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Dec. 10, 1946.
Filed July 10,1944
‘ 4 Sheets-Sheet‘ 1
m ‘
‘ '
22 mm
42 45
Dec. 10, 1946.
’ 72,412,334
Filed July 10, 1944
. I E7
4 Shéets-Sheet 2
_Dec. 10, 1946.
2,412,334 7
Filed July 10, 1944
_ 4 Sheets-Sheet‘ s
Dec. 10, 19.46.
Filed July 10, 1944
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
Patented Dec. 10, 1946
Anthony F. HoeseL Chicagmfilllt ‘assignor to’
Peerless of America Inc., Chicago, 'IlL', a cor
}poration of Illinois
Application July 10, 1944, Serial No. 544,301
4 Claims.
(o1; 237-2)
The present invention relates to airplane cabin
Fig. 5 is an end view of Fig. 4 in the direction
heating by utilizing the‘ exhaust heat rejected by
of the arrow of Fig. 4..
the engine.
Fig. 6 is a view,_'partly in section, of an auto-.
matic signalling means as may be used in the
Speci?cally, the invention is concerned with
preventing the entrance of exhaust gases, in (Ii practiceiof the invention.
harmful quantity, to the airplane cabin if, for any
Fig. '7 is aview of a manually operated valve
reason. whatsoever, the exhaust pipe proper
means for closing the air flow as may be usedin'
should become perforated.
the practice of the invention.
Present day highoctane fuels, at exhaust pipe
temperatures, havea highly corrosive effect and
. »
10 embodying the invention.
eventually eat holes in the exhaust pipes, fur
Fig. 9 is across sectional view, along lin'ej_9.—,9.
thermore, in warfare, the possibility of bullet
puncture is ever present.
Fig.‘ 8 is a' diagrammatic view of an assembly
of Fig. 8.
Referring to the drawings:
Previous exhaust heaters. always had the ever
present danger, whenever perforated, of releasing
lethal quantities of carbon monoxide into the
cabin. Since carbon monoxide is a colorless,
In-Fig. 1, the pressure reducing valve 20 come
prises. a body casing 2| having a high pressure in-l
let22 and a reduced pressure. outlet 23. Between
the inlet.22. and outlet 23 is a ball valve 24 mount
odorless gas one volume of which in 800 volumes
' ed in a carrier 25,.against. ‘which the spring 25
of air will have fatal results if breathed for about
30 minutes, it is readily seen that protective
measures thereagainstare not only desirable but
abuts and tends to urge‘the ball valve 24 towards
its seat. at the lower end of the bore ‘21 in which
av pusher pinv 28 is a loose ?t. The upper end of
the‘p‘usher pin .281 abuts a diaphragm 25, which is
. I,
clamped between the body 2| and the diaphragm
In great concentrations, such ‘as would occur
spring. chamber 30 by means of the bolts 3 I. The
with a bullet punctured exhaust heater, the time
of fatality, due to carbon monoxide poisoning, 25 spring support 32, ‘mounted in the bore 33, is con
stantly urged against the diaphragm 29 byme'ans
might be very short indeed and it is presumptive
of ‘the, spring 34, whose compressive strength is,
that certain unexplained fatalities have resultedv
adjustable by means of the adjusting screw. 35?
therefrom in planes so equipped.
which. has a lock nut. 36 for lockin‘githe same.
An object of the present invention is to pre
Thediaphragm spring ‘chamber 30 hasv a bore.3,8
ventthe entrance of carbon monoxide, or exhaust
whichallows theupper side of the diaphragm
gases,.into, the airplane cabinwhenever theex
2_9 to be. subjectedto theambiént pressure?]
haust pipeof the heater is perforated.
Assuming the spring, 34 adjustedv to a given
Another object of the present invention is to
automatically close down the heating, air supply
reduced pressure, at the outlet. 23, such reduced.
to the airplane cabin whenever the exhaust. pipe
of the air lheater is perforated.
35 pressure will, at all times, be re?ected as apre’s- _
sure differential between. the ambient pressure
and the reduced pressure, since the ambient pres-»
A further object of the present inventionisto
sure will, at all times and bymeans of bore 38,
provide rane'automatic signalling means to, indi
press upon, the upper side of the diaphragm 29.
cate whenever the exhaust pipe of the air heater
40 If‘ the ambient pressure increases or decreases,
is perforated.
the reduced pressure, at the outlet 23, will in
' .Other objects will appear in the following
crease and decrease respectively by the same
speci?cation and claims.
- ‘
In the drawings:
In Fig. _2,,the pressure relief valve 4.0 comprises.
Fig. 1v is across sectional view of‘ a pressure 45 a body '4'] having a chamber 42 with through. pas
reducing valve ‘as may be- used in the practice
sages iii-land. 44. The boss. 45'has a bore 46 in,
which a valved‘! is place.d...and constantly urged
away from‘ its mating seat 48 by means. ofv the.
lief valve as may be usedinthe practice .of the
valve spring 49. The bore.50 allows the escape‘
60 of pressurafrom the chamber 42, Whenever the
of the invention.
Fig. 2 is a cross sectional view of .‘a pressure re
a Fig. 3 is across sectional view along line 3——3
valve 4.] leaves its seat 48. The upper end, of
Fig. 4 is a cross sectional viewof theautomatic
valve meansfor controlling the heated airflow,
as may be usedlm the nmcticeief theinvention. ‘
the valved], abuts a diaphragm 51, which is‘
clamped betweenthe'body 4i ; and the diaphragm.
spring chamber 52 by means. of bolts. 53.. The.
spring support 54. plays in they boret55eand is.
saga; ,
‘ constantly urged against the diaphragm 5| by v
, means of the spring 56 whose compressive
between the pressure conduit and the chamber
99 and transmits the pressure, and ‘variations
strength‘ is adjustable by meansof the adjusting
thereof, residing, in the pressure conduit.’ ' Sus
pending from the body 86, and integral there
screw 51, which has a lock nut 58 for locking the
same. Thediaphragm spring chamber 52 has a
y bore 59 which allows the upper side of the dia
with, is a switch mounting lug I00 upon which is -
mounted a Micro switch IIJI by means'of screws
||l_2._ These switches are so =universallyknown
I phragm 5|. to, be; subjected to the ,ambient.,pres-.,
that it should su?ice to state that a' slight move
‘ -ment of the operating stem I03,’ abutting the
Assuming the spring 56 adjusted to a given
i pressure, in the chamber 42, such pressure will, 110 ‘
i at all times, be re?ected as a pressure ‘differené
push rod 9|, resultsin making or breaking- anQ
'electriccircuit between the electric conductors
tial between the ambient pressure and'the-pres'-,,,;'I TIM. and/I05 connected to some‘suitable source >
of electrical energy,v
sure within the chamber 42; If the ambient pres-, 1
I'n'i‘the present"
instance, the
sure remains constant and the chamber pressure I‘ "
Micro switch IOIH
makes an electri‘c'circuit whenever the operat
increases, then the diaphragm 5| lifts upward
ing stem I03 ‘is'pushed upwardly, and breaks
allowing the valve 41 to openand relieve the ex-; -
cess pressure through the ,bore 50. If the cham- ~ 7 ‘ 1 the ‘electrical circuit whenever the operating stem ;
ber pressure is at a given valve and the ambient» ' I53 -is inv its downward position. The electrical"
conductor I04 has, in series circuit, a warning
pressure decreases, then the total pressure, upon ,
' ‘ the, upperside of the diaphragm 5|, decreases v20 light lil‘l or any other suitable warning means, '
andith'e diaphragm 5| and valve'll'l'move upward
which is usually placed upon the instrument board
lythereby, relieving the excess pressure differen
in the pilot compartment.
ber"42,"before the valvejll willropen. "' ‘
- "
Thebody 86 has a bore I58 allowing the dia-~ ;
phragm 93, uponrits'upper side, to be subjected
t'rialjthr’ough the bore 50. If the ambient pressure
increases then the total pressure, upon the upper‘
' side of, the diaphragm 5|, increases 'and'therefore a greater pressure must occur, in the cham
' to'the ambient pressure and all variations there
of, consequently any adjustment" of I the ‘ spring"
' Sit-‘is re?ected in a given pressure differential
necessary, in the chamber99'and on the undere
In, Figs. 4_ and 5,1 showa hot air conduit 60
sideof the ‘diaphragm 93, to;move the pusher
rod 3| and the operating stem;|03,__of the micro
switch | DI, to upward position thereby establish,‘
ing' an electric circuit 'withinthe. conductors fl 04;
and I55 and operating the signalling means I015"
In Fig. '7, the hot: air conduit ?ll/has agate means
‘ having journal bearings ‘6| in which the shaft ,
62 maybe oscillated. [A‘ butter?ywalve 63'is
mountedl'upon'the‘shaft 62 and oscillated simul—
'taneously therewithto either fullopen‘or full
I closed positions (as-shown), by means of the
crsnkarm 54. also mounted upon the‘ shaft 62.
'fflljastened, to'the ‘conduit 50, in some suitable‘
' III) slidably mountediwithina gate carrier?Il I '
, mannerjor ‘other, is a vvalve operator'65 compris- ‘
into, which it can be manually pushed in order 7
ihgha'jbody 55' open toambient pressure, by‘
to stop any air circulation through the'conduit" >
pull' rod'lll; as shown 'at'I3, is constantly urged,
merit of, the invention and callparticular, atten
65. fThe gate III] is, shown in openrposition'r In‘
means"_offbore 61, and having a boss, 68 with ‘a
the manual operation, of, the invention, the auto—‘
borel?s in.-which a push-pull rod 'IIl' 'canjrecipro
cate_.'_""I_‘he ‘lower end, of the push-pull rod 10-, 40 maticsignallingrmeans Fig, 6,,and the manually‘
operated-valve means Fig. 7 would 'replacethe;
connects‘to'the crank arm 1,64 by means of the
automatic valve means Figs. 4 and 5. " a ‘
floatinglinks‘ll suitably pinned thereto as shown.'
' -In Figs. 8'and'9, I show a diagrammatic'embodi- 1
1 The diaphragm support 12, riveted to the push
tion tothe construction of the heater’ I 20 which‘
' byjmeansof spring ‘I4, ag_ainst"'the diaphragm ‘I5,
which ‘is clamped, between the body 55 and ‘the’
pressurejchamber,cover‘lii having a conduit con‘
necti‘qn bore 11, by means ,of'the bolts 18.‘ The,
space; 89,’ between the,’ diaphragm ‘I5 andv the ,
comprises a1 section'of an exhaust pipe ~ I2I: en'el
circled by a tube , I22 having an inside diameter‘
greater than the outside diameter or the ex-v '
haus't‘pipe [2| and thereby ‘providing what I_
pressuref chamber cover'jl?, de?nes a pressure so terméa‘safety'chamber. ‘The ends,,of the tube
chamber‘imjreduces to a‘ certain value, the varié '
I22’, ‘arec'welded totheeXhauSt'pipeHIZI as ‘tin-j,
to _
dicated at I23 therebyfmaking ampressure tight "
ous'ielements" are in the positions shown since the
safety chamber I24;
tightfchamber,‘ Wheneverthe pressure, in the
vMounted upon the tube | '22 is another tube I25;
which is welded thereto as indicated at I121, pro;
viding an air heating chamber :I28therebetween
spring; 14, thenfexerts thepreponderant force."
‘Whenever the pressure, in' the chamber ‘80, 55
excefeds‘a ~certain value, the force of the spring
and through which an air circulation is main
‘I4 is'overcome' anid'the‘ diaphragm ‘I5 and the
tained; between 'thew'c‘old air‘inl'et 12,9 "andith'el‘
push-pull rod ‘I0 then‘ move‘downwardly, com‘
hot air outlet I30, by" some suitable means “such
pressing the spring‘M, and move" the butter?y‘
valve BQ'to wide open position thereby allowing
an air?ow through the hot air conduit 60.
as an air scoop or so.
- The heat ?ow path is ?rstrthroughvthe
, ' V
wall I2I, second, through the safety ‘chamber, '
> In 'Fig; 6, an automatic signalling control 85
third,through the tube wall I22 and then- into
comprises a body 86 having a bore 8‘! threaded
'at the upper end 88 to engage'anadjusting screw
theair heating chamber I20. Tn wmytpracticeupf
85 serving_:to vary ‘the length and consequently‘ 65 the invention, ,1, utilizecertain extended conduce tive heat transfer‘s'urf‘aces, Within thechambers
- thefpressure of the spring abutting thereagainst,vv
I24 and I28, and have'thereby. greatly‘increased
The pusher vrod 9| has an ‘enlarged diameter 92,
the heat ‘transfer ‘ofjsuch heaters, but since the,’
looselynrmounted in the bore'8'l ‘and'abutt'ed b'y‘
thev spring 970, which presses'against the ."dia-v
phragm 93 clamped between‘ theibody 86 and the
, present invention is irrelevant thereto, I have,.forT
purposes of simplicity, omitted the same.’ 7' '_» '“
'I-‘heiepressure chamber cover'has a conduit flare‘
Communicating with the safety pressure‘chamz.
ber I24 is a pressurevconduit I33. to which ‘men-‘4
end-Q 96 T against which‘ the pressure ' conduit " is '
matic'pressureis'fed, byjn'iea'nsv ofthe' pressure're-_ ’
pressure chamber cover 94 by means of bolts 95.;
pressed" by the_flar.e ‘nut 9‘! ‘thereby’, making’a,
pressure "tight joint. ; “A ‘bore 3 98' ‘communicates '
,.’ matic'
pressure; such'as their‘ compressor‘ for " a‘,
cylinder Ii34_ (shown) containing compressed air
or any other suitable gas, or vapor under pressure;
Certain volatile liquids, having proper character
istics, may also beemployed to generate theneci
lbs/sq. in. and the valve '20'opens and. continu
ously feeds ‘air to the system iniorderlztoiconstant
ly maintain the 4 lbs/sq. in. pressure differential
to whichltis adjusted.
essary vapor pressure." Positioned-between ‘the
pressure reducing valve 20 and the pressurel'con
duit ‘I333, is a restrictor tube I35l71aving~ such *bore
and length that the reduced pressure,'passing
from the pressure reducinglvalve 20 andthrough
‘ It -is assumed, in the particular instance, that
the valve operator 65 'isso‘adjusted that a tpneue
matic pressure of 3 lbs/sq. inmaintains-thebut‘v
terfly valve‘ 63 in wide open ‘position. .Whenever.
the pressure decreases, below 3 lbs./sq."in"., ‘the
the restrictor tube I35, can only ?ow at some cer 10 valve operator 65 then closes the butterfly valve
63 (as shown) and ‘no heated air-canlpass " ‘to
tain‘maximum flow ‘rate with a given pressure
differential betweenthe outlet conduit I36, of the
pressure reducing valve 2'0,a'nd the pressure-con
the cabin.
If ‘the walls of the chamber I24- become punc
tured, for any reason whatsoever, the’ pneumatic
du'it'I33. \_
Havingkdescribed the vcomponent-s, I ‘shall 'now 15 pressure, within the various elements of the'syse
tern, rapidly drops since the volumetric v‘flow;
describe the operation as an assembly. ’ Referring
through the restrictor I35, is of a verysmallo-rder‘
to Fig. 8, the inlet, of the pressure reducing valve,
and incapable of supplying a su?icient volume, of
is under some certain pneumatic pressure, say 500
pneumatic pressure, to maintain the pred'etere
lbs. The valve 20 is adjusted to maintain some
certain reduced pressure, fed to the conduit I36,
mined 4 lbs/sq. in. pressure.
- '
While the drawings show and the speci?cation
explains a particular embodiment of- the ‘inven
tion, it is to be understood that various modi?ca
duit I33, the safety 'chamben‘IZQ, the pressure
tions may be employed without departing lfrom
relief valve 40 and the pressure chamber 86 of the
automatic valve operator 65. Since the system 25 the spirit and scope of theinvention, which is ?-to
be limited only to the hereto appended claims. ‘ >
is presumably leak prooffthe 4 1b. pressure be
say 4 lbs. This 4 lb. pressure now passes through
the restrictor tube ‘I35 and into the pressure con
I claim:
comes static and the pressure reducing valve 26
automatically closes. The selected 4 lb. pres
sure is presumptively in excess of any pressure
within the exhaust pipe I2I and due to the ex- ,
pulsion of exhaust gases therethrough.
The air plane engine is now started up and the
exhaust pipe may reach a temperature of 1600" F.
Obviously, the air, within the safety chamber I24,
becomes greatly heated and expands. The orig
inal 4 lb. pressure may rise to several times that
value unless we can bleed off some of the same.
We adjust the pressure relief valve 40 for say 6
lbs. Whenever the pressure exceeds6 lbs, the
valve 40 bleeds off some of the air pressure.
1. A hot air heating system utilizing the ex
haust gases from an internal combustion engine
as a source of heat, comprising: a pipe through
which exhaust from the engine ?ows; a wall sur
rounding said pipe de?ning a pressure-tight
chamber heated by the exhaust in the pipe; a
conduit for air to be heated; a wall de?ning a
heating chamber around the wall of the air tight
chamber, communicatively connected to the con
duit, and through which a current of air is nor
mally circulated to absorb heat from the air tight
chamber prior to its discharge from the conduit,
40 said air tight chamber having no communica
Whenever the pressure decreases below 4 lbs., the
tion with the air in the conduit and the g'asesin
valve 20 feeds more air.
The main reason for limiting maximum air
the pipe; means for maintaining a pneumatic
pressure in said chamber above the pressure of
pressure, within the safety chamber is due to the
fact that exhaust pipes are made of very thin
the exhaust gases passing through the pipe;
valve-means for controlling the delivery of air
materials and operate at exceedingly high tem
peratures during which the physical strength is
- from said conduit; and pneumatic-means, au
tomatically responsive to a predetermined drop in
pressure in said air tight chamber for control
ling the valve-means to cut off the delivery of
would eventually become sui?cient to certainly 50 air from the conduit.
collapse the exhaust pipe, unless we employ the
2. A hot air heating system utilizing the ex
greatly reduced. If for some reason or other the
' valve 20' should not seat tightly, the air pressures
pressure relief valve 40 or some equivalent.
With the airplane still grounded and the en
gine then shut o?, the temperatures of the ex
haust pipe I 2| approaches the ambient tempera
ture, the air, in the safety chamber I24, cools and
contracts, the pressure recedes from 6 lbs/sq. in.
haust gases from an internal combustion engine
as a source of heat, comprising: a pipe through
which exhaust from the engine flows; a wall sur
rounding said pipe de?ning a pressure tight
chamber heated by the exhaust in the pipe; a
conduit for the air to be heated; a wall de?ning
to slightly under 4 lbs/sq. in. and the pressure
reducing valve opens to maintain the 4 lbs/sq. in.
a heating chamber around the wall of the air
conduit, and through which a current of air is
normally circulated to absorb heat from the air
During all this time the airplane has been
grounded and the ambient pressure (assuming
sea level) was 14.7 lbs/sq. in. Now we shall as
tight chamber, communicatively connected to the
tight chamber prior to its discharge from the
the ambient pressure decreases and the pressure
relief valve 40 continually bleeds off the pressure,
to constantly maintain the 6 lbs/sq. in. pressure
di?erential between the upper and lower sides of
the diaphragm 5| of the pressure relief valve 40.
conduit, said air tight chamber having no com
munication with the air in the conduit and the
gas in the pipe; means for maintaining a pneu
matic pressure in said chamber above the pres
sure of the exhaust gases passing through the
pipe, including a pressure reducing valve and re
stricted ?ow-means between the reducing valve
70 and the pressure-tight chamber; valve-means for
During the descent, of the plane, the ambient
pressure continually increases and ?nally the
and pneumatic-means, automatically responsive
sume that, after the engine is warmed up, the
plane takes off. As the ?ight altitude increases,
controlling the delivery of air from said conduit;
to a predetermined drop in pressure in said air
pressure differential between the upper and lower
tight chamber, for controlling the valve-means
sides of the diaphragm 29, of the pressure reduc
ing valve 20, reaches a value slightly under 4 75 to cut. off the delivery of air from the conduit.
I 3.;Ahot air heating system utilizing ;the__:ex;;
' as a: source; ofheatgcomnrisineya pipe through;
haust gases , froman‘ internal combustion engine
as‘a source of heat; comprising; a pipe through’
which exhaust from the engine ;?ows;~1a;3va_ll» sur-_
rounding said pipe de?ning‘ a, pressure .1 tight
* chamber heated by the ,exhaustin the,,pipe; a"
conduitfor air to be heated; ja-wall de?ning‘a
whichgexhaust fromzthe engine ?ows ;-> a, wall surf-l.
rounding" said pipe defining; a; vpressuretight
chamber heated by the exhaust in the pipe; a con-1
duit for air to be heated; a wall de?ning a heat-.5
ing chamber around the wallof, the. airftight
chamber communicatively, connected to said; con-i
heating. chamber around the wall .of'the air tight
duit,,; and through which a current of air isnor-I
chamber communicatively connected to the con- ‘
mally circulated toabsorb‘heat from the air tight ‘
duit, and, through which a’ current ofairis nor- >
chamber prior, to its discharge through the an;
nially circulated to absorb heat from the, air tight
outlet,’ said air tight chamber being in non-come,
chamber prior to its discharge'from the conduit,
said air tight chamber having no communication
municating; relation 7 with the air- in the conduit‘; _ f ‘
and ‘the gas in the pipe; means for maintaining
with the air in the conduit and the gas in the
a pneumatic pressure in said'chamber above the. f
pipe; means vfor maintaining aipneumatic pres-_
pressure of theexhaust gases, including. a pres- ‘
sure in said chamber above the pressure of the
exhaust, gases passing through the pipe, includ
ing, a pressure':reducingvalve; valve-means for "
controlling the delivery of air from said conduit;
pneumatic-means, automatically responsive to a V
predetermined drop in pressure in said airtight
chamber, for controlling the valve-means to cut
off the- delivery of air from the conduit, and
' including a pressure relief valve. '-
ber, and a relief valve;,valve-mea'ns for control
lingrthe delivery of air .from said conduit;v and
pneumatic-means, ' automatically responsive» to,v a’
predetermined drop in pressure in said airtight
chamber, ,for' controlling the‘vfalve-mean's- to" cut:
011?, the delivery’ of air from the conduit, said, ‘
means includinga conduit leading from the pres;- ~ '
,A4.>A'~ hot air heating system utilizing the
sure‘; reducing valve, restricted’v flow-means be-'
tween thereducing valve and said air tight cham
ex- 1 25
haust gases from an internal combustion engine
sure relief valve.
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