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Dec. 10, 1946.
2,412,316
J. F. CAMPBELL
FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
4` *Sheets-Sheet 1
Filed Jail. 16. 1942
¿Ecampßgzz
INVENTOR
BY
Den.` l0,l 1946;
I
J. F. CAMPBELL
FUEL.
INJECTION
2,412,316
SYSTEM
Filed Jan. 1e. 1942
'
4 sheets-sheet 2
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Dec. l0, 1946. ‘
,2,412,316
J. F. CAMPBELL
1 FUEL.` INJECTION SYSTEM
- Eiléd Jan. 1e. -194,2
‘4 Sheets-Sheet 5
¿Ecm/7662i
INVENTOR
-
ATTORNEY
Dec. 10, 1946.
2,412,316.
J. F. CAMPBELL
`FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM
Filed Jan. 16. 1942
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
-a.-iufÍs.L
. L.
mw. . .Y
....E.
“
INVENTÓR
BY
ATTORNEY
¿mais ‘L
`
2,412,316
sont mlaorrou SYSTEM
.lohn F. Campbell, Detroit, Mich., asslor to '
George M. Holley and Earl Holley
Apo-lisation .lanuary lt, i942, Serial No. 4126A??? l
Il Claims.
l
(ci. its-37)
'
2
,
shown in the upper right hand corner of Fig. 1
The object of this invention is to inject volatile
is shown on a greatly enlarged scale but is ac
fuels or fuels containing air bubbles by means of
tually of the same order of magnitude as the ven
a plunger into an internal combustion. engine.
turi 35 and has merely been enlarged so as to
The specific object is to permit the bubbles of air
clearly indicate the nature of the restriction i3
and vapor to escape before injection of the fuel
which corresponds to the venturi liti as shown in
without interfering with the metering character
my Patent No. 2281,@11, Fig. l2. ln Fig. l2 of this
istics of the fuel injection pump. In fuels of the
patent, the venturi fili is also shown in a large
volatile type it is customary to use spark ignition
scale for a like reason.
f
and therefore, the time of ignition is not deter.
Considering the details shown in Figs. 2 to 7,
mined by the time of the fuelginjection. With lil
lb is the fuel entrance as mentioned above, which
such pumps, l' have found that it is desirable to
delivers fuel to the cylinders itl. In these cyl
have a fixed point of cut-obi’ prior to the ignition
inclers' are two diameter-ed plungers 2@ recipro
point and therefore, I regulate the amount of fuel
cated by theinclined swash plate 2l (Fig. 2) by
by the variable point in the pumping stroke .of the
means of the oblate spheroid 22 of .the plungers
pump when the escape of the surplus fuel and fuel
2u. Each plunger has a tubular extension 23. ofV a
carrying the vapor is prevented. As the plunger
smaller diameter than the main piston it. . Each
moves beyond the initial point the fuel is injected
of these tubular extensions 23 engages with a
into the engine cylinder'until the 'fuel pressure is
movable yielciable abutment Zit. Each ci these
suddenly released.
In the drawings:
20 yieldable abutments Wl is loaded by two springs
Fig. l shows diagrammatically the arrangement
of all the elemente of my invention.
`
_
2t and 2l. These springs are located in a cham- A
ber l@ and seat on a ñange 2li which, in its turn,
seats on the movable abutment tél.. The abut
ments of the springs are carried in c, cage 2t, on
Fig. 2 shows the principal element-_the fuel
puma-#on a section of plane 2--2 of Figs, 3 and '7.
Fig. 3 is a cross sectional plan view taken on 25 the lower ñange of which the abutments 213 seat
when the tubular extension 23 of the piston i@ is
plane 3_3 of Fig. 2.
`
withdrawn into the cylinder le, es shown on the
Fig. e is a plan view teken on plane fis-ä of
left hand side of Fig. 2. On the right hand side
Flg.2.
'~
'
of Fig. 2, the piston lo ls shown elevated carrying
Fig. 5 is a plan view taken on plane â--El of «
Fis'.
.
'
FiFig. 6 is a plan view takenon plane ë-ë of
e.
.
.
Fig. ‘TI is a plan view taken on plane ‘l-l of
with it the tubular extension 23 which thusV com- '
presses` the springs 2e, 2l by engaging with and -
moving the movable a-butments lt.
vThe cage 2B is reciprooated relative tothe cyl- '
inders le. Means for reciprocating it consists of a
Fig'. 8 is a sectional elevation of a modification 35 lever 2@ which rotates the shaft il@ which engages
with the shaft ill. Grooves 3i! are provided on
ofFig.2.
shaft @l adapted to move the pins-3 l, il which are
Fig. 9 shows a cross sectional elevation of the
mounted on the cage 23. The cage 2@ is thus
vapor separator.
moved when the shafts il@ and iii are rotated com'
Fig. l shows diagrammatically the arrange
pressing the springs 2l and 25. The spring 3S bal
ments of the parts. Fuel leaves a tant: lo and is
onces in part the resistance of these springs 2t
raised by a‘pump l l to the fuel/air mixture ratio
and 2l.
'
control l2 'which contains a fuel venturi iii. The
The rotation of the lever 2S thus determines the
-fuel flows through a second venturi it to the vapor
eîective ich of the stroke of the two diametered
separator i5 whence it continues through a pipe t@
to the fuel entrance l@ of the metering pump il. 45 plungers 2t when their tubular extensions ‘23 en
gage with the movable abutments 2t which is the
Here a minor portion issues into a chamber @il
moment when the plunger â starts to deliver fuel
where the vapor rises to the upper part of this
to the nozzle, assuming that> the piston 2o has
chamber 3ft.4 The major portion of the fuel dis
Fig.2.
-
.
covered the port il@ before the part t3 engages
charges through the'outlets it. The minor irac
'
l
tion of the fuel in the chamber lil is recirculated 50 with the part le.
The tubular extension 23 is perforated so that
through the opening ââinto the throat of the ven
as the plunger E@ moves towards the movable
turi §55 back to the vapor separator i5. This re
abutments 2li any fuel containing air which is
circulation of the fuel ensures the elimination of
trapped in the annuler portion between the tu
entr aimed bubbles which disturb the metering
characteristics oi the pump. The venturi it 55 bular extension te and the walls of the cylinder
4,
3
I9` discharges through the center of' the-tubular y . is either vertical or horizontal, it is arranged so
lthat the venturi y¿I4 is on the top side of the verti
. extension 23 and along the flutes of the guide to.;
cal or horizontal pump chamber. As the pump
-the valve 24 which centers the valve 24 inside the
central passage through the tubular extension 23.
The moment the fuel is trapped in the cylinder I9,
lthat is, the momentl the tubular extension 23 en
gages with the movable abutment 24, fuel is sub
«operates any bubbles that may collect in the
`chamber 3_4- are automatically removed tothe
vapor separator I5 by means of the venturi I4.
When the engine develops over 50% of its power,
' the amount of fuel flowing through the passage ‘ `
jected to pressure and in Fig. 4 is shown a. number
35 is 20% or more of the total quantity of fuel
l of spring-loadedchebk valves 32. Fuel then dis
charges~through the passages 33 and flows down 10 thatv enters the fuel entrance I6. Hence this por- l
tion of the fuel is re-circulated and carries vwith
‘ to the outletl passages I8, whence it is led to the
nozzles on the engine (not shown)._ Now -the
it the bubbles of vapor and air to the vapor sep
chamber 34 which contains the springs 26 and 2l `\ -
arator I5. By _this means _the cylinders are main
tained >full >of >.fuel so> that the amount of fuel
‘ and the cage 28 communicates with the throat o-f
. the venturi I4 (Fig. 3), through a Passage 35
discharged».»by,_~feach nozzle isunlform, and the '
‘ whence it is carried to the vapor separator I5 `
vapor ceases to'jbe an objectionable feature as'it
is largely removed through the vapor _separa
(Fig.3).
The fuel surrounding the springs 26 and 21' is
tor
agitated by the reciprocation of these springs,`
I5.
-
’
'
.
'
f
The effect of the re-circulation of a portion of
bubbles Aof vapor are released and these bubbles 20 the fuel is that the fuel admitted first tothe
pump chamber, that is th'e fuel which enters into
escape through the venturi I4 located above theK
‘
chamber 34.
, a p_artial'vacuum and is most likely to release
'
vapor bubbles, is rejected through the passage 54
(Fig. 8) and past the valve 24 (Fig. 2).
The piston 20'is provided with a number of
` >small holes 'I communicating `with an annular l
The reason the fuel flows into the chamber 34 .
passage B0 which has an outlet port 51 and when 25
and not back into the annular chamber 42 is be
this port` 51- rises, as shown on the right hand
cause the pressure in the chamber 34 is main
` side- of Fig. 2, it is in alignment with the cylinder
tained below the pressure in 42 by means of the '
port 58 and the discharge of the fuel abruptly
ceases, the fuel escaping into the annulus 42.
venturi I2.
The mode of_ operation of the> modification
In Fig. 8, the pump elements 20, 23‘ of Fig. 2 30
vshown in Fig. 8 and that of the device shown in
are modified as follows: The-part 50 of Fig. 8
Fig. 2 is substantially identical. In both cases,
l corresponds to the part 20 of Fig. 2 and the part
the escape of fuel into the chamber 34 is abruptly
22 corresponds to and is identical with the part
marked 22 of Fig. 2. The »plunger 50 has a valve
terminated when the cut-off valve »seats and
. seat 5I which engages with a coned valve sur 35 thereafter the fuel is compressed and discharged
into the cylinder until such time as the groove
l face 52 which forms the lower end of` a small
57 in the plunger is in line with the annular
piston 53. In the center of this small hollow
groove 68 in the cylinder which determines the .
ï valve is a passage 54 through which fuel can
> freely-discharge before valve 52 seats'on valve
seat_5l'. The'small hollow-valve 53 carries the
40
end of the injection stroke.
In the construction shown in Fig. 8, fuel enters
~
`from the annulus 42 and is first rejected through
the passage 54 and a portion of the fuel is then
trapped between the piston 50 and the piston l53 '
" by the springs 26, 21, and the element 25 of Fig. 2,
when the valve seat 5I~ engages the -hollow valve
l which it is not necessary to show again as the
function is the- same. This shoulder 28 as al 45 53 `having a'seat 52.. This portion of the fuel
which is thus trapped is then injected through ya '
ready described can vbe moved by means of the
passage corresponding to the passage 33 of Fig. 2,
pinsl 3|, 3l and the slots 30, 30. Hence the small.y
until such time as the slot 51 comes into-align
,hollow valve 53 forms a variable cut-ofi` for thel
-piston 50. A bushing 56 forms a bearing for the
ment with the annular passage 58 when the pres
small piston 52. '
50 sure is suddenly and completely released.- It fol-V
An annular opening 51 in the -piston 50 is con
lows, therefore, thatas the valve seats (5I in
Fig. 8 and 24 in Fig. 2) are moved back and forth ‘
nected by a-number of small holes 59 to the top
by the rotation of the lever 29, the time at which
face of thepiston 50. The result is that the _small
injection commences varies, but there is a fixed v
holes .59 servîe.. as a by-pass so that when the
piston 55 has~ completed its stroke and the annular 55 point of cut-oñ determined by the instant when
the slot 51 in the plunger comes into line with ì
opening- 51 is in alignment with the'a'nnular port
collar 55 which'seats on the shoulder 28 and this
` collar 55 is compressed against the shoulder 28
`58 of the cylinder, vthe discharge of the fuel
the cylinder port 58.
abruptly ceases.
`What I claim is:
-
`
. «
l
'
l. In a fuel injectionv system for an internal
In Fig. 9, the vapor separator I5 is shown in
greater detail. The surplus fuel enters the venturi 60 combustion engine, a supply of fuel under pres- j
’ sure, a vapor separator, a/ vapor separating tank,
I4 throughÍ the entrance 35. leaves through the
a pump chamber, a fuel entrance communicating
passage 6I, and then past the baille 82 into the
with said fuel supply and leading to said vapor-float chamber 63 in which a float 64- carries a
separator and communicating with _said separat
_slide valve 65 which permits air andva'porl‘to
. escape through the outlet 66. The fuel thus freed 65 ing tank, a fuel outlet from said separator forni
from vapor escapes »past the screen 61 'into the ,
ing the entrance to said pump chamber, means
outlet 68 and then through a pipe 69 to the en
trance I6. Of course, the vapor> separator _I5 can
be built as an integral part of theupper casing
70
35 of the fuel pump.
ing tank than in thev fuel entrance to the pump
chamber, a plunger, means for reciprocating said
plunger, a valve seat integral -with said plunger,
`
'
Operation
`
The _device is mounted so that the venturi I4
is located above the vapor separating chamber.,`
for maintaining a lower pressure ‘in the separat-` `
’ a hollow cylindrical valve in alignment with said
seat of smaller diameter than said plunger and
-adapted to'permit'surplus` fuel to ñowthrough -
it to said separating tank, means for moving said
that is to say, whether the device shown in Fig. 2` 75 valvel so 'as to engage withl said valve seat _at
2,412,816
different points _in the stroke-of said plunger so
as to interrupt the release of surplus fuel, yield
ing said plunger, a hollow cylindrical extension
of said plunger having a valve seat in the end,
able means to permit the valve to move with said
a valve engaging with said valve seat and in
plunger after it has seated thereon, a relief pas
sage in said plunger, a relief port in the side of>
alignment therewith and adapted to permit sur
plus fuel lto flow from the pump chamber to the
said plunger, an inlet port tothe cylinder adapted
separating tank, the diameter of said cylindrical
to engage with the relief port in said plunger
towards the -end of the pressure stroke of the
pump, and also adapted to be uncovered by -the
end of the plunger’when it is near the end of its 10
extension being less than> the diameter of said
plunger, adjustable means for locating said valve
so that‘it engages with said extension at differ
ent points in the stroke of the plunger, yieldable
means permitting the valve to move with said
extension after it has seated, a relief passage in
said plunger, a relief port in the side of said
suction stroke, an outlet port lfrom the cylinder,
a check valve therein, whereby the plunger on
its down stroke first uncovers the inlet ports and
plunger, an inlet port to the cylinder adapted tl.
thereby permits fuel to flow through the cylinder
and past the valve to the separating tank under 15 engage with the relief port in said plunger toward
the end of the pressure stroke ofthe pump and
the pressure difference between the separating
also adapted to be uncovered by the end of- the
tank and the fuel entrance and whereby after
' this port is covered by the plunger on its in stroke,
fuel is then forced past the valve to the separat
ing tank and whereby after the plunger engages
with the hollow valvel fuel is trapped and thereby
ejected through the outlet port past the check
valve and this discharge continues until the relief
port of the plunger engages with the inlet port
larger diameter of the plunger when it is near
the end of its suction stroke, an outlet port from '
the cylinder, a check valve' therein, whereby the
plunger on its down stroke ñrst uncovers the inlet
ports and thereby permits fuel to flow through
the cylinder and through the hollow-valve to the
separating tank under the pressure difference be- -
of the cylinder when the discharge ofl fuel is 25 tween the separating tank and the fuel entrance
and whereby after this port is covered by the
abruptly terminated.
'
plunger on its in stroke, fuel is then forced
2. In a device as set forth in claim 1- in which
through the hollow valve to the separating tank
the means for maintaining a lower pressure in
and whereby after the. extension of the plunger
the separating tank consists of a venturi in the
fuel line and an opening in the throat of the ven 30 engages with the valve fuel is trapped and thereby
ejected through the outlet port past the check
turi communicating with the separating tank so
valve and this discharge continues until the relief
as to return the surplus fuel to be re-circulated,
port of the plunger engages with the inlet port
3. In a fuel injection system for an internal
of the cylinder when the discharge of fuel is
combustion engine, a su'pply of fuel under pres
sure, a vapor separating tank, a vapor separator, 35
a pump chamber, a fuel entrance communicating
abruptly terminated.
e. In a device as set forth in claim 3 in which.
the means for maintaining a lower pressure in
the separating tank consists of a venturi in the
fuel line and' an opening. in the throat of the
with said fuel supply and leading to said vapor
separator and communicating with said separat
ing tank, a fuel outlet ,from said separator form
ing the entrance leadingto said pump chamber, 40
venturi communicating with the separating tank
means for maintaining a lower pressure in the
so as to return Athe surplus fuel to be re-circulated.
separating tank than in the fuel entrance to the
pump chamber, a plunger, means for reciprocat
JOmî F. CAB/IPBELL.
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