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Dec. 10, 1946.
R. B. JOHNSON
2,412,340
PROJECTION APPARATUS FOR THE CREATION 0E ILLUsoRY EFFECTS
Filed Sept. 8, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Dec. 10, 1946.
2,412Q340
R. B. JOHNSON
PROJECTION APPARATUS FOR THE CREATION OF ILLUSORY EFFECTS
Filed Sept. 8, 1944
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INVENTOR
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ATTORNEY
2,412,340
Patented Dec. 10, i946
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l UNITED s'rA'nzsA .PATENT ortica
2,412,340
PROJECTION APPARATUS FOR THE
CREATION OF ILLUSOBY EFFECTS
Reynold B. Johnson, Binghamton, N. Y., assignor
to International Business Machines Corpora
tion, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New
York
Application September 8, 1944, Serial No. 553,188
4 Claims. (Cl. 240-1)
l
2
trolled, thereby facilitating synchronization of
'I'he projection apparatus comprising the pres
the flash with the electrical tiring of the dummy
ent invention is primarily adapted for use in the
creation of illusory effects upon a projection
weapon.
-
o
A still further object of the invention is to
provide a small portable projection apparatus ca
pable oi being attached to or removed from the
dummy weapon at will and capable of being con
screen simulating muzzle ilash as it exists in
the tiring of a dual gun weapon of the type com
monly employed in a turret installation of a
combat plane, The invention is designed for use
in connection with training apparatus of the
nected to the _dummy weapon installation by de
tachable plug-ln connections.
v
type shown in my co-pending application Serial
No. 553,167, filed September 8, 1944, for “Artil 10 In carrying out the above mentioned object,
the invention contemplates the provision of a
lery training apparatus and method.”
ì
continuously illuminated light source adapted to
In. the apparatus shown and described in the
cast its light upon a movable
rror which is
above mentioned co-pending application, a
capable of oscillation about an axis. Light is
dummy weapon is employed for aiming at a mov
ing target projected upon a, motion picture pro 15 suing from the source and striking the mirror
is deflected from the surface of the moving mir
jection screen. This weapon is in the form `of
ror onto a reñector and from thence. onto the
a turret installation closely simulating an actual
screen,l the tendency being to project a moving
turret installation and having a pair of spaced
beam of light onto the screen and cause the same
dummy weapons carried on a tiltable gun mount.
The gunner undergoing training is seated in a 20 to move across the screen from left to right and
from right to left alternately. Because of the
compartment between the two weapons and he is
fact that such a beam of light in passing across
provided with most of the usual turret accoutre
the screen in that region thereof which exists
ments' common to such installations, including
directly at the point of aim would ordinarily tend
dual trigger devices and a gun sight. The train
ing apparatus further vincludes a trace trainer 25 to obscure the tracer effects produced by the
training projector, means are provided yfor blank
projector which is located behind the dummy
ing out the spot as it approachesl the point of
weapon installation for the purpose of place
aim. Toward this end, shutter means are pro
ment projection of tracer effects on the screen
vided for the light source which become oper
which are correlated with the aiming and firing
30 able periodically to block light issuing from the“
oi.' the dummy weapons.
source at a predetermined time. The provision
The present invention is designed to further
o! an apparatus possessing this feature is a still
enhance the optical effects produced upon the
further important object of the present inven
student gunner by creating the illusion of muzzle
tion.
flash on the screen and in accomplishing this
purpose a flash of light may be seen by the gun 35 Further objects and advantages of the inven
tion not at this time enumerated will become
ner when looking through the gun sight as each
more readily apparent as the nature of the in
tracer shot is fired. The flash appears to leave
vention is better understood.
`
y
the gun muzzle and converge upon the screen at
In the accompanying two sheets of drawings
the point of aim just as the tracer shot appears.
forming part of this speciñcation, one embodi
The projection unit comprising the present in
ment of the invention is shown. In these draw
vention is mounted upon the turret gun cradle
mgs:
or gun mount at one side Vof the gun sight and
Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of the projec
is bodily movable with the cradle. The device
tion unit with one side wall of its casing im
is synchronized electrically with the turret con
trols so as to become operative only when tracer 45 proved and certain other parts being broken away
to more clearly reveal the nature of the inven
shots are discharged at the screen.
tion.
'
The provision of an apparatus o'f the char
Fig. 2 ls a sectional view taken substantially
acter set forth being the principal object of the
along the line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
invention, a further object thereof 'is to provide
Fig, 3 is a sectional view taken substantially
a projection unit of this type which is relatively 50
simple in its construction and which is comprised
of a minimum number of moving parts and which,
consequently, is unlikely to get out of order.
Another object ofthe invention is to provide
l
along the line 3-3 of Fig. l.
Fig. 4 is a. sectional view taken substantially
along the line 4-4 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 5 1s a diagrammatic vlewrshowing the elec
such an apparatus which is electrically con-l 55 trlçßiconuections'for _the projection apparatus.
2,418,340
. 3
I.
>i
Referring now to the drawings in detail, the
apparatus involves in its general organization a ‘
'4
A
-
~
16 in such a manner that upon oscillation of thel
shaft 54 these lateral portions of the operating
rectilinear box-like casing 8 adapted to be de- . arms 66 are adapted“ to alternately engage the ,
tachably secured in a suitable position tothe tilt
- shutter ann 16 to bring the shutter 18 directly m
ï able gun mount or cradle of a dummy weapon el front of the light source or lampl and block the
1 substantially as-shown in my co-pending appli- ‘
cation above referred to. The casing 8 includes a ï
rays of light issuing therefrom. The laterally
extending portions 66 of the shutter operating
arms 66 are .spaced apart a distance somewhat
§ base plate I8 on which there is mounted a bracket
I2 which serves to support a mounting I4 for a
. lamp l.- A lens I6 mounted in a bracket I8> serves
to concentrate light issuing from the lamp l into
. a beam and to project-the latter 'against the sur
` face of a movable mirror 20 positioned behind
the lamp. From'the movable mirror'28'the light
` beam is projected against‘the surface of a sta
Í tionary mirror 22 mounted on a, bracket -24 supl ported on the side pieces'~ 26 of an inverted
\ U-shaped frame 28 supported on the base plate
` I0. From the stationary mirror 22 the light beam
is projected onto a screen (not shown) asso
greater than the width of the shutter arm 16
10 so that a considerable degree of lost motion ex
ists between the movements of the shutter and
of the shutter operating arms.
By such an
arrangement, the shutter is maintained out of
t
registry with the lamp l during the movement
of the movable mirror 20vat the commencement
`
l
of its stroke in either direction. This permits'
a -ñash of light upon the screen to sweep in one ¿ ’
direction or the ‘other `inwardly of the screen
untn .the shutter ia‘heoomes eseotive to b1ook
20 light rays issuing from the lamp l. After this
ciated with the trace trainer apparatus.
Y occurs no further light is permitted to reach the
The movable mirror 20 is mounted on a -fixture ì
screen until after the mirror has completed its
38 which in turn is mounted on a horizontal rock
stroke. 'I'he movements of the shutter 18 and
shaft 32 suspended in brackets 34 and 36. The
of the mirror 20 are so correlated that the net
movable mirror 20 is inclined with respect to the 25 result consists of a flash of lightwhich appears
e shaft 32 in such a manner that 'light issuing
on the screen ea'ch time 'a tracer shot is fired.
1 from the lens I6 will be reflected generally up- \ . This flash alternately sweeps inwardly from the
‘ wardly against the stationary mirror 22 which is
sides of thel screen and converges toward the
of elongated design andextends ’completely across . point of aim of the dummy guns associated with
I the’unit between the side members 26.
_ '
30 the trace trainer installation. These flashes of
'A pair of solenoids 38 and 40 are mounted »on
light are observed by the operator seated in the
a support 42 carried by the base plate I8 and are
` provided with cores 44 that are pivoted medially -\
turret compartment of the assembly on opposite
sides of the twol gun units.
v
of respective links 46, whichin’turn are pivoted \
A cover plate or casing 80 including side walls
to ñxed lugs 48 mounted on?the upper ends of 35 82, a top -wall 84 and a rear wall 86 is provided
the solenoids. The free end of each link 46 is
pivotally attached lto a connecting rod or link 50 .
for the mechanism just described. The front
end of the casing 8 is open in the‘upper regions
and the lower ends-of the links 58 are secured to . thereof and a shield as 'is associated with the 'Y
theopposite ends of a cross head 52 centered ` casing 8 to restrict issuance of light from the lamp n
on the shaft32. The solenoids 38 and 46 exist 40 l and confine the light to the mirror 28. VThe
\ in respective electrical circuits by means of which
passage of light from the lamp l and its deñection
l alternate >energization thereof is made possible to ~È
cause oscillation of the cross head 52 and conse
‘3 quent oscillation of the shaft 32 and movable
l mirror 28 about a horizontal axis. The electrical 45
’ circuits for the solenoids 38 >`and 40 will be pointed l
` out subsequentlyduring the description‘of the
j electrical diagram for the unit.
.
‘ l The bracket 36 is. comparatively wideand in
by the mirrors 26 and 22 onto the screen is graph
ically illustrated by means of small arrowsxain
Fig.
1.
»
»
-
"
Referring now to Fig. 5 -wherein the circuit
diagram for the projection apparatus is dis
closed, the lamp Z'receives energization from >the
secondary coil s of a transformer T having a pri- _
mary winding p adapted to be energized from a
ïaddition to performing a» supportfor the rock 50 source of current S which may, if desired, be
shaft 32 also serves to rotatably support one end
the usual 11G-volt. 60-cycle alternating> house
` of a second rock shaft 54, the other end of which
shaft is rotatably supported in a bracket 56 posi
hold current.
.y
‘
'I‘he solenoid 38 is provided with a winding Si
tioned near and to one side of the lamp assem
and the solenoid 40 is provided vwith a, winding S2,
bly. An arm 58 secured to the` rock shaftv32 55 the two windings -being connected together in
w projects outwardly therefrom and is provided
with a slot 60 adjacent its free end. A similark ;
parallel and having a common lead a in which
there is interposed a source of current whichmay,
arm 62 carried by the shaft 54 is provided with
a pin 64 adjacent its outer lend which passes
through the slot 68- for the purpose of mechani
if desired, be a battery B. `'I'he windings SI and
Si’` are connected by wires b and c to respective
1 cally coupling thetwo shafts 32 and 54 together.
adapted to be continuously driven from a motor
It will be seen that by the arrangement of parts
just described the oscillatory motion of the shaft
Í 32 will- be transmitted to the shaft 54. The
brushes b' and b" associated with a »rotor r "
M. 'I'he rotor r carries a movable contact C
operablev upon rotation of the rotor r to alter
nately engage the brushes b' and b" and thus
t forward end of the shaft 54 immediately behind 65 alternately energize the solenoids 38 and 40.
A'
lthe bracket 36 has mounted thereon a pair of
switch tc which may be in the form of a trigger
`shutter operating arms '66 which project out
mechanism serves to open the circuit of the motor
`wardly from the shaft 54 and the ends. of which
and the common lead a of the solenoid windings
`are turned laterally as at 68. ‘.-Abracket 10 se
SI and S2.
e cured to the base plate I0 serves to support adja 70
The invention is not to be nmited to the _exact '
cent its upper end a rockrv shaft 12 Vfrom which
arrangement of parts shownin the accompany-v
there projects laterally a shutter member 14 in
ing drawings or described in this speciiicationfas
cluding a shutter arm 16 and a shutter proper
various changes in the details of construction
f 18. The two laterally extending` portions 68 of
may be resorted to without departing fromV the
the operating arms 66 straddle the shutter arm 75 spirit of the invention. Only insofar as the in
. A
-
2,412,340
5
6
vention has been particularly pointed out in the
sition, a second rock shaft mounted for rotation
about a horizontal axis, alight source positioned
in front of said mirror, a shutter secured to said
second rock shaft and movable with the shaft
from an inoperative position wherein it is out of
the path of movement of light issuing from said
accompanying claims is the same to be limited.
What is claimed is:
y
l. In a projection apparatus for producing
moving light effects which are representative >of
tracer bullet flash upon a projection screen, a
source and proceeding to the mirror to an opera
tive position wherein it- intercepts such light,
axis, a light source positioned in front of said
means for alternately energizing said electromag
mirror, a movable shutter positioned between said
light source and mirror and‘movable from a posi 10 nets to impart oscillating movement to said first
tion out of the path of light issuing from said
mentioned rock shaft, a third rock shaft mounted
for oscillation about a horizontal axis, means op
source and passing to the screen to a position in
eratively connecting said first mentioned rock
the path of movement of such light, means oper
atively connecting said mirror and shutter to syn
shaft to said third mentioned rock shaft to trans
chronize the movements thereof whereby said 1.5 mit motion from the former to the latter, and
' movable mirror mounted for oscillation about an
- shutter assumes an inoperative position when
means including a lost motion connection oper
atively connecting said third mentioned rock
said mirror is in the _vicinity of either of its ex
treme positions and assumes an operative position
shaft l to said second mentioned rock shaft to
when said mirror is in the vicinity of its medial
transmit motion from the former to the latter.
4. In a projection apparatus for producing
position, and means for moving said mirror.
20
2. In a projection apparatus for producing
moving light effects upon> a projection screen, a
rock shaft mounted for rotation about a horizon
moving light effects upon a4 projection screen, a
horizontal rock shaft, a mirror mountedupon
tal axis, a mirror mounted on said rock shaft for
oscillation therewith and inclined Áwith respect to
said rock shaft for oscillation therewith and in
-clined with respect to the axis of said shaft, an 25 the axis thereof, an electromagnet operable upon
electromagnet operable upon energization there
energization thereof to move said rock shaft in
one direction to an _extreme position, a second
of to move said rock shaft in one direction to an
electromagnet operable upon energization there
extreme position, a second electromagnet oper
of to move said rock shaft in the other direction
able upon energization thereof to move said rock
shaft in the opposite direction to an extreme po 30 to an extreme position, a second rock shaft
mounted for rotation about a horizontal axis, a
sition, a second rock shaft mounted for -rotation
. light source positioned in front .of said mirror, a
about a horizontal axis, a light source positioned
shutter carried by said second rock shaft and
in front of said mirror, a shutter secured to said
movable from an inoperative p0siti0n where it is
second rock shaft and movable with the shaft
out of the path of light issuing from said source
from an inoperative 4position wherein it is out of
and proceeding so the movable mirror to an op
the path of movement of .light issuing from said
erative position where it intercepts such light, a
source and proceeding to the mirror to an opera
tive position wherein it intercepts such light,
third rock shaft mounted for oscillation about a
horizontal axis, an arm secured to said first men
means for alternately energizing said- electro
magnets to impart oscillating movement to said 40 tioned rock shaft and projecting laterally there
from, an arm secured to said third mentioned
first mentioned rock shaft, and means including
rock shaft and projecting laterally therefrom,
a lost motion connection operatively connecting
there being a slot in one of said arms, a pin car
said rock shafts to transmit motion from the
former to the latter.
`
3. In aV projection apparatus for producing
moving light eñ’ects upon a projection screen, a
horizontal rock shaft, a mirror mounted upon
said rock shaft for oscillation therewith and in
clined with respect to the axis of said shaft, an
ried by _the other arm and projecting through
said slot whereby motion of said first mentioned
rock shaft is imparted to said third mentioned
rock shaft, a pair of divergingarms secured to
` said third mentioned rock shaft and having 'lat
erally turned ends which straddle said shutter,
electromagnet operable upon energization there 50 the distance between'said laterally turned ends
" being greater than the width» of said shutter in
of to move said rock shaft in one direction to an
the region of >contact therewith, -and means
-extreme_position, a‘ second electromagnet oper
able upon energization thereof to move said rock -
shaft in the opposite direction to 'an extreme po
i'or alternately energizing said electromagnets.
REYNOLD B. JOHNSON.
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