10, 1946. 2,412,276 R. H. LARSEN y DEFOAMING COMPOSITION AND PROCESS Filed Jan. 19, 1942 502 « Was/7 51u99/ wa/erw-f//fra//on `/ 7 p. /â [ancen?rah'on by L__j-Z@ Vacuum evapora ?/'on ' F-D ' l ‘ Lil/29 - [2a Vacuum pazr'l` @1_ ì26 Vacuum pan Vacuum pan A70/asse: INV-ENTOR ,Pudo/,0b /ílars en E" @gmbh ATTORNLY iid, _ 2,412,276 . _, _ _2,412,276> _. Y v nsroAMiNG comosrrrousnnrnooass \ 4 f Rudolph E. Larsen, San Francisco, Calif., as- ' signor-to Fred Bresee, Jr., doing business as » "Balab,” Hillsborough, Calif. ` Application January 19,1942. smal No. 427,305 EClaims. (Cl. -127-50) _ This invention relates generally- to, composi tions and processes for eliminating foam and for suppressing. its formation inthe sugar industry. A In various sugar manufacturing processes, the foaming of liquors undergoing treatment tends to interfere with eñicient operation, 'and in 'gen eral it is distinctly detrimental. It has been- found that foaming can be eliminated to some extent 2 unsaturated hydrocarbon, and particularly one obtained from a naphthenic, asphaltum or -paraiîine base, or combinations Yof the same. Commercial products of this character are available on the market, and are known by various names including “unsaturated extract oil” and “lube oil extract.” Saturated hydrocarbon oils> _ such as “white oil” can be mixed with the fatty acid and used with some eiïectiveness, but not by the use of vegetable oils, such as cocoanut oil, which is added to the liquors `in small quantities 10 with the effectiveness of unsaturated hydro carbone. ' at various points in_the process. Such oils are >In general, various proportions can be used, _ not as effective as desired,»and they do not have and I have secured good results by using from a sustained suppressing action. -- In> addition, such 30 to 40% by weight of the commercial »fatty oils are relatively expensive, particularly when _used in sumcient amounts to control foam forma- ` 15 acid product, together with from 'l0 to 60% of , vthe unsaturated hydrocarbon product. The two tion to a substantial degree. . materials are freely miscible.' although they do It is an object ofthe vpresent „invention to pro not appear to enter into chemical reaction. _ vide a composition which will effectively eliminate 4In using the composition described above. small or kill foam in liquors undergoing treatment in sugar manufacturing processes, and which will 20 quantities are continuously added to the liquors undergoing treatment at various points in the also have a sustained action in suppressing forma sugar manufacturing process. The points at tion of foam. ' ' 4 which the composition is introduced will depend lAnother object of the invention is to provide upon the particular plant process employed. One a defoaming process which can be used in the ' presence of lime, without giving an undesirable '.25 operation to which the composition can be ap plied to advantage, and which is utilized in all. soep reaction or saponiiication. modern sugar plants, is the liming and carbonat A further object of the invention is to provide ing of the sugar j_uice preparatory to filtering the a defoaming composition and method which can material. Relatively small amounts of the com- _ ‘ be used to advantage in sugar-containing liquors position introduced at this point suffice to elimi being subjected to vacuum evaporation. nate or hill foam and to suppress foam formation Further objects. of the. invention will appear during the subsequent filtering operation. Sul from the following description in which the pre»ä furizing operations such as are4 employed for de ferred embodiment has been set forth in'detail colorizing sugar Juice or sirup are also subject to in conjunction with the flow sheet. My defoaming composition consists~of a fatty 35 foaming. Here again the _composition can be used _to advantage to eliminate foam difficulties during acid together with a hydrocarbon. The fatty acid such treatment and during subsequent clarifica is preferably of vegetable origin, as for example tion by filtration. Small additions of the com one obtained from soy bean, cocoanut, or corn position can also be made immediately before and oil. Such fatty acids are produced as by-products during concentration by vacuum evaporation. in the refining of 'vegetable oils. For example, in For example, small amounts can be continuously the re?iningof such oils to free them of their added to the juice entering the ñrst effect of the fatty acid content, it is customary to react the evaporating equipment, and to sirup entering the fatty acid content with sodium hydroxide, and to subsequent effects, ~or occasionally added as separate out the precipitate which is termed "fatty oil foots ” 'I'he soap content of the “foots” .45 needed. It has been observed that when my composition is added in this fashion, it not only is then broken down by reaction with sulfuric tends to prevent and suppress foam formation, acid, after which the resulting fatty acid is washed but in addition it serves to minimize formation of to free it’of any remaining mineral acid content. troublesome scale upon the evaporating tubes. rThe commercial by-product obtained in this fashion contains from 50 to 60% free fatty acid, ' In this connection it should be noted that com positions Whichhave been used in the past, such and is free of glycerin. Usable fatty acids can as cocoanut oil, do not tend to lessen scale forma also be obtained as by-»products in the hydrogena tion in the evaporator, and in fact seem to aus* “ tion »process for the reñning of vegetable oils, or ment troublesome accumulation of solids upon by fat splitting reactions. in conjunction with the fatty acid I employ an 55 the evaporator tubes by ,formation of calcium ` 2,412,276 soaps. Such calcium soaps are not formed when my composition is employed. In the above ñow sheet a total consumption oi’ 6.9 gallons of my composition was employed each twenty-four hours, where 800,000 pounds of sugar Foaming can be , prevented in the vacuum pans Where the sirup is further concentrated by using the composition as described. In diiïerent plant processes operations to which the composition is introduced depend somewhat' upon the particular procedure employed and upon the type of sugar juice being treated. In order to indicate one practical way of using the com was being manufactured from 297 tons per hour of the raw beet juice. This total amount was distributed fairly equally between the different points of introduction, including the “Stenen” process, and was introduced by use of suitable feeding devices capable of adding the material by 10 drops at a regulated rate. position, the drawing shows a typical iiow sheet `The plant process described above and as shown in thefiow sheet gave considerable difdculty with foam formation when using such deioaming ma' for a plant process for`beet sugar. To briefly out- . line this iiow sheet, the beets after being cleaned are sliced at l0, and then subjected to a suit terials as ìcocoanut oil.y These diñìculties were able treatment for juice extraction Il, which 15 completely overcome bythe use of my compost» may be by diffusion or other methods. The juice is then intermixed with milk of lime and tion and process. In addition, my process re= sulted in an economy with respect to the amount of defoaming composition required, and a marked betterment in general operating efficiency was subjected to carbonation at i2. The milk of lime‘is prepared in a. slaking operation I3, where dry lime isintermixed with “sweet water.” The material is -then subjected to filtration 20, after which the `filtrate is subjected to further-'car v noted. I claim: ' . 1. A defoaming composition for sugar syrup bonation 14,. 'and` again to filtration l5. For , v.comprising a fatty acid of vegetable oil origin, decolorizing; the juice isv then subjected to the‘ the fatty acid being free of glycerine and ob.. sulfurizing/’operation I8,- -where it is contacted 25 tained by removal from foots resulting from the with sulfurl dioxide gas,vafter which it is again 'refining of vegetable oil by treatment with alkali subjected to filtration l1. The purified and de and subsequent acidulation with sulphuric acid, colorized juice isnowfsubjected to vacuum evap- - oration at I8, by use of multiple effect vacuum evaporators. - ` ' ` Following.concentratiom-the sirup is subjected together with an' unsaturated extract oil `of min eral oil origin. 30 2. A composition for suppressing foaming dur to further. sulfurizing treatment I9, after which it is filtered .at 2l, and, then sent to the first . ing treatment of sugar syrup,iconsisting of from. crystallizing vacuum pan 22. After further con centration'in this treatment, with partial crys tallization ofthe sugar, the material is subjected to centrifugin'g 23, which removes the crystal# ‘ lized sugar.' The remaining sirup. is treated in the second~vacuum pan 2|, and after further centrifuging at 25, the remaining sirup is sent 40 to the third vacuum pan 26. Final centrifugi'ng 21 of the sirup‘from the last vacuum pan yields `molasses and sugar which is mixed back at 28 with the sirup entering the vacuum pan 24. Sugar-from centrifuging 25 is also mixed back at 29 with the Sirup entering vacuum pan 2,2. 'Points of introduction of the composition de about 30 to 40% of a fatty acid, the fatty acid . being free of glycerin and obtained by removal from foots resulting from` the refining of vege 'table oil by treatment with alkali and subse quent acidulation with sulphuric acid, together with from about '70 to 60% of an unsaturated ex tract oil of mineral oil origin. 3. In a process for suppressing foaming dur ing treatment of sugar syrup, introducing into ' thesugar syrup a mixture comprising afatty acid, the fatty acid ybeing free of glycerin and obtained by removal from foots resulting from the .refining of vegetable oil by treatment of alkali and subsequent acidulation with sulphuric acid, together with an unsaturated extract oil of mineral oil origin, the amount of the mixture scribed above have been indicated in the flow added being insufficient to cause contamination sheet and designated by letters A'to G inclusive. 50 of the sugar content. 'I'hese points of introduction are as follows: 4.> In processes for the treatment of sugar syrup A. Lime slaking operation. ' involving intermixing of the syrup or juice with B. The first carbonation operation. lime followed by carbonation of the mixture and C. The second carbonation operation. , filtration of the carbonated material, the im D. The vacuum evaporation operation, by addi provement consisting oi' suppressing foam forma 55 tionsy to the material entering each effect. tion 4by introducing into the syrup a mixture com E. The first vacuum pan commonly termedthe prising a fatty acid of vegetable oil origin, the ». “white pan.” ’ v_fatty acid- being free of glycerin and obtained F. 'I‘he second vacuum pan commonly termed the by removal from foots resulting from the refin “high raw pan.” ing of vegetable oil by treatment with alkali and G. The’third vacuum pan commonly termed the subsequent acidulation with sulphuric acid, to» “low raw pan.” ' Y In certain sugar plants the molasses is sub jected to further treatment known as the “Stef-4 ' fen" process, in whichthe molasses is diluted and 65 limed, heated, and precipitated tricalcium sucrate _ removed` in a filter.> The sucrate is then returned to the. main process. Foaming in this process con also belalleviated by additions of small amounts of ymy composition. _ gether with an unsaturated extract oil of min» eral oil origin, the amount introduced being in“ sufiicient to cause contamination of the sugar. 5. A defoaming composition consisting oi a glycerine free fatty acid of vegetable oil origin together with an unsaturated extract oil of min~ eral oil origin. „ . RUDOLPH fi. LARSEN.