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Dec. 10, 1946.
‘
aw, PECK
AIRCRAFT TRANSPORT PLANE
. ' 2,412,285
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Filed Oct. 29, 1942
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2,412,285
Patented Dec. 19, 1946
“UNITED , STATES PATENT OYFAFICE
2,412,285
AIRCRAFT TRANSPORT PLANE.
Garrette W. Peck, Pensacola, vFla“, assignor to
Howard W. Taylor, Richmond, Va.
Application October 29, 1942, Serial No. 463,829
6 Claims. (01. 244—5)
2
1
propeller slipstream plus the air through which
the craft is passing can be used, thereby giving
My invention has for an object to provide a
heavier than air carrier that can transport
troops: freight and heavy loads long distances,
a greater control than any yet known or used
particularly in time of war, at a reasonably fast
air speed and yet can be landed at speeds so low
that any vacant field or body of water, or open
space can be utilized as a landing ?eld without
harm to the aircraft.
The invention embraces a low aspect ratio
in aircraft.
wing plane having the middle longitudinal por
Another feature is that in a recess in the upper
part of the wing, there is placed a conventional
rudder and elevator the construction of which
needs no explanation; however being located in
this position and owing to the design of the air
10 foil,‘ a positive control at the bow of the craft
tion omitted to allow the passage of air through
is provided thereby moving forwardly the turning
the wing, thus giving four bearing surfaces in
stead of the two surfaces of the conventional
axis nearer the center of the airfoil
lessening the stresses on the entire
Another object of the invention
an aircraft shape and design that
wing and in this manner preserve a low aspect
wing ratio to the entire craft.
The invention
also includes a low aspect ratio wing plane hav
and thereby
craft.
is to create
will permit
the craft being built for greater sizes and of
greater carrying capacity than present day heav
ing a bow or frontal control that has not been
ier than aircraft and yet the overall weights and
possible on other types of aircraft.
landing speeds will not be increased nor con
The lower part of the low aspect ratio wing
is so designed that it will give a larger lift than 20 trollability made more difficult. This is accom
plished in this design by the use of helium'to
heretofore possible and in a measure has the
sustain part of the gross weight thereby less
ening the landing and take off speeds while
thebow control places the turning axis nearer
are recessed at the bow of the craft, that the
air is allowed to pass in under the upper part 25 the center of the .craft thereby lessening the
dynamic lift found in the biplane. Propelling
means are so placed in the air passages which
of the airfoil in a manner which preserves the
lift. on the top of the lower part of the air
foil. Enclosing the fuselage in the lower part
of the-wing takes away the drag and permits
of a streamlining not possible in the present day "
heavier than aircraft.
By offsetting the upper part of the airfoil, still
greater lift is obtained and at the same time,
a-bow control is obtained that is far more posi
tive than can be obtained at the rear of present
stresses.
-
A The position of the propelling means permits
of using the slipstream of the propellers for cut
ting down the frontal resistance, for breaking
up of part of the parasite drag at the rear, and.
for giving a more positive control of the bound
ary layers of air around the aircraft thereby
adding more speed and controllability. to the
craft.
The novel features which I believe to be char
acteristic of my invention are set forth with par
day aircraft.
A further object of the invention is that in
order to obtain the lowest landing speeds pos
sible, the, upper part of the low aspect ratio air
foil or wing is constructed to contain aconstant
lifting medium such as helium to sustain part
of the gross weight thereby cutting to the lowest
possible point, the aerodynamic lift necessary to
ticularity in the appended claims. The inven
tion itself, however, both as to its organization
and 'method of use, together with additional
aspects and advantages thereof, will be best un
derstood from the following description of a
speci?c embodiment when read in connection
with the accompanying drawing in which,
Fig. 1 is a vertical longitudinal sectional view
support heavy loads.
Another object of the invention is that at the 45 of the aircraft.
Fig. 2 is a front elevational View.
rear of the passages, the slipstream of the pro
Fig. 3 is a side elevational view.
pellers in diffusing at the rear not only breaks
Referring to the drawing which illustrates the
up the parasite drag in the rear but aids to step
various principles involved in my invention, I
up the boundary layer flow of air over the body
thus giving the rear rudders more positive con 50 provide a low aspect ratio wing having the
middle longitudinal portion omitted so as to form
trol and adding greatly to the stability at the
an upper airfoil section I and a lower airfoil
section 2 spaced from each other to provide an
A further object is that in ?ight, the rear ele
air passageway between them. The two parts
vators are made more positive in that they are
placed at a point when the .full power of the 55 are joined and held together by struts 3. The
rear.
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2,412,285
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ing a gaseous lifting medium such as helium
designed to take up from 10% to a much higher
per cent of the gross load which’ enables the
landing and take off speeds to be decreased and
greatly increases the ,safety factor. The upper
part I of the wing is offset with relation to the
the trailing edges of the airfoil sections being _
substantially vertically spaced at the rear end of I
the air passageway, the chord andspan of the
upper airfoil section being greater than the chordv
and span of the lower airfoil section, whereby
the upper airfoil section projects laterally beyond
the lower airfoil section, struts connecting the
lower part -2 so as to have a greater dimension
laterally, the ratio shown being about 11/2 to l.
The ?neness ratio is approximately 5 to 2. The
upper and lower airfoil sections and spaced longi
lower part 2' of the wing is hollow for containing
passengers and cargo. The construction of most
of the craft including the two parts vof the wing
may be of any suitable material, preferably -
plywood.
Propelling means 5 is located near" each ex- '
treme forward edge or corner between the upper
part I and the lower part 2 to create an air
tudinally and laterally of the airfoil wing, pro-‘
pellersilocated wholly beneath the laterally pro
jecting portions of the upper airfoil section, said
propellers being located at the bow of the airfoil
wing, and elevators and rudders located at the
forward end of the airfoil wing in the slipstreamv
of the said propellers.
,
3. Aheavier than air aircraft consisting of an
current that will give lateral bow control to
thevcraft and thereby decreases stresses on the
rear. thereof.
4
upper airfoil section and the bottom surface of
the lower airfoil section being convexly curved
throughout from front to rear and constituting
the upper and lower surfacesof said airfoil wing,
hollow upper part I is preferably divided by
vertical partitions 4 into compartments for hold
airfoil wing comprising upper and lower airfoil
sections spaced apart to provide an intervening
air passageway in the airfoil wing open‘ atthe
front, back, and sides, the top surface of the
Propelling means 5' is located
forwardly and centrally in the air passageway
between the upper and lower parts of the wing.
Elevators 6 and rudders l are located near the 25 upper airfoil section and the bottom surface of r
the lower airfoil section being convexly curved
forward end of the craft at opposite sides thereof
and between the two parts of the Wing. The
rear portion of the craft is provided with propel
throughout from front to rear and constituting
the upper and lower surfaces of said airfoil wing,
the trailing edges of, the airfoil sections being
There are two of these, one .at
each side of the center line but considerably 30 substantially vertically spaced at the rear end
of the air passageway, the'ch'ord and span of,
spaced therefrom and located in the air passage
the upper airfoil section beinggreater than the
way. The rear portion of the craft is also proe
chord and span of the lower airfoil section,
vided with stabilizers 9, rudders Ill and elevators
whereby the upper airfoil section projects later
ll.
.
The operationrand advantages of my inven
ally beyond the lower airfoil section, struts con
tion will be apparent from the foregoingdescrip
necting the upper and lower airfoil sections and
tion in connection with the drawing. Many of
spaced longitudinally and laterally of the airfoil _
the advantages have already been referred to.
wing, propellers located wholly beneath the lat
Due to the particular construction of a low aspect
erally projecting portions of the, upper airfoil
ratio wing and with part of the weight taken 40 section, said propellers‘ being located at the bow
up by a constant lifting medium such as helium;
of the airfoil wing, elevators and rudders located .
many of the disadvantages inherent, in theusual
at the forward end of the airfoil wing in the
type of plane and in the dirigible are eliminated
slipstream of the said propellers, and laterally
as previously noted (in detail; At the same time,
spaced rear propellers located in the rear portion
ling means 8.
the advantages of both types are made, of use
of the air passageway.
and additional advantages obtained to which
reference has already been made.
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4. A heavier than air aircraft consisting
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7 of an ,
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airfoil wing comprising upper and lower airfoil
sections spaced apart to provide an intervening
f‘I. Aheavierthan air aircraft consisting .of an 50 air passageway in the airfoil wing open at-the
airfoil wing comprising upper and lower airfoil
front, back, and sides, the top'surface of the.
sections spaced apart to provide anintervening
upper airfoil section and the bottom surface of
air passageway in the airfoil wing' open at the
the lower airfoil section, being convexly vcurved
front, back, and sides, the top surface of the
throughout from front togrear andconstituting
I claim:
7
upper airfoil section and the bottom surface of 55 the upper and‘lower surfaces of said‘ airfoil wing,
the low'ai-rfoil section being convexly curved
the trailing edges of the airfoil sections being
throughout from front to rear and constituting
substantially vertically spaced at the rear end of
the upper and lower surfaces of said airfoil wing,
the air passageway, the chord and span o'fthe
the trailing edges of the airfoil sections being
upper airfoil section being‘ greater than the chord
‘substantially vertically spaced at the rear end 60 and span of the lower airfoil section, whereby the
of the air passageway, the chord and span, of
upper airfoil section projects laterally beyond'th'e
the upper airfoil section being greater than the
lower airfoil section, struts connecting the’ upper
and lower airfoil's'ections and’spacedZ longitudi
chord and span. of the lower airfoil section,
whereby the upper airfoil section projects ‘later
nallyand laterally of the airfoil wing, propellers
ally beyond the lower airfoil section, struts con 65 located wholly beneath the laterally projecting
necting the upper and lower airfoil sections and
portions of the upper airfoil section, saidvv propel-4
spaced longitudinally and laterally of the: airfoil
l'ers; being, located at the bow of the airfoil wing,
elevators and‘ rudders located at the forward- end
of the airfoil wing inv the slipstream of the'said
wing]: and propellers located wholly beneath ‘the
laterally projecting portions of the upper airfoil
section.
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. 2;.A heavier than air aircraft consisting of an,
70
airfoil wing comprising, upper and’ lower airfoil
sections, spaced apart‘to provide an intervening
stabilizers, rudders, and elevators located at the
7 rear end‘ of the airfoil wing.
airpassagewav in, the airfoil wing open at the V. .
"from; back, and SidesQ’the‘tQpsurface of the
propellers, laterally spaced'rear propellers located
in the rear portion of the-air passageway, and
o 5. ,A heavier than’ air aircraft consisting-of van
75 airfoil wing comprising- upper“ and‘ lower airfoil
2,412,285
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6
secti0ns spaced apart to provide an intervening
air passageway in the airfoil wing open at the
front, back, and sides, the top surface of the up
per airfoil section and the bottom surface of the
lower airfoil section being convexly curved
airfoil wing having a ?neness of approximately
live to two and a ratio of width to length of ap
throughout from front to rear and constituting
the upper and lower surfaces of said airfoil wing,
proximately one to one and a half, said airfoil
wing comprising upper and lower airfoil sections
spaced apart to provide an intervening air pas
sageway in the airfoil wing open at the front,
back, and sides, the top surface of the upper air
foil section and the bottom surface of the lower
airfoil section being convexly curved throughout
the trailing edges of the airfoil sections being
substantially vertically spaced at the rear end
of the air passageway, the chord and span of the 10 from front to rear and constituting the upper and
lower surfaces of said airfoil wing, the trailing
upper airfoil section being greater than the chord
edges of the airfoil sections being substantially
and span of the lower airfoil section, whereby the
vertically spaced at the rear end of the air pas
upper airfoil section projects laterally beyond the
sageway, the chord and span of 'the upper air
lower airfoil section, struts connecting the upper
and lower airfoil sections and spaced longitudi 15 foil section being greater than the chord and span
of the lower airfoil section, whereby the upper
nally and laterally of the airfoil wing, and -pro~
airfoil section projects laterally beyond the lower
pellers located wholly beneath the laterally pro
airfoil section, struts connecting the upper and
jecting portions of the upper airfoil section, said
lower airfoil sections and spaced longitudinally
air passageway being tapered from front to rear
and the upper and lower airfoil sections having 20 ‘and laterally of the airfoil wing, and propellers
located wholly beneath the laterally projecting
bowed frontal portions arranged to form a ?aring
portions of the upper airfoil section.
entrance to said air passageway.
GARRET'I'E W. PECK.
6. A heavier than air aircraft consisting of an
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