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Dec. 10, 1946.- ‘
' c. JJDELEGARD EI'AL
APPARATUS FOR DECORT'IGATING FIBERS
Filed-Jan. 7, 1945
2,412,445
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c. J. DELEGARD ETAL
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APPARATUS FOR bECORTICATING FIBERS
Filed Jan. 7, 1943 _
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c. .1. DELEGARD EFAL
2,412,445
APPARATUS FOR DECORTICATING FIBERS
Filed Jan. 7, 1943
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Patented Dec. 10, 1946
UNITED ‘STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,412,445
APPARATUS FOR DECORTICATING FIBERS
Carl J. Belegard, Chicago, and Rudolph Kreutz,
River Grove, Ill.
Application January 7, 1943, Serial No. 471,632
3 Claims.
1
Our invention relates to the decortication of
flax, hemp, and similar bast ?bers, and includes
among its objects and advantages the substan
tially complete elimination of the production of
(Cl. 19-21)
2
to the feed rolls. Similarl , the exit gate 4% is
de?ned by an upper stationary guide bar 46 and
a lower stationary guide bares. The breaker 38
is an integral form, the operative portion of which
comprises the upper cross piece 543 and the lower
cross piece 52. In Figure 2 the parts are illus—
the material passing through was not only
trated with the breaker in the highest position it
snarled to such an extent as to produce a sub
reaches in use, and the lowest position is with
stantial percentage of tow, but after leaving the
the lower edge of the bar 50 in the position indi~
brake it had to be gathered in hanks and scutched
and otherwise processed to complete the separa 10 cated by the dotted line 5! in Figure 2. Thus
the stalk passing through is ?rst pinched into a
tion of hurds. According to the invention, the
downwardly opening U shape by the lower cross
stalks are broken and scutched in substantially
piece 52, and then, as the breaker moves down
the same unitary operation. An incidental ad
to the lower position, there is a period when the
vantage is the production of a continuous hank
or strand of ?ber ready for use in the rope 15 passage through both gates stands open and the
material can advance, followed by pinching of
making machine rather than a number of indi
the material into an upwardly opening U shape
vidual hanks requiring subsequent trimming.
tow.
In the brakes common in the prior art,
In the accompanying drawings ;
Figure 1 is a plan view of an illustrative ma
by the downward movement of the upper cross
piece 50. Working with hemp stalks having butt
20 diameters of roughly 3%" or 1/4”, we have se
cured good results with feeds of the order of
Figure 2 is a section on line 2—2 of Figure 1;
magnitude of 36 feet per minute, and reciproca
Figure 3 is a section on line 3-—3 of Figure '1;
tory speeds for the breaker such that successive
and
pinchings are spaced apart by a distance of ap
Figure 4 is a diagram of the process and appa
25 proximately the same magnitude as the diameter
ratus for forming hanks of inde?nite length.
of the stalk. However, depending on the charac- '
In the embodiment of'the invention selected
ter of the stalk being processed, a considerable
for illustration, the framework of‘ the machine
variation in this proportion can still secure good
is built up primarily from two side plates l9 and
results. The material issuing through the gate
I2. On the outside of each side plate is a pivot
support consisting of channels 14 and I6 offset 30 40 includes all the ?ber that was originally in the
chine according to the invention;
from the adjacent side members by spacers l8
and 20.
The material to be processed is ordinarily a
pile of round stalks diagrammatically indicated
periphery of the stalk, now split longitudinally
into ?laments but not appreciably tangled, and
all the pith which previously constituted the
body of the stalk broken into ?ne, short particles
at 22 in Figure 2. The stalks are slid across the 35 only a few of which are still adhering somewhat
to one or more of the ?bers.
feed table 24 and between an upper guide roller
The issuing strand of ?bers now passes along
26 and a lower guide roller 28. Each guide roller
in substantially continuous contact with the low
is illustrated as provided with a rubber facing
er surface of the lower reach 54 of a ?exible
30. The lower guide roller is in ?xed bearings
in the frame, and the upper guide roller is jour 40 fabric belt which passes around a small intake
guide roller 56 and a larger guide roller 58 at
naled on blocks 32 each carried at the lower end
the discharge end. The guide roller 56 is ad»
of a slidable plunger 36 and pressed downwardly
justable as to height, being carried on pivoted
by a suitable compression spring 36. ri‘he pres
arms 69 with the angular position of each arm
sure of the guide rolls is preferably adjusted to
secure a ?rm grip on the material, and usually 45 controlled by the hanger bolt 62 which may be
adjusted by means of the nuts 64 engaging the
this grip is su?icient to crush the material slight
upper and lower surfaces of the bracket 66. To
ly, although such preliminary crushing is not in
adjust the tension of the belt 54, the ends of
any way essential. After passing through the
the roller 58 are journaled in slides 59 which
guide rollers, the material enters the gate at 36,
and after being acted on by the reciprocating 50 may be adjusted in horizontal direction by ten
sion bolts BI and adjusting nuts S3.
breaker indicated as a whole by the reference
As the ?ber passes along under the belt, it is
character 38, issues through the gate 40. ri‘he
kept in contact with the belt and simultaneously
gate 36 is de?ned by an upper stationary guide
combed and moved along toward the discharge
bar 42 and a lower stationary guide bar 4d
equipped with a short lip 4'! extending over close 65 end by a series of scutching bars 68, ‘l0, ‘l2, ‘l4,
2,412,445
3
4
76, ‘I8, and 89. Each of these bars is a deep down
wardly opening sheet metal channel with a V
shaped bight, the apex of which engages the
overlying ?ber and the belt 5d. The path of mo
68, ‘I2, 16, and 80 have to be on longer pitmans'
than the scutching bars ‘Hi, ‘It, and 18. However,
by mounting the guide blocks 83 for the scutch
ing bars with long pitmans, slightly lower than
tion of each bar is indicated in dotted lines at
the guide blocks for the scutching bars with short
32, and is generally egg-shaped, with a relatively
large component of motion to the right during
the period of contact with the belt. To produce
pitmans, the path of movement of all the pitmans
is substantially that indicated at 82. The differ
this motion each bar is supported on pitmans at
at its ends, and each pitman has its lower end
journaled on a crank 86 so that the lower end
end of the path and the larger curvature at the
upper end of the path will be slightly greater with
the short pitmans, but this is immaterial so far
of the pitman describes a circular path. At an
as the action on the ?bers is concerned.
ence between the sharp curvature at the bottom
Referring now to Figure 4, we have indicated
the entire machine so far described, diagram
matically on a reduced scale with the feed rollers
26 and 28 and the operating mechanism within
ing bar, we provide a stationary support 92 which
the rectangle at £34. The issuing ?ber, in the
is also a U-shaped sheet metal bar opening down
case of hemp, is in a thin flat band of width sub
wardly, with a ?at bight at the top. The bights
stantially equal to the width of the machine, and
of these bars afford an interrupted grid func
tioning as a ?oor below which the ?bers will 20 in a machine with a working width of from 15
to 18 inches, of a volume sufficient to gather into
not fall, but when the machine is operating at
intermediate point above the crank 86, each pit
man slides in a guide block 88 journaled on a
pintle at Bil. Between each bar and the succeed- _
speed the ?bers rarely get down into contact with
the supports because they are struck up against
the belt Ed at such frequent intervals by the
a rope-like strand of a diameter of about an inch
or an inch and a half when not compressed with
usually by the ?rst two or three combines, and
with the annulus I52. It will be apparent that
any material force. The reel I33 is removably
mounted on a spindle I 33 with a light friction
scutching bars. With feeds of the order of mag
connection with the spindle as by means of a
nitude of 36 feet per minute, we have found speeds
light cupshaped washer Hill and clamping nut
of from 800 to 1200 B. P. M. suitable for the
M2. The spindle I38 is journaled in an arm IM
cranks 86 which drive the scutching bars.
which is offset at I46 to enter a suitable bearing
Immediately after leaving the gate Iii! nearly all
the loose hurds fall down between the supports 30 at I43, the axis of which bearing intersects the
spindle I38 at right angles at substantially the
92 where they may collect under the machine and
center of the reel. The bearing I48 is supported
be removed, as by a suitable conveyor (not
in a stationary frame I50, which stationary frame
shown). And the minor fraction of hurds still
also supports a beveled gear annulus I52. The
attached to ?bers with sui?cient ?rmness to carry
the weight of the tiny fragment, is dislodged, , spindle I38 carries a bevel pinion I54 meshing
rotation of the supporting arm I434 about the
axis of the bearing I48 will rotate the entire
reel about that axis and carry the pinion I54 in
a planetary motion around the ring I 52, which will
rotate the spindle I38 and cause the reel I36 to
wind up whatever material happens tobe en
gaged with it. The drive pinion I55 may be actu
ated by any suitable source of power (not shown).
In the use of apparatus according to Figure 4,
.
the operator feeding the stalks across the table
24 places a handful of stalks as indicated at I56,
which handful includes only about one-third
enough material to ?ll the machine to capacity.
50 And then a second equal increment I58 is laid on
?nd their way downward to join the rest of
the hurds. We have illustrated an inclined dis
charge table 911 down which the strand of ?nished
?ber may slide enroute to the next step in process 40
ing.
We have illustrated suitable actuating mecha
nism for the working parts hereinbefore de
scribed.
A single gear box 85 encloses all the
gearing connecting the various shafts involved.
The shaft 96 may receive power from any suitable
source and has a gear and pinion connection with
the lower feed shaft 98 from which a belt or
sprocket I98 transmits motion at reduced
speed to the lower feed roller 23. The
feed roller may be actuated by a pinion 3 I_
ing with a duplicate pinion on the lower
rotary
upper
mesh
roller.
the stalks I56 offset by about one-third the
length of the stalks. And ?nally a third incre
ment I60 is laid on top of the stalks I58 with a
similar o?set. It will be apparent that the. re
peated addition of these increments will cause
the machine to be ?lled at all times, and that a
At one end it carries a sheave Hi2 which connects
with a sheave IN on the roller 5% to actuate
the belt 51%. The wiping action of the scutching
bars
A tends
gear I85
to assist
on the
the drive
movement
shaftof9%the-belt
actuates a
continuous strand of more or less intermeshed
pinion IE8, and the pinion IG‘G ‘meshes with
two gears, one of which drives shaft Iii) which
?bers will issue from the machine. At the dis
charge end of the machine another operator can
actuates the beater through connecting rods I I2,
60 fasten the end of such a strand to the hub I62
and the other of which drives the shaft I54
which actuates the pitmans 84% for the ?rst
scutching bar 63. The next pinion HG functions
in a manner identical with the pinion I53, receiv
ing power from the gear H8 and shaft H4 and 65
of the reel I36, and then actuation of the pinion
555 will cause the issuing strand to be twisted
spirally as indicated at I64 and wound onto the
reel until the reel is full. The rate of twist of
the strand can be regulated by governing the
driving the shaft I26 for the beater bar "Ill, and
speed of the pinion I54, and the compactness
the shaft I22 for the beater bar ‘i2. And'this
with which the strand is wound onto the reel
transmission is repeated twice more in the same
may be regulated by adjusting the tension of
way with the pinion I24 actuating the shaft I25
the cup washer I49. When the reel is ?lled, the
for the scutching bar 14, and shaft I28 for the 70 operator can snip the strand in two and remove
scutching bar it. And the last pinion I33 drives
the reel and replace it with another onepand
the shaft ISI for the scutching bar "58 and the
by the time he has done so enough additional
shaft I32 for the scutching bar 8%. To secure a
material will have issued from the machine I34
compact arrangement, the eight drive shafts are
ready for him to fasten the end of the strand to
arranged at two levels, and the scutching bars 75 the hub of the next reel.
2,412,445
5
To adapt‘ such a machine to work on either
hemp or on ?ax or other ?ber, it is desirable to
vary the clearance between the breaker bar and
its guides, so that when the bar is in either ex
treme position, the clearance between the metal
parts is su?‘icient to accommodate the volume of
?ber involved without pinching or injuring the
?ber and still without leaving any substantial
6
parts, with the speeds of said breaker and feed
rolls such that successive breaks are separated
by distances of the same order of magnitude as
the diameter of the pieces of material, and the
speed of said scutcher bars such that the ?ber is
kept up against the belt and substantially clear
of said supports.
2. Decorticating equipment including: feed
rolls; a reciprocating breaker mechanism; a self
clearance in which hurds could remain without
feeding scutching mechanism; and means for
being displaced and torn from the ?ber. In Fig
driving said rolls and mechanisms in synchro
_ure 2 we have indicated slots at 562 for receiving
nism; said feed rolls including a power-driven
the fastening bolts for the inlet gate, so that the
lower roll; an upper roll riding on the lower roll
clearance involved can be adjusted to suit the
or the intervening material; resilient means for
type of ?ber and the volume being fed through.
pressing said upper roll down on the material to
Without further elaboration the foregoing will
grip the same; said breaker mechanism including
so fully explain our invention that others may,
a stationary guide frame de?ning an inlet gate
by applying knowledge current at the time of this
and an outlet gate spaced from each other; re
application, readily adapt the same for use under
ciprocating breaker means in the space between
various conditions of service.
20 said gates including upper and lower bars rig
What is claimed is:
idly connected together and movable upwardly to
1. Decorticating equipment including: feed
bring the lower bar up between the upper por
rolls; a reciprocating breaker mechanism; a self
tions of the gates, and downwardly to bring the
feeding scutching mechanism; and means for
upper bar between the lower portions of the
driving said rolls and mechanisms in synchro
gates; said bars being of less thickness than the
nisin; said feed rolls including a power-driven
space between said gates to leave clearance for
lower roll; an upper roll riding on the lower roll
the ?exed ?ber; said scutching mechanism in
or the intervening material; resilient means for
cluding a ?exible belt overlying the path of the
pressing said upper roll down on the material to
material; and a series of scutcher bars geared
grip the same; said breaker mechanism including
together to act seriatim in a predetermined se
a stationary guide frame de?ning an inlet gate
quence; each bar lying transverse to the path of
and an outlet gate spaced from each other; said
movement of the material and having linear
inlet gate having a lower lip extending into prox
movement normal to its length in an eggshaped
imity to the lower feed roller; ‘reciprocating
path, the upper portion of which brings the bar
breaker means in the space between said gates
against the belt with a component of forward
including upper and lower bars rigidly connected
movement; and power transmission for driving
together and movable upwardly to bring the
the parts.
lower bar up between the upper portions of the
3. Decorticating equipment including: feed
gates, and downwardly to bring the upper bar
rolls; a breaker mechanism; and a self-feeding
between the lower portions of the gates; said
scutching mechanism including a ?exible belt 40 scutching mechanism; and means for driving said
rolls and mechanisms in synchronism; said
overlying the path of the material; and a series
'scutching mechanism including a ?exible belt
of scutcher bars geared together to act seriatim
overlying the path of the material; and a series
in a predetermined sequence; each bar lying
of scutcher bars geared together to act seriatim
transverse to the path of movement of the mate
rial and having linear movement normal to its 45 in a predetermined sequence; each bar lying
transverse to the path of movement of the mate
length in an eggshaped path, the upper portion
rial and having linear movement normal to its
of which brings the bar against the belt with a
length in an eggshaped path, the upper portion
component of forward movement; a series of
of which brings the bar against the belt with a
spaced supports between said scutcher bars
component of forward movement.
adapted to prevent ?bers below said belt from
CARL J. DELEGARD.
falling, but to permit separated hurds to fall
RUDOLPH KREUTZ.
through; and power transmission for driving the
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