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10, 1946.
Filed Jan. 19, 1942
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Rudolph E. Larsen, San Francisco, Calif., as- '
signor-to Fred Bresee, Jr., doing business as
» "Balab,” Hillsborough, Calif.
Application January 19,1942. smal No. 427,305
EClaims. (Cl. -127-50)
This invention relates generally- to, composi
tions and processes for eliminating foam and for
suppressing. its formation inthe sugar industry. A
In various sugar manufacturing processes, the
foaming of liquors undergoing treatment tends
to interfere with eñicient operation, 'and in 'gen
eral it is distinctly detrimental. It has been- found
that foaming can be eliminated to some extent
unsaturated hydrocarbon, and particularly one
obtained from a naphthenic, asphaltum or
-paraiîine base, or combinations Yof the same.
Commercial products of this character are available on the market, and are known by various
names including “unsaturated extract oil” and
“lube oil extract.”
Saturated hydrocarbon
such as “white oil” can be mixed with the fatty
acid and used with some eiïectiveness, but not
by the use of vegetable oils, such as cocoanut oil,
which is added to the liquors `in small quantities 10 with the effectiveness of unsaturated hydro
at various points in_the process. Such oils are
>In general, various proportions can be used, _
not as effective as desired,»and they do not have
and I have secured good results by using from
a sustained suppressing action. -- In> addition, such
30 to 40% by weight of the commercial »fatty
oils are relatively expensive, particularly when
_used in sumcient amounts to control foam forma- ` 15 acid product, together with from 'l0 to 60% of
, vthe unsaturated hydrocarbon product. The two
tion to a substantial degree.
materials are freely miscible.' although they do
It is an object ofthe vpresent „invention to pro
not appear to enter into chemical reaction.
vide a composition which will effectively eliminate
4In using the composition described above. small
or kill foam in liquors undergoing treatment in
sugar manufacturing processes, and which will 20 quantities are continuously added to the liquors
undergoing treatment at various points in the
also have a sustained action in suppressing forma
sugar manufacturing process. The points at
tion of foam. '
which the composition is introduced will depend
lAnother object of the invention is to provide
upon the particular plant process employed. One
a defoaming process which can be used in the
' presence of lime, without giving an undesirable '.25 operation to which the composition can be ap
plied to advantage, and which is utilized in all.
soep reaction or saponiiication.
modern sugar plants, is the liming and carbonat
A further object of the invention is to provide
ing of the sugar j_uice preparatory to filtering the
a defoaming composition and method which can
material. Relatively small amounts of the com- _ ‘
be used to advantage in sugar-containing liquors
position introduced at this point suffice to elimi
being subjected to vacuum evaporation.
nate or hill foam and to suppress foam formation
Further objects. of the. invention will appear
during the subsequent filtering operation. Sul
from the following description in which the preȊ
furizing operations such as are4 employed for de
ferred embodiment has been set forth in'detail
colorizing sugar Juice or sirup are also subject to
in conjunction with the flow sheet.
My defoaming composition consists~of a fatty 35 foaming. Here again the _composition can be used
_to advantage to eliminate foam difficulties during
acid together with a hydrocarbon. The fatty acid
such treatment and during subsequent clarifica
is preferably of vegetable origin, as for example
tion by filtration. Small additions of the com
one obtained from soy bean, cocoanut, or corn
position can also be made immediately before and
oil. Such fatty acids are produced as by-products
during concentration by vacuum evaporation.
in the refining of 'vegetable oils. For example, in
For example, small amounts can be continuously
the re?iningof such oils to free them of their
added to the juice entering the ñrst effect of the
fatty acid content, it is customary to react the
evaporating equipment, and to sirup entering the
fatty acid content with sodium hydroxide, and to
subsequent effects, ~or occasionally added as
separate out the precipitate which is termed
"fatty oil foots ” 'I'he soap content of the “foots” .45 needed. It has been observed that when my
composition is added in this fashion, it not only
is then broken down by reaction with sulfuric
tends to prevent and suppress foam formation,
acid, after which the resulting fatty acid is washed
but in addition it serves to minimize formation of
to free it’of any remaining mineral acid content.
troublesome scale upon the evaporating tubes.
rThe commercial by-product obtained in this
fashion contains from 50 to 60% free fatty acid, ' In this connection it should be noted that com
positions Whichhave been used in the past, such
and is free of glycerin. Usable fatty acids can
as cocoanut oil, do not tend to lessen scale forma
also be obtained as by-»products in the hydrogena
tion in the evaporator, and in fact seem to aus*
“ tion »process for the reñning of vegetable oils, or
ment troublesome accumulation of solids upon
by fat splitting reactions.
in conjunction with the fatty acid I employ an 55 the evaporator tubes by ,formation of calcium
soaps. Such calcium soaps are not formed when
my composition is employed.
In the above ñow sheet a total consumption oi’
6.9 gallons of my composition was employed each
twenty-four hours, where 800,000 pounds of sugar
Foaming can be ,
prevented in the vacuum pans Where the sirup is
further concentrated by using the composition as
In diiïerent plant processes operations to which
the composition is introduced depend somewhat'
upon the particular procedure employed and upon
the type of sugar juice being treated. In order
to indicate one practical way of using the com
was being manufactured from 297 tons per hour
of the raw beet juice. This total amount was
distributed fairly equally between the different
points of introduction, including the “Stenen”
process, and was introduced by use of suitable
feeding devices capable of adding the material by
10 drops at a regulated rate.
position, the drawing shows a typical iiow sheet
`The plant process described above and as shown
in thefiow sheet gave considerable difdculty with
foam formation when using such deioaming ma'
for a plant process for`beet sugar. To briefly out- .
line this iiow sheet, the beets after being cleaned
are sliced at l0, and then subjected to a suit
terials as ìcocoanut oil.y These diñìculties were
able treatment for juice extraction Il, which 15 completely overcome bythe use of my compost»
may be by diffusion or other methods. The
juice is then intermixed with milk of lime and
tion and process.
In addition, my process re=
sulted in an economy with respect to the amount
of defoaming composition required, and a marked
betterment in general operating efficiency was
subjected to carbonation at i2. The milk of
lime‘is prepared in a. slaking operation I3, where
dry lime isintermixed with “sweet water.” The
material is -then subjected to filtration 20, after
which the `filtrate is subjected to further-'car
v noted.
I claim: '
1. A defoaming composition for sugar syrup
bonation 14,. 'and` again to filtration l5. For , v.comprising a fatty acid of vegetable oil origin,
decolorizing; the juice isv then subjected to the‘
the fatty acid being free of glycerine and ob..
sulfurizing/’operation I8,- -where it is contacted 25 tained by removal from foots resulting from the
with sulfurl dioxide gas,vafter which it is again
'refining of vegetable oil by treatment with alkali
subjected to filtration l1. The purified and de
and subsequent acidulation with sulphuric acid,
colorized juice isnowfsubjected to vacuum evap- -
oration at I8, by use of multiple effect vacuum
' `
Following.concentratiom-the sirup is subjected
together with an' unsaturated extract oil `of min
eral oil origin.
2. A composition for suppressing foaming dur
to further. sulfurizing treatment I9, after which
it is filtered .at 2l, and, then sent to the first
. ing treatment of sugar syrup,iconsisting of from.
crystallizing vacuum pan 22. After further con
centration'in this treatment, with partial crys
tallization ofthe sugar, the material is subjected
to centrifugin'g 23, which removes the crystal# ‘
lized sugar.' The remaining sirup. is treated in
the second~vacuum pan 2|, and after further
centrifuging at 25, the remaining sirup is sent 40
to the third vacuum pan 26. Final centrifugi'ng
21 of the sirup‘from the last vacuum pan yields
`molasses and sugar which is mixed back at 28
with the sirup entering the vacuum pan 24.
Sugar-from centrifuging 25 is also mixed back
at 29 with the Sirup entering vacuum pan 2,2.
'Points of introduction of the composition de
about 30 to 40% of a fatty acid, the fatty acid .
being free of glycerin and obtained by removal
from foots resulting from` the refining of vege
'table oil by treatment with alkali and subse
quent acidulation with sulphuric acid, together
with from about '70 to 60% of an unsaturated ex
tract oil of mineral oil origin.
3. In a process for suppressing foaming dur
ing treatment of sugar syrup, introducing into '
thesugar syrup a mixture comprising afatty
acid, the fatty acid ybeing free of glycerin and
obtained by removal from foots resulting from
the .refining of vegetable oil by treatment of
alkali and subsequent acidulation with sulphuric
acid, together with an unsaturated extract oil
of mineral oil origin, the amount of the mixture
scribed above have been indicated in the flow
being insufficient to cause contamination
sheet and designated by letters A'to G inclusive.
50 of the sugar content.
'I'hese points of introduction are as follows:
4.> In processes for the treatment of sugar syrup
A. Lime slaking operation.
involving intermixing of the syrup or juice with
B. The first carbonation operation.
lime followed by carbonation of the mixture and
C. The second carbonation operation.
filtration of the carbonated material, the im
D. The vacuum evaporation operation, by addi
provement consisting oi' suppressing foam forma
tionsy to the material entering each effect.
tion 4by introducing into the syrup a mixture com
E. The first vacuum pan commonly termedthe
prising a fatty acid of vegetable oil origin, the ».
“white pan.”
v_fatty acid- being free of glycerin and obtained
F. 'I‘he second vacuum pan commonly termed the
by removal from foots resulting from the refin
“high raw pan.”
ing of vegetable oil by treatment with alkali and
G. The’third vacuum pan commonly termed the
subsequent acidulation with sulphuric acid, to»
“low raw pan.”
In certain sugar plants the molasses is sub
jected to further treatment known as the “Stef-4 '
fen" process, in whichthe molasses is diluted and 65
limed, heated, and precipitated tricalcium sucrate _
removed` in a filter.> The sucrate is then returned
to the. main process. Foaming in this process
con also belalleviated by additions of small
amounts of ymy composition. _
gether with an unsaturated extract oil of min»
eral oil origin, the amount introduced being in“
sufiicient to cause contamination of the sugar.
5. A defoaming composition consisting oi a
glycerine free fatty acid of vegetable oil origin
together with an unsaturated extract oil of min~
eral oil origin.
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