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Dec. 10, 1946.
2,412,344
W. A. LEDWITH
ASSEMBLY OF ENGINE CYLINDERS AND MANIFOLDS
Filed May 11, 1943 '
2 Sheets-Sheet v1
LAW
Maw
ATTORNEY
Dec. 10, 1946;
'
‘
w. A. LEDWITH
2,412,344
ASSEMBLY OF ENGINE CYLINDERS AND MANIFOLDS
Filed May- 11, 1943
5492
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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8266.90
ATTORNEY
Patented Dec. 10, 1946
‘2,412,344
UNITED‘ STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,412,344
ASSEMBLY OF ENGINE CmNDERS AND
MANIFOLDS
Walter A. Ledwith, Hartford, com, assignor to
United Aircraft Corporation, East Hartford,
Conn., a corporation of Delaware
Application May 11, 1943, Serial No. 486,622
10 Claims. ‘ (o1. 123-493)
1
This invention relates to the assembly of an
engine cylinder and manifolds for an opposed
piston engine, and particularly to the assembly
2
, air leaves the cylinders through discharge valves
42, also at opposite ends of the compressor cyl- _
inders; and passes through scavenge manifold
44 through spaced ports 48 and 48 which are
uncovered by pistons l2 and M at the end of the
' of a free-piston engine-and-compressor unit..
The weight 01' an opposed piston engine for
use in an aircraft power plant must be reduced.
to a minimum in order to obtain a low weight
for the entire power plant. An object of this
invention is to assemble the parts of the engine
'\
' power stroke thereby permitting air to be blown
through the engine cylinder and spaced exhaust ‘
. ports 58 and 52 into exhaust manifold 54'.
exhaust ducts 58 and 68 surround
cylinder in such a way as to minimize the weight 10 theRing-shaped
enginescylinder‘ and collect the gases dis
”
charging through exhaust ports 58 and 52. 'These
Opposed piston engines have inlet and exhaust .
ducts
are connected to exhaust manifold 54.
ports covered and uncovered by the pistons dur
of the parts.
ing. their reciprocation. Manifolds surrounding
the engine cylinder direct scavenge air into the 15
engine cylinder and collect the exhaust gas from
the exhaust ports. A feature of this invention '~
'
is the mounting of a part, at least, of the mani
foldson the engine cylinder by the same struc
ture that holds the engine cylinder in. alignment 20
with the supporting structure.
a
Another feature of this invention is the as;
semblyvof an engine cylinder and associated parts
A housing 82, Fig. 2, surrounds the engine cyl
inder between its ends and has at least one radial
chamber 64 which receives injection device 32.
The exhaust ducts 58 and 68 are held against
housing 82 by turnbuckles 68 and 18. Each turn
buckle is in the form of a ring having right and
left threads 12 and 14 on its inner surface. These“
threads engage cooperating threads 16 and 18
on housing and duct respectively, and turning the '
by one or more .turnbuckles. Another feature is
ring brings the duct and housing into assembled
position. Threads 16 and. 18 are of different
accompanying drawings which illustrate what is
tending the entire length of the engine cylinder
the use of turnbuckles in-connecting the engine 25 pitch so that ring 68 or 18 may be started on duct
58 or 68 before it is started on the housing.
cylinder to a surrounding housing.
\
The engine cylinder I 8, which may be liquid
Other objects and advantages will be apparent
cooled, has an inner sleeve-like element 88 ex
from the speci?cation and claims and from the.
now considered to be a preferred embodiment of 30 and having shoulders 82 and 84 at its opposite
the invention.
.
‘Fig. 1 is a sectional view through the free
piston engine-and-compressor unit.
‘
ends.
Outer vcylinder elements 86 andv 88 sur
rounding the inner sleeve element and extend
ing toward each other in substantial alignment,
have inwardly extending ?anges 98 and 92 at
Fig. 2 is a sectional view on a larger scale of
the engine cylinder assembly.
‘
35 their outer ends, engaging the shoulders on the
ends of the inner element 88. The ?anges '98 and
' The unit shown includes an engine cylinder. l8
92 may be brazed to shoulders 82 and 84 for a
having reciprocating pistons l2 and I4 to which
positive seal.
compressor pistons l8 and i8 in cylinders 28 and
The inner ends of outer elements 88 and 88
22 are integrally connected. Sleeves 24 and 26
attached to the compressor pistons complete the 40 have shoulders 94 and 96, respectively, which are
engaged by a part of the surrounding exhaust
reciprocating piston assemblies. The sleeves in
combination with stationary pistons 28 and 38
ducts 58 and 68. Turnbuckles 68 and 18 which
form air spring cylinders.
engage ducts 58 and 68 thus hold these ducts
The piston assemblies are moved apart by the
in position and also hold the assembled cylinder
burning of fuel injected into engine cylinder l8 45 elements in radial position within, and in.axial
by one or more devices 32. Air compressed in the
alignment in surrounding housing 62.
- r
air spring cylinders on the power stroke returns
A shield may be positioned between the outer
the piston assemblies. The assemblies are always
and inner cylinder elements for directing the
maintained at equal distances from the center
cooling liquid in predetermined paths. This shield
of the engine cylinder by a linkage which may 50 may comprise cylindrical sleeves 98 and I88 at
include racks 34 on the compressor pistons mesh
tached at their outer ends to the outer surface
ing with a pinion 38.
'
of the inner cylinder element. The inner ends
Intake manifold 38 conducts air to intake valves
of these sleeves may overlap near the center of
48 through which air alternately enters opposite
the engine cylinder as indicated at I82. The
ends of the compressor cylinders. The compressed 55 sleeves have notches I84 and 186 to receive boss
2,412,84é
4
vice is mounted.
'
It is to be understood that the invention is not
limited to the speci?c embodiment herein illus
trated and described, but may be used in other
ways without departure from its spirit as de?ned
by the following claims.
I claim:
-
'
6. In a cylinder construction, a cylinder having
ports, a manifold extending around said ports,
I08 on inner element 80 where the injection de
in combination with turnbuckle means for secur
ing the manifold to the cylinder.
7. In a cylinder construction, a cylinder having
ports, a manifold extending around said ports, ,
and a housing around said cylinder in com- >
bination with turnbuckle means in the form of a
‘
ring extending around the cylinder for securing
1. A cylinder construction including an inner
cylinder element having shoulders at its ends, 10 the housing and manifold in position on the
cylinder.
'
outer cylinder elements overlying said inner cylin
8. In a cylinder construction, a cylinder'having
der and having shoulders cooperating with said
ports, a manifold extending around said ports,
first shoulders, the inner ends of said elements be
ing adjacent each other, and a turnbuckle in
the form of a threaded ring extending across said
elements for holding each outer element in pre
determined position.
and a housing around said cylinder in combina
tion with turnbuckle means securing the housing
and manifold in position on the cylinder, said
means comprising opposed threads on the housing
and manifold, and a ring extending around said
2. A cylinder construction for ?uid cooled
cylinderand having cooperating threads engaging
engines, a cylinder wall, outer elements extending
around said wall and spaced therefrom, the outer 20 the threads on the manifold and housing.
9. In a cylinder construction for an opposed
end of each element engaging an end of the wall,
piston engine, an inner cylinder element, outer‘
in combination with cooperating threaded rings
elements extending around said inner element
extending around said elements for drawing-said
from opposite ends thereof, the inner ends’ of
elements toward each other and for holding the
ends of the elements against the ends-of the 25 said outer elements being spaced from each other,
a housing extending around the center-part of
wall.
said’ inner cylinder element and having a cylin
3.-In a cylinder construction for ?uid cooled
, drical surface with which the inner ends of the
engines, a cylinder wall having shoulders at its
outer cylinder elements engage, said inner and.
ends, outer elements extending around said wall
and spacedltherefrom, each outer element having 30 outer cylinder elements having aligned ports ad
jacent opposite ends of the inner element, mani
a shoulder cooperating with one end shoulder
folds extending around at least some of the ports
on the wall, the adjoining edges of the outer ele
adjacent each end of the inner element, each of
ments being spaced from each other, in combina
said manifolds havingthreads thereon and en
tion with threaded rings extending around said
gaging endwise with a part of the adjoining
outer elements for drawing'said outer elements
outer cylinder element, said housing also having
toward each other and for holding the shoulders
threads thereon adjacent each end, and'turn
on said elements against the shoulders on the
buckles in the form of rings extending around
wall.
,
the housing and engaging the threads on the ‘
4. In a cylinder construction for ?uid cooled
engines, a cylinder wall having shoulders at its 40 housing and the’ threads on the adjacent mani
fold for holding said manifolds against the outer ‘
ends, outer elements extending around said wall
and spaced therefrom, each outer element having
cylinder elements and for holding the outer ~
a. shoulder cooperating with one shoulder on the
cylinder elements in position.
wall, the adjoining edges of the outer elements
being spaced from each other, and a housing
around said wall in combination with tum
buckle means in the form of rings extending
around said outer elements for drawing said outer
elements towards each other and into desired
position with respect to the housing.
‘
-
10. In a cylinder construction, a cylinder having
ports therethrough, adjacent each end, mani
folds extending around the cylinder and en
closing at least some of the ports adjacent each
end, a housing extending centrally around the
cylinder and having spaced sets of threads there
on, said housing also‘having a cylindrical wall,
said cylinder having cylindrical outer surfaces
5..In a cylinder construction for ?uid cooled
engines, a cylinder wall having shoulders at its
ends, outer elements extending around said wall
and in spaced relation therefrom, each outer ele
ment having a shoulder cooperating with one
shoulder on the wall, the adjoining edges of the
outer elements being spaced from each other,
a housing around said wall, threads on the hous
ing and other threads associated with each ele
ing, said cylinder also having spaced shoulders
thereon engageable endwise by the surrounding
manifolds, each of said manifolds having a'set
urging the elements and the ‘housing toward each
to the housing.
engaging with said cylindrical wall on the hous
ing so that the cylinder is piloted within the hous
of threads thereon and a ring engagingveach _
‘set oi’v threads on the housing, and the set of
threads on the adjacent manifold for holding
ment, and rings constituting turnbuckles having 60 the manifolds in position and clamping the mani
folds against the shoulders on the cylinder, there
their opposed threads engaging the threads asso
by holding the cylinder in position with respect
ciated with said elements and on the housing for
at er.
-
>
»
WALTER A. LEDWI'I'H.
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