Dec. 10, 1946. M. 1. DIGGSI 2,412,253 WALL ‘PANEL Filed ‘Dec. 17, 1945 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Dec. 10; 1946. M. |. DIGGS 2,412,253 WALL PANEL Filed Dec. 17, 1945 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ll’atented 10, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT- OFFICE - ' WALL PANEL Maury I. Diggs, New Orleans, La., assignor' to Higgins Industries, Inc., New Orleans, La., a corporation of Louisiana I - Application December 17,1945, ‘Serial No. 635,525 9 Claims. (Cl. 72-44) 2 This invention relates to a wall panel, useful , Figure 3 is a section taken along the line 3—3 of Figure 1, the lower part of the panel being in the fabrication of buildings and like struc tures. broken away; ‘ . One of the objects of the invention is to pro Figure 4 is a fragmentary plan view of the in vide a, panel consisting of spaced parallel sheets (a side of one of the panel sheets, showing a ?nger maintained in ?xed relation by intermediate unit in ?at condition; bonding members, inset from the edge faces of the panel, whereby the edge faces may be left Open Figure 5 is a fragmentary sectional .view of one of the panel sheets, taken diametrically through one of the ?nger units, showing the ?ngers bent 'all around so that an integral wall core may be formed by pouring concrete in the space de?ned 10 up from the plane of the sheet; Figure 6 is an exploded perspective view, partly tiguously. , in section, showing the cooperative relationship Another object of the invention is to provide of the ?nger units of the respective panel sheets, a wall panel comprislnga pair of spaced parallel and the spacing collar, in forming the bonding . . within a plurality of such panels arranged con metallic sheets, each having ?xed thereto a plu- l5 pillar; - ' rality of spaced inwardly projecting ?ngers, the’ spacing pattern for the cooperating sheets being Figure 7 is a diametrical cross-section through the bonding pillar, the cementitious ?lling being so related that corresponding ?ngers of 'the re- omitted; spective sheets lie in juxtaposition, each group _ , f Figure 8 is a top plan view of a, wall portion in- g of juxtaposed ?ngers being ‘embedded in a pillar 2o eluding a corner, fabricated from contiguous wall of set cement, whereby the ?ngers are bonded panels; ‘ - _ in ?xed position and the sheets thereby ?xedly Figure 9 is a perspective view of a clip for se secured in spaced relation. , ~ A further object of the invention is to provide curing adjacent wall panels in end to end abut ment; I _ a wall panel, as above described, in which the 25 groups of juxtaposed ?ngers are surrounded by collars which may be cheaply made of paper or ?berboard, of uniform height, which determine’ the parallel spacing of the sheets, and which Figure 10 is a perspective view of a corner clip. Referring now to the drawings, the wall panelv I, comprises two spaced sheets 2 and 3, of metal, congruently arranged in spaced parallel relation. The margins of the sheets are folded twice, at serve as forms into which the pillars of cement 30 right angles, to 'give the panel ?at side andv end are cast about the juxtaposed ?ngers. faces in a width direction, and to form channel Still another object of the invention is to pro?anges 4, extending around all sides of the sheets, vide a wall panel as described, in which the‘ bondde?ning an inner peripheral channel 5. The ing ?ngers are tack-welded to the respective ?anges 4 face inwardly when the sheets are set _ sheets in ?at position, and later bent up from 35 up in the panel bounding an open slot 6, which the surface of the sheet preparatory to assemextends about the entire perimeter of the panel. bling the panel. This permits the sheet to be Each sheet is provided on its inner face, at handled ?at in further processing, as for example, spaced intervals, bot'iinlengthwise and widthwise, ‘ to receive the frit when the outer faces of the with ?nger units 1.‘ Byt-‘way of example, for an sheets are to be porcelain enameled, and permits 40 8’ by 4' sheet there may be'?fty ?nger units, uni the sheets to be stacked ?at for transportion to formly spaced apart, ?ve to a row widthwise, the . the place where the panel is assembled.‘ Other objects of the invention will‘ appear as spacing pattern being identical for all sheets of a size, and equidistant from opposite edges, so the following description of a )preferred and that regardless of how the length dimension of practical embodiment thereof proceeds.‘ 45 the sheets of a pair are relatively oriented in con In the drawings which accompany and form a part of the following speci?cation; structing the panel, the spacing centers of the . clips, for both sheets, will be in precise transverse ' Figure 1 is a perspective view of a wall panel, alignment: embodying the principles of the invention, the Figure 4 Shows that the. ?nger units 7, each intermediate portion being broken away, and the 50 in the flat, consist of a sheet metal base plate spacing pattern for the bonding ?ngers being inin the form of a ring 8, having stampedout ?n dicated; ‘ , Figure 2 is a, section taken along the line 2-2 of Figure '1, showing also part of an adjacent wall panel; I > gers 9, with arcuate base portions in emanating from corresponding sides of outwardly extending welding lugs 8a and which follow the ‘curvature 55 of the ring, and tangentially extending end por 2,412,258 3 tions Ii, the tangential end portions extending in the same direction with respect to the ‘circum ference of the ring. The end portions each pref‘ 4 and width dimensions of the sheet, and since they I are offset from diameters through the spacing centers parallel to the respective length diametrically opposite fold lines being parallel and width dimensions of the panel, the inter- . , leaved ?ngers from opposite sheets will bear ranged in the. bonding pillar in pairs, as shown in Figure '7, the ?ngers of opposite pairs lying in I to a diameter 'of the ring. The clips ‘I are positioned. concentric with the placed. This arrangement affords maximum re-' erably terminates in an enlarged head l2. . The ?ngers 9 are displaced at 90° intervals, and have weakened fold lines l3, de?ning their bases, spacing centers, and oriented until the fold lines l3. at the bases of opposite pairs of fingers are spaced parallel planes, the pairsbeing 90° dis ' inforcement offset with respect to diameters of the ring par-v ‘aliel to the respective lengthvand vwidth dimen ' sions of the sheet. This assures that when the ’ against shearing stresses , trans mitted through the sheets comprising the panel; as well as stresses tending to separate the sheet. .Weights are placed upon the top sheet sum cient to hold it in contact with all vof the collars ' complementary sheet is in position, the ?ngers of — . while the cement is setting. This straightens out any wind in the sheets incident to the stamping the respective sheets'will be out of meta-lliccon-w. ' of the peripheral ?anges, or warping imparted ' tact, as shown in Figure 7. The ?nger units are during the process of porcelain enameling, so ‘ then tack-welded to the sheet, as indicated at H, Y that the faces of the panel are in true planes. I the ?ngers 9 being left free. The ?nger units are arranged identically on both sheets, so that all 20 When the cement in the collars has become set, of the fingers of all of the finger units extend in l the same direction, that is, all clockwise- or all counterclockwise. - ' - The ?nger units 1 are left ?at until the time comes to assemble the sheets into a wall panel. when ‘in ?at position they are below the level of the ?anges 4, so that they create no impediment the weights are removed and the panels are com plete. _ . L‘ Figure 3 shows that when the ?ngers ‘I are _ bent into erect position, the-arcuate base por- , > tions 9 cause the tangential end portions ll, Fig ure 4, to become de?ected inwardly toward the axis of the bonding pillar of cement which em beds the ?ngers, and since it is the tangential.‘ to the ?at handling or stacking of the sheets. A , portions of the ?ngers of the respective sheets large stock of identical sheets vmay be prepared at one place and shipped stacked ?at to the place 30 which. interdigitate, these embrace and’ con?ne _ a portion of the cementitious mass so as to cause a of_ assembling. Since the spacing pattern is ' it to compressively resist any force’ tending to - symmetrical with respect to the opposite sides separate thev sheets in the direction of the thick ness dimension of the panel. It is preferred to cast marginal tie wires in the panel, useful for reinforcing the poured con of the sheet’, there is no problem in matching the : ends of the sheet in setting up the panel. To fab-y ' ricate the panel, all of the ?ngers 9 of the sheet are bent out perpendicular to the plane of the sheet along the fold lines l3, by means of pliers or . crete mass which intersects the joints between " contiguous panels, in the wall. This is done by a special tool. The perpendicular ?ngers will be , 1 perforating ‘some or all of the collars I! in the 'in groups of four, one group for each ?nger unit, ~ 40 peripheral borderv of the spacing pattern, as in , two of which ?ngers will have their width dimen sioned parallel to the length edges of the sheet, while two will be parallel to the width edges. Collars or tubes I5 are provided for each group, ._ said collars being in the form of cylinders of’ uniform height, open at both ends and of a di - ameter to snugly embrace the ?ngers about their dicated at II in Figure 2, and inserting the legs or wire loops l8 through said perforations, so' as '. to enter or intersect the space within said collars. ‘The legs become embedded in the’cementcom- ' 3 .arcuate portions 9 and to enclose thearcuate ends l3a of the lugs 8a. The cylinders may be t of plural ply, paper, waterproofed with vshellac. One of the sheets is now laid ?at with the ?n 60 gers uppermost, and a collar I5 is slipped‘ over each group of four ‘?ngers until‘ the lower'endv ‘ of the collar rests upon the sheet. The collars are self-centering, since they are guided by the cam surfaces a?orded by the arcuate portions In 55 ' of the ?ngers. Now, a‘ settable cement composi position and the loops thus ?xed. Thebights of the loops l8 extend beyond the peripheral ' $10178 of the wall-panel, as shown in Figure 1, but for convenience in handling the panel, they may be temporarily bent so as to lie within the con?nes of I the panel. ' The wall panels may be variously arranged in fabricating them into a wall, one of which ar-l rangementalfor example, is shown in Figure 2, in which two panels I and, la are shown, placed in endwise juxtaposition withadiacent ?at faces in abutment, being temporarily secured together properties, is poured into each collar in plastic by the resilient clips l9, which ‘spring over adja cent ?anges 4. One of these clips is shown in deeply embedded in the cement. The-heads l2 assist in keying the ?ngers in the cement.‘ Next, shown extending from the respective panels,- each widthof spacing between the sheets and para ably of heat insulating nature. allelism of the front and back faces of the panel. Since the opposite ?ngers of each unit, when a corner, formed by the panel lb,‘ placed at right tion/which preferably has thermal insulation perspective in Figure .9, having ?ared sides 29, ' state, to ?ll the same and to embed the ?ngers. ' The tangential portions ll of the ?ngers extend 60 which spread when the .clip is pressed against . the ?anges l, to let the flanges ‘into the channel _ inwardly toward the axis of the ‘group and are seats 2|. The reinforcing wire loops l8 ' are into the peripheral channel 8 of the other panel, . l the complementary sheet with projecting ?ngers ,is inverted and brought down parallel and con 65 in lapped relation intersecting the plane of the joint'22 between the panels. Concrete is poured gruently with the ?rst sheet, to embed the groups into the space defined within the contiguous of ?ngers of the complementary sheet in the ce panels and about the binding pillars forming ment bodies in the corresponding collars on the an integral wall core. Thus the panels function ?rst sheet. The complementary sheet is pressed down until it rests upon thecollars. Since these‘ 70 as self sustaining forms for the concrete, no other forms being required. The concrete, is ' prefer are of ur lform height, they determine uniform V erect, are parallel respectively to the length 76 ' ' Figure 8 shows a wall arrangement, including \ angles to the panel I. with adjacent inner edges 2,412,253 6 of said panels in linear abutment. These edges . . ?ange being inbent to form a side ?ange parallel ‘ are temporarily held together by a corner-clip to the plane of said sheet, said sheets being posi tioned congruently in spaced relation to form a peripheral slot bounded by said side ?anges E to let the bases of. said ?anges into the Cl surrounding ?anges, bonding pillars between said sheets at channel seats 25. The sides are then bent to various points, said bonding pillars comprising embrace the ends of the ?anges 4, as indicated at spacing tubes of uniform length against the ends 26 in Figure 8. The outside of the corner is closed of which said sheets abut, each spacing tube con by an arcuate sheet 21‘, having longitudinal rab tainlng a cementitious mass, and fingers juxta bets 29 terminating in ?anges 30. This sheet is 10 posed withln said spacing tubes ?xed to the re slidably inserted from the top between the ad spective sheets and embedded in the cementitious jacent outer corners ofthe panels I and lb. The mass. reinforcing wire loops l8 overlap in the corner} 4. Wall panel comprising a pair of spaced When the concrete is poured in, it forms a mono-' sheets oi’ the same size and shape, each having lithic wall core extending about the corner. . K, 15 a, peripheral ?ange to one side, perpendicular to In addition to providing continuity of the the plane of said sheet, the free end‘of said flange space within contiguous wall panels, the periph being lnbent to form a side ?ange parallel to the ' eral channel 6 which surrounds each Panel. af plane of said sheet, said sheets being positioned fords means for adjustably positioning and re in spaced relation to form a. sur taining adjunctive devices such as the roof rafter 20 congru'ently rounding peripheral slot bounded by said side bolster Bl, shown in Figure 3. This consists of a 23, shown in perspective in Figure 10, having sides 24, which spread when pressed against the ?anges, bonding pillars between said sheets at various points, said bonding pillars comprising spacing tubes of unlformlength against the ends sheet metal member having an upper convex rafter seat 32, of a width to overlie the peripheral channel 6, having longitudinal right-angled rab of which said sheets abut, each spacing tube con bets forming seats which rest upon the upper taining a body of cem'entitious mass, and sur ends of the respective sheets of the wall panel rounding groups of ?ngers ?xed to the respective and‘ terminate in ?anges 33, which press the ' sheets, extending into the spacing tube from 0D inner sides of adjacent flanges 4 of the -wall poslte ends into juxtaposition within said tube, v are thrust down into the soft concrete within the 30 and embedded in the cementitious mass. - 5. Wall panel comprising a pair of spaced rec ' wall panel. The top of the bolster is formed with tangular sheets of the same size, each having a holes 34, through which more concrete‘ may be peripheral ?ange to one side perpendicular to the introduced to ?ll the space within the bolster and panel through inherent resiliency. These ?anges plane of said sheet, the free end of said ?ange being inbent to form a side ?ange parallel to the plane of said sheet, said sheets being positioned unify it with the panel when the concrete has set. The convex shape of the rafter .seat permits rafters to be supportedv upon it at ‘various pitch angles. congruently in. spaced relation to form a sur rounding peripheral slot bounded by said side , ' The invention contemplates making the faces "of the panels with a plain metal ?nish or porce- ‘ lain enameled, or either or both faces may .be of 40 stainless steel, plain metal bonderized for, wall of which said sheets abut, each spacing tube con taining a cementitious mass and surrounding groups of ?ngers of sheet material ?xed to the paper, canvased or stippled, or provided with any type of ?nish that may be desired. The panel construction is adapted for floors as well as walls, and for many other uses. 45 While I have in the above description disclosed what I believe to be a preferred and practical embodiment of the invention, it will be under sheets having bonding pillars between them at various ‘points, said bonding pillars comprising spacing tubes of uniform length against the end of which the sheets abut, a cementitious mass respective sheets, extending into the spacing tube from opposite ends into juxtaposition within said tube and embedded in the cementitlous mass, said ?ngers being arranged with the major cross sectional dimension of some parallel to _ the stood to those skilled in the art that the details of construction and arrangement of‘ parts are by wayof example and not to be construed aslimit-l ing the scope of the invention. What vI claim as my invention is: 1. Wall panel comprising a [pair of spaced ?anges, bonding pillars between said sheets at various points, said bonding pillars comprising spacing tubes of uniform length against the ends length, and some parallel to the width, of said , panel. 6. Wall panel as claimed in claim 1, includ ing tie wires extending at one end through per forations in certain of said spacing tubes and embedded in the cementltious mass therein, said tie wires being long enough to extend beyond the peripheral boundary of the panel. ‘ 1 7. Face element for a. wall panel of the type formed of two of said elements spaced by cylin within said spacing tubes, and ?ngers juxtaposed within said spacing tubes ?xed to the respective 60 drical spacing tubes and united by cementitious pillars within said spacing tubes which embed sheets and embedded in the cementitious mass. I ?ngers projecting from both face elements, said 2. Wall panel comprising a pair of spaced face element comprising a metal sheet having. a metal sheets‘ having bonding pillars between peripheral ?ange surrounding one side thereof, a them at various points, said bonding pillars com prising spacing tubes of uniformlength against 65 plurality of ?nger units each comprising a base plate, a plurality of ?ngers pliably joined thereto the ends of which the sheets abut, a cementitious at their base ends, said ?ngers being of greater mass within said spacing tubes and metal ?ngers length than the depth-of said ?ange, said base juxtaposed within said spaclngtubes, fixed to plate being welded to the ?ange-surrounded side the respective sheets and embeddedin the ce 70 of said face element at points adjacent the base mentitious mass. 3. Wall panel comprising a pair of spaced sheets of the same size and shape, each having a ends of said ?ngers. . 8. In a wall panel of the type described, a face element comprising a metal sheet having a pe peripheral ?ange to one side, perpendicular to the plane of said sheet, the free end of said 75 ripheral ?ange surrounding one side thereof, a plurality of ?nger units, each comprising a base - 2,412,2ss » 7 plate having welding lugs extending outwardly beyond the periphery thereof at uniform circum ierentially spaced intervals. said base plate being welded to the ?ange-surrounded side vof ' said sheet at points in said lugs, and ?ngers integral with said lugs extending from a corresponding side of each in a direction away from said sheet ' 8 or which the sheets abut. a set cementitious mass within said spacing tubes, each bonding v pillar including a group of ?ngers from each sheet. ?xed thereto, juxtaposed within a‘spacins tube in spaced relation with their end portions interdigitating, and embedded in the cementi tious mass. said end .portions being inclined from opposite directions toward the axis 0! said pillar in planes. substantially perpendicular thereto, whereby to con?ne a portion of the cementitious ' ' said ?ngers extending outwardly beyond the outf mass within said interdisitat‘ing end portions, 10 "ermost ends of the respective adjacent lugs. subject to compressive resistance to force tending 9. Wall panel comprising a Pair of spaced to separate said sheetsin the direction of the ‘ sheets having bonding pillars between them at points, said bonding pillars comprising spacing tubes of uniform lensth against the ends axis ofsaid pillar." ‘ . " ‘ MAURY I. DIGGS.