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MQQEIQJI
De.a 1 0. l 9 4 6.
‘ H. c. MoRGAN
2,412,350
MULTIPLE SCALE, MULTIPLE FUNCTION INSTRUMENT INDICATING SYSTEM
Filed May l0, 1943
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5 Sheets-Sheet- 1
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Dec. 10, 1946.
H_ '¢_ MORGAN
2,412,350
MULTIPLE SCALE, MULTIPLE FUNCTION INSTRUMENT INDICATING SYSTEM
Filed May 10, 1943
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
H. C. M O R G A N
2,412,350
MULTIPLE scALE,- MULTIPLE >FUNCTION INSTRUMENT INDICATING sYsTEM
Filed May 10, 1943
5 Sheets-Sheet 5_
De@Á 10, 1946»
H. c. MORGAN
2,412,350
MULTIPLE SCALE, MULTIPLE FUNCTION INSTRUMENT INDICATING SYSTEM
Filed May 10, 1945
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
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flieg/u C [Pf/oigan.
Dec. 10, 1946.
H. c. MORGAN
2,412,350
MULTIPLE SCALE, MULTIPLE FUNCTION INSTRUMENT INDICATING SYSTEM
Filed May 10, 1945,
AAAIAL
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
‘2,412,350
Patented Dec. 10, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,412,350
MULTIPLE SCALE, MULTIPLE FUNCTION
INSTRUMENT INDICATIN G SYSTEM
Harry C. Morgan, Dayton, Ohio, assignor, by
mesne assignments, to Curtis Engineering Com
pany, Inglewood, Calif., a copartnersliip con
sisting of William H. Curtis and Russell R.
Curtis
Application May 10, 1943, Serial No. 486,410
3 Claims. (Cl. 177-351)
l
'I'his invention relates to a multiple scale, mul
tiple function instrument indicating system.
In the operation of aircraft, sea-going craft
of various kinds, and other kinds of mobile and
stationary equipment Where a multiplicity of in
struments are used to register the operation of
the equipment, it has been the practice in the
past to mount the many instruments on a panel
in front of the operator. This requires the oper
2
Another and further object of the present in
vention is to provide a novel method of control
ling the operation of a cathode ray tube.
Another further object of the present inven
tion is to provide a novel method and means
for commutating the biasing potential on the
deflecting plate of a cathode ray tube.
`
Still another and further object of the present
invention is to provide a cathode ray tube having
ator to visually scan the panel at frequent inter 10 means for propagating a sheet of electrons and
having a plurality of deñecting plates for isolat
vals, reading various gauges, instruments, etc.
ing and changing the path of movement of se
With the advent of multi-motored equipment, as
lected individual portions of the sheet of elec
Well as With the increase in the number of addi
tional accessories, the number of instruments
trons.
Still another and further object of the present
mounted on the panel has materially increased. 15
As a result, the operator’s responsibility has in
invention is to provide a novel instrument face
creased proportionately.
Y
and scale arrangement.
The present invention relates to means for sim
The novel features which I believe to be char
plifying the operator’s task of observing per
acteristic of my invention are set forth with par
formance, and to reducing the panel space re 20 ticularity in the appended claims. My invention
quired for registration of various necessary read
itself, however, both as to its organization, man
ings.
ner of construction and method of operation, to
The present invention relates to apparatus
gether with further objects and advantages there
which includes a plurality of translators which
of, may best be understood'by reference to the
s vary ¿ann eleçtriggáoutput, omordance
following description taken in connection with
with” the variation'vo'îwthe quantity being meas
the accompanying drawings, in which:
ured, such as speed, pressure, temperature or
other functional operations being quantitatively
measured, and an interpreter for interpreting
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of a
multiple scale, multiple function instrument indi
cating system having a single interpreter and
and registering the electrical response of each 30 four translators;
l
individual translator in a confined locality where
Figure 2 is an illustration of an instrument
it can be observed by the operator.
face embodying the novel features of the-present
More particularly it is an object of the present
invention and particularly arranged for a single
invention to provide a single indicating instru
engine plane;
ment having a multiplicity of scales thereon 35
Figure 3 is an illustration of an instrument
which provide a multiplicity of indications corre
face showing a scale arrangement for a multi
sponding with a like number of conditions being
registered.
motored plane;
readings simultaneously to the operator, indi
along the line V-V;
Figure 4 is a diagrammatic view of a novel
It is a further object of thepresent invention
to provide a novel instrument indicating means 40 cathode ray tube;
Figure 5 is a diagrammatic view of the elements
which includes a cathode ray tube having a single
of the cathode ray tube shown in Figure 4 as taken
beam of electrons, but which gives a plurality of
Figure 6 is a diagrammatic View of certain of
cating a plurality of conditions being observed.
A still further object of the present invention 4.5 the elements of the cathode ray tube shown in
Figure 4 taken along the line VI-VI;
is to provide an indicating system which includes
Figure 7 is a Wiring diagram illustrating the
a cathode ray tube in which the path of the beam
electrical circuit and operation of the cathode
of electrons is rapidly altered in response to a
ray tube 0f Figure 4 as employed in a multiple
series of different electrical values and in which
the beam of electrons is caused to impinge on 50 scale, multiple function instrument indicating
system, and embodying the novel features of the
a plurality of different scales in rapid and re
current succession to indicate a plurality of con
present invention;
Figure 8 diagrammatically illustrates a different
ditions.
Another object of the present invention is to
embodiment of a novel cathode ray tube;
Figure 9 is a modification of the wiring diagram
55
provide a novel form of cathode ray tube.
2,412,350
3
4
shown in Figure '1 and includes means for adjust
ing the scale lines to zero; and
Figure 10 is a diagrammatic wiring diagram and
with the arrangement shown in Figure 2, a plural
ity of short vertical lines 31 to 44 formed by the
illustration of a third modification of the present
invention wherein a conventional cathode ray
tube is employed in combination with a mechan
ical commutator system for carrying out the de
sired functions of the present invention.
In Figure 1 of the drawings there is diagram
matically illustrated the principal component
parts of one embodiment of my multiple scale,
multiple function instrument indicating system.
More particularly, a plurality of translators I0,
II, I2 and I3 are shown as being electrically con
nected to a single interpreter I4. Each translator
is connected to a different scale on the interpreter
and acts by virtue of an output signal to cause
change in the scale reading of its associated scale
as changes occur in the variable conditions being
impingement of electrons on a fluorescent screen
28 gives a quantitative indication of the condition
being measured. Each of the respective control
circuits for determining the position of the
vertical lines 31 to 44 can be adjusted so that
under normal operating conditions all of the ver
tical lines will be aligned one above the other.
Likewise, strips of fluorescent material which
fluoresce different colors can be added to the
screen 28, such, for example, as providing the
portion of the scale from A to B with material
which will fluoresce red, the portion between B
and C with material which will fluoresce white,
the portion between C and D with material which
will iiuoresce green, and the portion between D
and E with material which will fiuoresce white.
If all of the indicating lines 31 to 44 are in the
measured. While any suitable term may be em 20 green area, the pilot can tell at a single glance
that all of the operating conditions are normal.
ployed, I have employed the term “translator”
as indicating generally any type of device or
If, on the other hand, he should note that one
of the indicating lines 31 to 44 is in a different
means which is responsive to a variable condition
color area, his entire attention will be directed to,
being measured and for translating the same into
an electromotive force which is proportional to 25 and only to, the line or lines which are out of the
the magnitude of the condition being measured.
normal operating region.
In Figures 4, 5 and 6 of the drawings I have
illustrated diagrammatically one form of cathode
ray tube or interpreter 45 embodying the novel
which is associated with that particular translator. 30 features and principles of my invention. This
cathode ray tube 45 is provided with an outside
The particular nature of the interpreter and the
coated semi-cylindrical cathode 46 which con
manner in which the electromotive forces from
stitutes a source of electrons. The cathode 46
the various translators are impressed thereon is
is heated by the heating filament 41 surrounded
the essence of the present invention, and three
specific embodiments thereof will hereinafter be 35 by a ceramic insulator 48. Heat reflector 49 is
disposed on the opposite side of the ceramic in
described.
sulator 48 from the cathode 46. This heat re
The interpreter in each embodiment of the
ñector 49 tends to lessen heat loss of the cathode
present invention employs a cathode ray tube
structure.
having a fluorescent screen at the end thereof
Disposed immediately above the cathode 46 is
over which is impressed a plurality of scales 40
a control grid 50 to regulate the number of elec
calibrated in terms of the respective conditions
trons in the sheet drawn from the cathode 46.
being measured.
The control grid 50 is provided with a suitable
In Figure 2 of the drawings a scale arrange
negative potential through conductor 5I. An ac
ment has been illustrated for use in conjunction
celerating anode 52 is disposed directly above the
45
with single engine planes. The scale arrange
control grid 50 and is provided with a sufficient
-ment is on the end of a cathode ray tube where
ly high positive potential through conductor 53
the electron beam excites the fluorescent screen
to cause a sheet of electrons to be drawn from
to form indicating lines. As shown in Figure 2,
the cathode 46.
the fluorescent screen I5 is provided with a plural
Disposed above the accelerating anode 52 is
ity of scales I6, I1, I8, I9, 20 and 2| which re 50
a focusing electrode 54 which is provided with a
spectively indicate air speed, altitude, fuel con
positive bias through conductor 55. This control
tent, R. P. M., manifold pressure, and oil pressure.
electrode 54 is arranged in such a manner that
The quantitative indication for each of the scales
the line formed, when the electron beam strikes
I6 to 2I is provided by a plurality of short vertical
lines 22 to 21 respectively which are formed by 55 the fluorescent screen 56 disposed in the upper
end of the tube 45, will be focused to the desired
impingement of electrons on the fluorescent
width. A second accelerating anode 51 is dis
screen I5. The relative position along the scale
posed above the control electrode 54 and receives
of each of the vertical lines 22 to 21 is controlled
its biasing potential through conductor 58. This
within the cathode ray tube in a manner presently
60 second accelerating anode 51 gives the electrons
to be described.
in the sheet (or beam) their ñnal velocity.
Figure 3 of the drawings illustrates a modified
Disposed above the second accelerating anode
form of scale arrangement wherein a fluorescent
51 is a deflector plate 59 and a plurality of de
screen 28 is provided with a plurality of scales
The electromotive force is then impressed on the
interpreter, and the interpreter in turn causes an
appropriate indication on the particular scale
flector plates 60, the latter being disposed op
29 to 36. This particular scale arrangement is
especially designed for two-motored planes. 65 posite the deflector plate 59, (as shown in Figure
6). The deiiector plates 60, in conjunction with
Scale 29 indicates the speed of rotation of engine
the deflector plate 59, are arranged to deiiect
No. 1, while scale 39 indicates the speed of rotation
segments of the sheet of electrons in response to
of engine No. 2. Scale 3| indicates the manifold
changes in the electric biasing potentials applied
pressure of engine No. 1, while scale 32 indicates
the manifold pressure of engine No. 2. Scale 33 70 to them. As is indicated in Figures 4, 5 and 6,
the deflector plates 60 have Faraday electrostatic
indicates the fuel pressure of engine No. 1, while
screens 6I isolating one plate from the electro
scale 34 indicates the fuel pressure of engine No.
static ñelds of the other plates. Biasing poten
2. Similarly, scale 35 indicates the oil pressure of
tials are received on plate 59 through a conductor
engine No. 1, and scale 36 indicates the oil pressure
of engine No. 2. As was the case in connection 75 62, and on plates 6I) through conductors 63. The
C SlGNALlNii.
2,412,350
6
Faraday screen 6| is grounded through conduc
tive value of the conditions being measured by
tor 64. The cathode 46 is connected by con
ductor 65 to one of the ñlament conductors 10.
From the description of the above cathode ray
tube, it will be apparent to those skilled in the
art that any one of the deflecting plates 60 can
vertical movement of the actuating arms 95, 9‘6
and 91 respectively. These actuating arms 95, 96
and 91 are respectively connected to movable
contact arms 98, 99 and |00 of potentiometers
|0|, |02 and |03. Each potentiometer |0|, |02
and |03 is connected respectively to a source of
electric energy illustrated as batteries |04, |05
trons passing between the deflecting plates 60
and |06. Load resistors |3| and |32 are con
and the deflector plate 59 to be deñected, there
by causing that segmental portion of the sheet 10 nected between contact arm 98 and the negative
end of source |04. Load resistors |33 and |34
of electrons to strike the fluorescent screen 56 at
are similarly connected to arm 99 and the neg
a different point therealong, as viewed in Figure
ative end of source |05, and load resistors |35
4 of the drawings, from the remaining portion or
and |36 are connected to contact arm |00 and the
portions of the sheet. It will thus be apparent
that while only a single cathode ray tube is em 15 negative end of source |06. The mid-point be
cause a portion or segment of the sheet of elec
ployed, and that while only a single electron emit
ting source is provided; nevertheless, a plurality
of indications are obtained simultaneously on
the fluorescent screen 56, depending upon the
respective biasing potentials impressed on the
various deflector plates 60. This enables a multi
scale, multi-function instrument to be provided
with a single cathode ray tube having a single
electron emitting source.
A diagrammatic representation of the circuit
arrangement for energizing the novel cathode ray
tube 45 is shown in Figure '7 of the drawings.
tween each pair of resistors is connected to dif
ferent conductors 63.
As viewed in Figure 7, the biasing potential on
the three lower deflector plates 60 are thus varied
in accordance with the position of the contact
arms 98, 99 and |00 of the translators 92, 93 and
94. The two translators shown immediately below
translators 92, 93 and 94 are identified by the
reference characters |01 and |08, and are in the
form of electron discharge devices, each having
a movable anode |09 therein whose position with
in the discharge device is varied by changes of
pressure in the pressure pipes ||0. More spe
More particularly, there is shown a full wave
cifically, the anodes |09 are mounted on the end
rectifier comprising a transformer 66 having a
primary winding 61 arranged to be connected 30 of Sylphon bellows ||| which form end portions
of and extend within the discharge devices.
to a suitable source of alternating current or to
Variations in the spacing of the anodes |09 with
a source of interrupted direct current through
respect to the cathodes ||2 and the grids ||3
conductors 68. The transformer is provided with
vary the current flowing through the load re
a ñlament heating winding 69 which is connected
through conductors 10 to the filament 41 of the 35 sistors ||4 in each of the output circuits of the
discharge devices. The positive side of the load
cathode ray tube 45. Secondary windings 1| and
resistors ||4 are each connected to one of the
12 in conjunction with a rectiñer tube 13 pro
deflector plates 60 of the cathode ray tube 45.
vides a conventional full wave rectiñer for sup
Whenever the pressure in one of the pressure
plying high voltage direct current to the cathode
ray tube 45. The output circuit of the full wave 40 tubes ||0 is changed, the position of the as
sociated anode |09 is changed, which causes a
rectiiier includes conductors 14 and 15. Con
corresponding change in the biasing potential
ductor 14 is connected to one end of a voltage
on the associated deflector plate 60.
divider potentiometer 16. Conductor 15 is con
The lowermost translator illustrated in Figure
nected through a ñlter choke 11 and a rheostat
18 to the other end of the potentiometer 16. 45 7 of the drawings is indicated by the reference
character ||5 and includes a tachometer gener
A pair of filter condensers 19 and 80 are also
ator ||6, a rectifier ||1, a filter resistor ||8 and
provided in the output circuit. The potentiome
a ñlter condenser | I9. A load resistor |20 is con
ter 16 is so designed that with all measured
nected across the output of the tachometer gen
apparatus shut 01T, all indicator lines on the
erator ||6 and the positive side of the load re
fluorescent screen 56 of the cathode ray tube 45
sistor |20 is connected to one of the deflector
can be adjusted to the zero point at 'one end of
plates 60 of the cathode ray tube 45. The amount
the scale. The deflector plates 60 are each con
of current flowing through the load resistor |20
nected by their associated conductors 63 through
will be proportional to the speed of rotation of
isolating resistors 8| (there being one isolating
the tachometer generator, and it will thus be
resistor 8| for each deñector plate 60) and con
seen that the potential impressed on the deflector
ductor 82 to the voltage divider contact 83 on
plate 60 associated with this particular trans
the potentiometer 16. The isolating resistors are
lator will be a function of the speed of rotation
of relatively high ohmîc value, such, for example,
of the tachometer generator. The tachometer
as one million ohms each. These isolating re
sistors are arranged to prevent changing po 60 generator may be driven from the airplane en
gine and it will thus be seen that the speed of
tentials in one deflector plate 60 from influencing
the remaining adjacent deflector plates 60. Ad
justable contact points 84, 85, 86, 91 and 88 on
rotation of the engine may be registered on a
suitable scale on the fluorescent screen 56 by the
potentiometer 16 are arranged to be connected
variation in the segmental portion of the sheet
respectively to conductors 5|, 65, 53, 55 and 64
65 of electrons which is deflected by the particular
of cathode ray tube 45. The lower end of the
potentiometer 16 is connected through a con
ductor 89 to conductors 58 and 62 of the cathode
deflector plate 60 associated with the tachometer
generator IIB.
In Figure 8 of the drawings, I have illustrated
a modified form of a cathode ray tube wherein a
ray tube 45. Dellector plate 59 is grounded
through conductors 90 and 9|.
70 cylindrical pencil of electrons is established in the `
tube, and wherein the pencil of electrons is
The right-hand portion of Figure 7 illustrates
scanned back and forth between all of the de
how various translators may be connected to the
flector plates at a scanning rate of greater than
cathode ray tube 45. Three of the translators
16 sweeps per second. More particularly, the
marked with the reference characters 92, 93 and
94 are devices arranged to indicate the quantita 75 tube includes a cathode |2| which is heated by a
2,412,350
7
8
filament |22. Disposed immediately above the
cathode |2| is a control grid |23 and in succes
ception that the isolating resistors are connected
to ground instead of to the voltage divider ele
sive order thereabove are a first accelerating
ment 16.
anode |24, a, line focusing anode |25, a second ac
celerating anode |26 and deñecting plates |21
to scan the scale lines on the fluorescent screen
Indeed, resistors 8| may be eliminated
entirely if desired and the plates 60 connected di
rectly to the respective translators.
The third embodiment of the present invention
is illustrated in Figure 10 of the drawings; where
|28 with a spot. A series of dellector plates |29
are provided which correspond to the deflector
in a conventional cathode ray tube can be adapt
plates 60 in the embodiment of the invention
ed by the use of mechanical commutators to the
illustrated in Figures 4, 5 and 6 of the drawings. 10 system of translators and interpreter as diagram
matically represented in Figures 1, 2 and 3. More
An elongated deñector plate (not shown) similar
particularly there is shown in Figure 10 a cathode
to deflector plate 59 of Figures 4, 5 and 6, lies in
spaced relation directly behind the deñectors |29.
ray tube |4| having a cathode |42 therein heated
by a heating filament |43 and including the
A Faraday electrostatic shield |30 is disposed be
tween each of the deflector plates |29 for the 15 usual control grid |44, a first accelerating anode
same reason as previously described in connec
|45, a line focusing anode |46, and a second ac
celerating anode |41. This cathode ray tube also
tion with Figures 4, 5 and 6.
includes a pair of horizontal deñecting plates |48
A cylindrical pencil of electrons from the cath
ode |2| is drawn out by the positive potentials
and |49 and a pair of vertical deñector plates |50
on the accelerating anodes |24 and |26, and the 20 and |5|. At the end of the tube |4| is the usual
fluorescent screen |52. The cylindrical pencil
focusing anode |25. The control grid |23 con
of electrons passing through the tube have their
trols the quantity of electrons forming the beam.
The auxiliary deflecting plates |21 are arranged
so that when an alternating current is applied
to them, the pencil beam of electrons is scanned 25
back and forth between all of the deflecting plates
|29 and the single confronting deflector plate
(not shown) lying directly therebehind and in
spaced relation thereto. If the frequency of scan
ning is greater than 16 sweeps per second a series 30
of straight lines is drawn on the fluorescent screen
|28 in positions determined by the potentials be
tween the deflector plates |29 and the confront
ing deiiector plate (not shown) lying therebe
psath controlled by the deflector plates |48 to
Suitable biasing potentials for the various ele
ments of the tube |4| are provided for by a volt
age divider element |53 which is connected across
a high voltage source through conductors |54 and
|55. The cathode |42 is connected to the Voltage
divider element |53 through movable contact ele
ment |56. Similarly, anodes |45 and |46 are
connected to a voltage divider element |53
through movable contacts |51 and |58 respec
tively. The control grid |44 receives a normal
hind. It will be understood that the frequency 35 negative bias through conductors |59 and |60,
of scanning shall be sufficiently great to provide
the latter of which is connected to a movable
contact element |6| engaging the voltage divider
a retentivity of_vision characteristic on the scales
element |53. The second accelerating anode |41
of the fluorescent screen.
The control circuit by which the respective ele
is connected to the upper end of the voltage di
ments of the cathode ray tube 0f Figure 8 are 40 vider element |53 as well as to deñector plate |49
and deflector plate | 5|.
energized is similar to the one shown in Figure 7.
More particularly, the filament |22 is arranged
Means are provided for successively moving
to be connected through conductor 10 of Figure '7
the stream of electrons from one scale to another
as indicated. Similarly, cathode |2| is arranged
on the fluorescent screen |52 and to simulta
to be connected to conductor 85; control grid |23 ,
neously synchronize the relative horizontal posi
is arranged to be connected to conductor 84; the
iirst accelerating anode |24 is arranged to be con
nected to conductor 86; the line focussing anode
|25 is arranged to be connected to conductor 81;
the second accelerating anode |26 is arranged to
be connected to conductor 89, and deñecting
plates |21 are arranged to be connected to any
suitable source of alternating current through
tion of the stream of electrons in accordance with
each of the successive conditions to be registered.
conductors |31. Deflecting plates |29 are ar
ranged to be connected to conductors 63 of Figure
7, while the electrostatic shields |30 are arranged
This is accomplished by providing a small alter
nator |62, the stator energization circuit of which
is shown diagrammatically by the stator Winding
|63’ and the output circuit of which is shown dia
grammatically by the slip rings |64 and |65.
Mounted on the same shaft as the rotor |66 of
the alternator |62 is a commutator |61 and a
rotating brush |63. The commutator |61 is
mounted for rotation with the rotor |66 and in
to be grounded through conductor 88.
cludes conducting segments |68, |69, |10, and
Figure 9 of the drawings illustrates a modified
method of adjusting the scale lines to zero. The
deñectíng plate 59 and the deilector plates 60 are
connected in the same manner as Shown in Fig
ure 7 through conductor 62 and conductor 63 re
spectively. An additional plate |38, of the same
length as plate 59 and opposed to it, is con
nected to a potentiometer |39; the potentiometer
|39 being connected to a suitable source of poten
tial with the high potential side at the upper end
of the potentiometer and the low potential side at
|1|. Each of the segments |68 to |1| are elec
trically connected together and to a conductor
|12 which directly connects each of the conduct
ing segments to the Contact arm |6| on the volt
age divider element |53. Associated with the
commutator |61 is a stationary contact point or
brush arm |13 which is directly connected
through a conductor |14 to the negative end of
the voltage dividing element |53.
Associated with the rotatable brush arm |63 is
a stationary commutator element |15 which is
the lower end of the potentiometer. By adjust
provided with conducting segments |16, | 11, |18
ing the adjustable contact |40 of potentiometer 70 and |19. The conducting segments |16 to |19
|39 a negative voltage with respect to de?lector
inclusive, of the stationary commutator |15, are
plate 59 is applied to the deflector plate |38 which
of such size and are located in such a position
is suñcient to adjust the scale lines to zero. The
that the brush arm |63 engages the conducting
remaining portion of the circuit of Figure 9 is
segment |19 at the same time that brush arm |13
similar to that shown in Figure 7, with the ex 75 engages the insulating segment lying between the
2,412,350
conducting segments |1| and |68 of commutator
|61.
Each of the conducting segments |16 to |19 of
the commutator |15 are connected to the mov
able contact arms |80 to |83 respectively which
in turn engage voltage divider elements |84 to
|81 which are energized from a suitable source
of electric energy through conductors |88 and
|89. Each of the arms |80 to |83 are arranged
10
tween conducting segments no electrons will
reach the fluorescent screen |52 in the cathode
ray tube |4|. It will furthermore be observed
that during the time when the cathode ray spot
is being returned from the lower scale to the top
scale the flow of electrons is also blocked due
to the conducting segment |68 of commuta
tor |61.
Due to the fact that the commutator |61 and
to be physically moved by the conditioning de l0 the brush arm |63 are mounted for rotation
with the rotor |66 and the alternator |62, it is
termining elements which are diagrammatically
not necessary that the speed of the alternator
represented as |90 to |93, inclusive. The mov
remains constant. Furthermore, due to the fact
able brush arm |63 is electrically connected
that it is desirable that all of the scales marked
through isolating resistors |94 and |95 to the
movable contact arm |96 of the voltage dividing 15 out on the fluorescent screen |52 should give, in
sofar as the human eye is concerned, simulta
element |53. An additional resistor |91 is inter
posed between resistors |94 and |95 and is con
nected at its opposite end to ground.
The output of the alternator |62 is connected
across vertical deflector plates |50 and |5|. More 20
particularly, the slip ring |64 is connected to
deflector plate |50 through conductor |98, while
slip ring |65 is connected through ground to the
deflector plate |5|.
From inspection of Figure 10 of the drawings, 25
neous readings, it is necessary that the speed of
the alternator be such that all of the scales are
scanned suii'iciently rapidly t'o afford retentlvity
of vision on all scales. I have found in prac
tice that the rotation of the alternator should
not be less than 1200 revolutions per minute.
While I have shown particular embodiments of
my invention, it will of course be understood that
I do not wish to be limited thereto, since many
modifications may be made, and I therefore con
template, by the appended claims, to cover all
such modifications as fall within the true spirit
it will be apparent that as the alternator causes
the beam of electrons in the tube |4| to scan
the various scales of the fluorescent screen |52,
and scope of my invention.
the horizontal deflector plate |48 is successively
I claim as my invention:
biased in accordance with the position of the 30
1. A multiple scale multiple function instru
movable contact arms |80 to |83. It will thus
ment indicator system comprisingv„gaaiilurality of
be seen that with the brush arm |63 in the
condition determining gmçwv’icnes, and a sing e ca position as shown in Figure 10 of the drawings,
o e‘iiayv‘t“ubëwarrangedg to project a sheet of elec
the biasing potential on the deflector |46 is de
termined by the' position of movable contact 35 trons on a fluorescent screen contained therein,
said cathode ray tube including means for de
arm |83. As the brush arm |63 then passes over
the insulating segment lying between conducting
segments |19 and |16 (which insulating segment
ñecting different segmental portions of said sheet
as the brush arm |63 engages conducting seg
to project a sheet of electrons on a fluorescent
ment |11 the biasing potential on deflector plate
|48 is determined by the relative position of
screen contained therein, said cathode ray tube
of electrons as a function of each of the respec
tive conditions determined by said condition de
extends around 180° of the commutator |15) the
output of the alternator is causing the beam to 40 termining devices.
2. A multiple scale multiple function instru
be returned to the top scale. As the brush arm
ment indicator system comprising a plurality of
|63 engages conducting segment |16 the biasing
condition determining devices, each having
potential on the deiiector plate |48 is determined
means for supplying a biasing potential whose
by the position of the arm |80. We may say,
for example, that the beam is now scanning the 45 value is a function of the condition being deter
mined, and a single cathode ray tube arranged
top scale in the fluorescent screen. Similarly,
including separate means for each of said con
50 dition determining devices responsive to vari
ations in its biasing potential, means for deñect
ever, the alternator has changed the bias on the
ing different segmental portions of the projected
vertical deflector plates |50 and |5|, thus caus
movable contact arm |8 | . In the meantime, how
sheet of electrons.
`
ing the beam of electrons to scan the second
3. In a multiple scale indicator, the combina.
scale. As the alternator continues to turn, the
electron stream is moved down to the third scale 55 tion comprisinga plurality of transwlatorsior
recording giffereîfnîîsuregçcondltions and för
and the brush arm |63 now connects movable
contact arm |82 to the horizontal deflector plate /Ettingfup a biasing potential which varies asa
function of the value of the measured condition,
| 48.
a cathode ray‘tube interpreter having a fluores
The commutator |61 and its stationary brush
|13 are so arranged that the trace line of the
to the various measured conditions, said cathode
cathode ray spot between scales is blanked out
ray tube including a plurality of deflector plates,
by a high negative potential applied to the con
a resistance element connected to each of said
trol grid |44. This may readily be seen from
plates and to a voltage divider element, means
an inspection of Figure 10. Whenever one of
the conducting segments |68 to |1| is in con 65 connecting the individual biasing potentials es
tablished by said translators to different ones of
tact with the brush |13, a high negative poten
said plurality of said deflector plates, at least
tial is impressed on the control grid |44. It
one additional plate confronting said plurality
will further be seen that the conducting segment
of deflector plates in said cathode ray tube. and
of the commutator |61 corresponds to the insu
lating segment of the commutator |15; hence 70 means for maintaining a different bias on vsaid
last plate from said plurality of plates.
it will be understood that when the movable
HARRY C. MORGAN.
brush arm |63 of commutator |15 is moving be
n
à,
v
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