi?cation of the form .of‘ cutting shoe which
merous other technical and commercial advan 15 may be employed with the method.
The method of producing the built-in-place
tages, namely, that thegpiles may'be built with
piling is carried out in the following manner
out the use of cumbersome pile driving equip
and consists in initially forming in the ground
ment with the result that the jarring, shaking
such as the bed of a river or any other place a
and other ground disturbing in?uences caused
by the customary pile ramming operations as 20 well ‘A which eventually functions as a form
within which concrete or an equivalent plastic
composition is moulded to provide thebuilt-in
place pile. In practice, it is essential to employ
suitable means for restraining or holding back
under many conditions where the installation 25 the wall of the well while the concrete is being
emplaced in addition to providing means for
of other types of piling is impossible, while per
conveying the concrete to the bottom of the well
mitting their production at any desired degree
and depositing the same progressively upward
of inclination from the vertical to the horizontal
from the bottom to the top of the same until the
position and practically without limit as to form,
size or depth of the piling below ground vor to
well is completely ?lled. Such means is herein
illustrated as a tubular reception pipe B which
their extension above ground or water levels.
is/ of the required diameter and preferably, as
The present method accomplishes the fore
going and other results by the injection of con
shown, made up of comparatively short sections
crete, under compressed air or other gaseous
or lengths I!) joined together by coupling sleeves
?uid pressure, into protected pile wells which 35 I l which are added to the upper end as the sink
are produced as needed and maintained in the
ing of the Well A progresses.
ground under constant gaseous ?uid pressure
In view of the fact that the reception pipe B
until the concrete is emplaced therein so that
is only temporarily emplaced in the well A and
well as the noise incident thereto, are entirely
eliminated. The methodyfurther admits of the
production of piles in very restricted working
places, such as inside of existing buildings and
deformation of the pile receiving and forming‘
is subsequently withdrawn therefrom for reuse,
well is rendered impossible by settling, shifting
that " in order to minimize the surface friction
or collapse of the ground surrounding or in the
immediate region of the well.
‘With the above recited and other objectives
in view, the invention is set forth in greater
both during the sinking of the well and the ulti
mate withdrawal of the pipe B, the same is pref
erably somewhat smaller in diameter than the
cross-sectional size of the well A. In addition
detail in the following speci?cation, particularly 45 to its other functions, the pipe B may also be
pointed out in the appended claims and illus
employed as means for facilitating the ex
trated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
cavation and removal of the excavated material
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view through a
by any of the well known methods, such as by
pile forming well immediately after the recep
hydraulic jetting or other well digging equip
tion pipe and reinforcing means have been em 50 ment, not shown.
A cutting shoe C is secured to'the lower end
Fig.‘2 is a similar view illustrating the method
of the lower section ID of the reception pipe B,
of emplacing the concrete and forming the pile
said shoe having‘ the inner periphery correspond
as the pipe assemblage is being raised.
ing in size and shape to the inner periphery of
. Fig. 3 is a view on a reduced scale illustrating 55 said pipe while the 'outer periphery may be of
the base [5 and communicates with the interior
any desired shape and an appreciably greater
size than the outer periphery of the reception
pipe. The lower end portion of the shoe has a
downwardly and outwardly ?aring inner periph
ery l2 terminating in a sharp lower cutting edge
13 to facilitate the forcing of the shoe and recep
of the reception pipe B to indicate to the oper
ator the pressure therein,
In carrying the method forward, after the pres
sure head assembly E has been attached and the
conduit pipe F has been emplaced, any ground
Water within the well may be forced from the
well A by opening the outlet valve 35 in the out
tion pipe downwardly during the sinking of the
well A. The upper portion of the shoe is formed
let pipe 33 and then turning the three-way valve
with an upwardly tapered outer periphery M to
facilitate the subsequent upward movement of 10 38 .so that ‘the working pressure is admitted to
the reception pipe B thereby’ causing the water
the same during the withdrawal of the pipe from
to be forced upwardly through the conduit pipe
~E'and thence through the outlet pipe 33. When
and the :ground water has been completely dis-'
the well an'd'said tapered portion [4 also functions ~
to restore said well to its original pro?le or cross
section wherever the same may have temporarily
assumed a distorted form due to caving of the.‘ ,s , charged from the well, the outlet valve 35 is closed
and'the pressure will then function to prevent
earthen walis or deformation due to groundpres
' giany water from seeping into the Well.
The entire pipe assemblage and pressure head
After the well A has been sunk to the desired’
Eis then‘ raised so that the shoe C is above the ’
depth with the reception ,pipe Bin place, ‘as shown
in Fig. 1,,reinforcing means D are emplaced in 20 bottom of the well, the valve 34 opened to admit
concrete -to :the- conduit pipe F through which it ~
the well ‘within the "confines ‘of the reception
is injected intotheqbottom 'ofitheldriedlwell'lunfder
pipe to later serve as means for resistin’g‘bending
pressure and v"rises ---witliin Vthe frec'eption :p'ipe
or 'tension'al ‘stresses, "it being "understood that
B. When ‘the concrete reaches >a'suf?cien't' height
in>~the¥said reception pipe so v‘that vit l-compléte'ly
seals'the bottom of the -wel1;lthe’working pressure
said reinforcing fineansare *so located as to pro
vide a ‘free passagewayextending-longitudinally
of and within the reception pipe.
‘A pressure ‘head ‘assembly “E'is then ‘secured
is increased above normal to force the concrete '
laterally ~or - radially ioutwardlyl tolform-fa "‘bl?b
like-footing ‘ orv enlargementllK fat the base pit-he
toi‘the uppermost "end ofthe reception pipe to
close and "sealth'e'same 'andesaidassembly v‘eon
s'ists'of a‘base'plate 1’5 which ‘isibolted to theout
wardly"pro‘je'ctingnrarginal ‘?ange Mini 9, col-‘
lar l1 threadedly engaged over the upper "end of
the uppermost'sectiondll “of thejreception pipe B
with ‘a ‘suitable sealing V gasket {8 "interposed be
pile ‘L. The-pressurefis now reduced to the ire
quired normal ‘injection ipressure i-an'drthe linjec- .
tionof ~the~concrete continues in stages; until/the
pile L is completed, the reception‘ pipe and con
duit pipe sectionsi?being- periodic-allyi»disconnectcdr
tween the?ange 'andplate. The v'basr'erplateiis
formed'with a central'opening t9, a‘control open;
ing‘?t ‘normally closed by a ‘closureplug‘ill and
35 and salvaged ‘as ‘the work progresses. TIt 'l-is-v ap-j
with'a pressure iinlet 'port'22. ‘A‘conduit pipe F
is inserted'through the 'central'opening ‘l 9 which‘
A; the frictional 'lresistance therebetween is mate;
‘ V duit :pipe ‘F, the lower "end crwmch is‘ ‘extended
Cfunctionslto'rest‘oreithe pile welliALto itsiorigin'al
downwardly "through the reception 'jpipe until ‘it
is “located within the sh‘oe'adjacentt'o the icut
ting edge’13; ‘Aft‘er‘the conduit *pipe F‘has'thus
p'orarily 'assumed ‘a distorted ‘forms as a result-‘of
been 'emplaced, a V gasket 21 ‘is ‘arrangedin cover
from any
parent-‘that due to the -smaller/cross-sectional size
of the pipe B With reference fto 'thatl'of the Well’
rially reduced so ‘that the working pressure ‘With-4
is .‘large enough “to "also ‘permit of "the passage 40 in the reception. pipe function's = to vaidijthe ili'fting
force “employed \for raising the/‘pipe assemblage;
therethrough ‘of couplingfsleeves ‘25 "which vcon
'As ~‘previously‘stat'edrthe form-Of-‘the cutting ‘shoe
necttogether the'sectionsf26 making up‘the con
ing ‘relation 'to' the central opening 'I9‘iand ‘in
surrounding frel'ationv to the adjacent protruding
portion Tof 'the conduit pipe ‘and said gasket is
clamped in place to ‘s'ea'ljth'e vpipe 'Within ‘the
centralj‘op'ening 'by ‘means 10f mating clamping
sections 28 which a'r'e'urged downwardly and‘int'o
surrounding'relation'with'the‘gasket‘21 ‘by screws
‘ Z’Q’threaded through-angulated‘lugs 30 anchored
to the upper surface ‘of'theibase ‘plate 15. ‘A'-T—‘
shaped ?tting 3! ‘is then secured to the upper endv
offthe" protruding "portion of the ‘uppermost ‘sec-i
tion‘26 "of the ‘c‘onduit‘p'ip‘e ‘F ‘and a concretein
jector pipe '32 is attached‘toone'branch of said
T‘-‘shaped"?tting, while "an outlet pipe "33 is at
tached‘t‘o "the ‘remaining ‘branch of said ?tting,
shut l'o‘ff ‘valves "34 and ‘.35 ‘being vlocated in the
cross-section v‘Wherever the'wéll may "have vitem‘
caving in of ~ ‘the jearthen j-walls ~or deformation
‘The vworking gpres'sure ‘impinged on *top of the
concrete within-jthe reception ‘pipe eB‘fo'rcessai'd
50 concrete into the ‘well below-the cutting s’hoe‘C ‘
sii'nultaneously with ‘the "raising of 'thefsame‘; the
concrete ‘?lling vthe ‘well completely under ‘the
full 'working pressure so that it is forced hard ~
against the earthen ".wall 'andtimpacted there-p
against. In soft or ‘pliable ground "strata, etc;
the injection i-pressure‘ may‘so' exceed "the ‘ground
resistance ‘that the ‘ cross-sectional size ‘of the .pile;
is ‘increased or'expan'ded. To someextentthis
proves of advantage ‘by forming ‘bulb-‘likefproe
tru’s‘ions M on the periphery of thegpile'L which
affords resistance against ‘settling - or rising"from
upward tension.
Where Zkn'o'wn stratav of fsubi
stantially reduced, "resistance ' are "encountered, ,
concrete. injector and outlet pipes ‘respectively,
which ‘will ‘ be ‘known ‘in ' advance by the operator
to open and close the ‘same.
'A pressure ipipe'36, connected ‘to a source of
who Iis ' ‘furnished ’with"a chart ‘prepared ‘from
way"valve"3’8 extends'upwardly and opens to the
atmosphere. "Apressure gauged l‘"is"mounted on
, al beinglregulatedfbyiadjustment‘.of the. working
pressure“ and ‘bfballlasti?g ' 0r ‘jadliil‘lg Of ‘the’ Te
samples as thewell A’is'sunkfthe‘ Wofkingiprese
sure'inayibe reduced toi'avoid unduespreadingiof
compressed air, steam or any other equivalent
the pileand'the waste-6f concrete.
gaseous ‘fluid .underpressure, is attached ‘to the
‘The withdrawal or ‘the ,pipe rassembly‘is accdm'i
inlet" port ‘311 'of a 'threeeway valve "33, ‘another
port 39 of which extends downwardly and com 70 pli'shed ‘by the upli'ftin‘g'power of the working
pressure within the reception pipe B, whichiobe
municates withthe interior of ‘the receptionpipe
B"through"thejinlet port 22 in the base plate 15,
vious‘ly‘exerts the same force in"'both'the upward
while‘theremain'ing exhaust port '40 of ‘said three
and downward directions‘, ‘the speed ‘of withdraw
ception pipe, as needed. ‘As heretoforeindicat
ed; the pressure injectioniof -the concrete into the
wellis performed iii-stages or periodic lifts, it be
in‘; understood-[that whenever“ the concrete ?ll
well to ?ll the same and ,producethe built-in
ifl'g within the well has ‘reached a1 sufficient height
after the reception pipe is initially raised from its
lowermostposition, the pressure of the'gaseous
ception pipe B, the injection conduit pipe is closed
off ‘from the concrete supply pipe 32by closing
the valve 34. The working pressurevalve 38 is
then adjusted ‘to cut off ‘the working pressure
and to permit of the exhaust of the working pres
sure-from the interior of the reception pipeB and
after detachingthe ‘pressure head assembly E,
the uppermost sections the pipes B and F, which
extend above the ground, are'removed, the ‘pres 15
uppermost section and the work continued as be
‘2. In a methoda's set forth in claim 1, wherein
to fexposeon'e or more of the sections of the re
sure’ head ‘assembly replaced on' the remaining
while at the same time displacing theconcrete
from vthe pipe and conduit under the ‘gaseous ?uid
pressure to forcibly impact the concrete ‘in the
?uid is temporarily increased to form a radial
enlargement at the lower end of the well to pro
vide a bulb-like footing at the base of the piling
when ?lled with concrete.
.3;..A method of producing built-in-place con
crete-piles consisting in initially forcing into the
ground av tubularreception pipe having at its
lower end a cutting shoe the outer periphery of
which is of greater size than the outerxperiphery
of the reception pipe and excavating and remov
fore explained.
ing ‘ therethrough .the material encompassed
As the building of the pile L approaches its ?
nal stages, the plug 2| of the control Opening 20 20 thereby to form a well of somewhat greater cross
sectional size than the reception pipe, closing the
is removed, after venting the working pressure,
upper end of the reception pipe to render the
so as to ascertain the level of the concrete and to
same ?uid tight, extending through said closed
discontinue the injection at the exact height so
upper end in sealed relation thereto a conduit
that later costly adjustments are obviated, such
as the trimming down or upbuilding of the pile 25 pipe having the lower end thereof disposed adja
cent to the cutting shoe, introducing a gaseous
to the speci?ed level.
?uid under pressure into the upper end of the
When the concreting work of the pile has been
reception pipe exteriorly of the conduit pipe, then
completed, the entire construction equipment is
injecting concrete through the conduit pipe while
withdrawn and is available for further use in
forming other piles, thereby representing a great 30 maintaining the gaseous ?uid pressure and
simultaneously raising said pipes in successive
saving of cost as compared with other methods
stages to forcibly emplace the concrete in the
which provide metal forms or casing which re
well to ?ll the same and thus form the built-in
main in the ground. It will thus be apparent
place pile.
that the present method dispenses with the use of
4. A method as set forth in claim 3, wherein
the customary cumbersome and heavy, pile driv 35
the ground water within the well is displaced
ing rams, avoids the shocks, jars and noise inci
through the conduit pipe by the gaseous ?uid
dent thereto and the disturbing of the surround
pressure prior to the injection of the concrete. I
ing ground strata, which is of especial import
5. A method of forming built-in-place con
ance where additional supports are being pro
vided for sinking or ruptured structures where 40 crete piles consisting in initially sinking a tubu
lar reception pipe into the ground and excavat
such vibrations or disburbances must be avoid
ing and removing therethrough the solid matter
ed. There is no limit to the length, the cross-sec
encompassed by the reception pipe to form a well,
tional form and dimensions or to the type and
closing the upper end of the reception pipe to
amount of reinforcement that may be desired for
render the same ?uid tight, extending a conduit
the construction of the piling produced under
through the closed upper end of the reception
this method, so that it is possible to provide one
pipe in sealed relation thereto with the lower end
single large pile instead of a large cluster of com
of the conduit terminating adjacent the bottom
mon piling often required for the support of
of the well, introducing a gaseous ?uid under
heavy structural units.
In the modi?ed form of cutting shoe C, shown 50 pressure into the upper end of the reception pipe
exteriorly of the conduit and forcing by said pres
in Fig. 8 of the drawings, the same is intended for
sure the ground water upwardly through the con
use only in the production of cylindrical piles
duit and discharging the same therefrom, in
which permit of the rotation of the shoe C dur
jecting concrete through the conduit while main
ing the sinking of the well. In this instance, the
cutting edge of the shoe is provided with teeth 55 taining the gaseous ?uid pressure within the re
ception pipe, and then simultaneously raising the
or serrations 56 which may be formed directly on
reception pipe and conduit in stages while con-l
the shoe or on one or more plates 5| secured to
tinuing to inject the concrete and to maintain the
the shoe or provided in any equivalent manner.
What is claimed is:
l. A method of producing built-in-place con
‘gaseous ?uid pressure so as to discharge the con
60 crete into the well from the lower to the upper
crete piling which consists in forcing the enlarged
end thereof to form the built-in-place pile.
6. In a method as set forth in claim 5, wherein
the gaseous ?uid pressure is varied to compensate
for variations in the resistance and density of the
ground strata through which the well extends.
said reception pipe, closing the upper end of the
'7. A method as set forth in claim 5, wherein
reception pipe and sealing in extending relation
the reception pipe and conduit are made up of
through said closed upper end a concrete injec
coupled sections and which are added as the sink
tion conduit having its lower end disposed adja
ing of the well progresses and which are removed
cent the enlarged lower end of the reception pipe,
introducing a gaseous ?uid under pressure with 70 as they are raised during the building of the
lower end of a reception pipe into the ground to
the desired depth to form a well of greater cross
sectional size than that of the major diameter of
in the upper end of the reception pipe exteriorly
of the conduit and after discharging the ground
water in the well upwardly through the conduit
by said gaseous ?uid pressure, simultaneously
raising the pipe and conduit in successive stages 75
8. A method as set forth in claim 5, in which
the gaseous ?uid pressure is utilized in effecting
the raising of the reception pipe during the for
mation of the pile within the well.
:9. A'methodnf ‘forming builteineplace concrete 1
piles ‘which-includes the steps of‘ initially :forcin'g
‘into thevaground a ltliblllar :shoe attached to ‘the
vlower .end of ‘a reception pipe of lesser cross
sectional size than the shoe to forma well of
greater crossesectional :size (than the reception
pipe, removing ‘through said reception pipe :the
solid ‘material encompassed thereby, closing the
getheriwith :the receptionip-ipe and conduit while
simultaneously injecting ,;concre_te»..under pressure
-to iforce ‘said vconcrete from ‘the lower ‘end 'of vthe
receptionpipe into-the bottom of the twelllto ‘form
a .latera11y,._expa-nded footing of greater cross;
sectional,areaithantthe well, then reducing ‘the
pressure 'while continuing vto raise ‘the ‘reception
pipe :and simultaneously injecting the concrete
upper end .of the reception ‘pipe .to render the
under pressure into thewell to ?ll the same and
‘ :samet'?uid tight, ‘extending a conduit through the 10 ‘form zthe built-in-placejpile, therein.
closed upper end of the reception 'pipein sealed
‘10. i-Aimethodasrset forth in claim ~9,'in1which
relation thereto with thelower end of thecon
the upper’ end portion “of theshoe is taperedin
duit disposed adjacent the :lower end of :theshoe,
introducing :a gaseous .?ui'd under pressure :tovlthe
.wardly and upwardlyiandtfunctions torestore to
its original cross-sectional size and shape any
distorted portions -.of the ‘wall of the well :as ‘the
upper end of the ‘reception ‘pipe :outside of :the
conduit and initially forcing the ground ‘waterrin
'receptionipipe is raised during-the buildingpof .the V
the well‘ upwardly tthrough ' the “conduit and ;dis
charging the .same therefrom ‘by "said pressure,
increasing ‘the ipressure and‘ raising‘ the shoe :to
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