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ec, 10, 1946.
L. D. HARRIS-ON
2,412,457
VALVE ACTUATING MECHANI SM
Filed Aug. 25, 1941
7 Sheets-Sheet l
35
INVE TOR.
?/M.
Dec. 30, 1946.
L. D. HARRISON
2,412,457
VALVE ACTUATING MECHANISM
Filed Aug. 25, 194]
42
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Dec. 10,, 1946.
r L. D. HARRISON
2,412,457
VALVE ACTUATING MECHANISM
FilediAug. 25, 1941
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Dec. 10, 1946.
1.; D, HARRISON
2,412,457
VALVE ACTUATING MECHANISM
Filed Aug. ‘25, 1941
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VENTOR.
Dec. 10, 1946.
L._ D. HARRISON
' 2,412,457
VALVE ACTUATING MECHANISM
Filed Aug. 25, 1941
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Dec. 10, 1946'.
L. D. HARRISON
2,412,457
VALVE ACTUATING MECHANISM
Filed Aug. 25, 1941
7 Sheets-Sheet 6
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INVENTOR
Dec. ‘10, 1946.
L. D. HARRISON
2,412,457
VALVE ACTUATING MECHANISM
Filed Aug. 25, 1941
7 Sheets-Sheet >7
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Patented Dec. 10, 1946
2,412,457
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,412,457
VALVE ACTUATIN G MECHANISM
Laurence D. Harrison, Maricopa County, Ariz.
Application August 25, 1941, Serial No. 408,143
5 Claims. (Cl. 123—90K3)
1
2
This invention pertains to internal combustion
engines of the constant volume type wherein the
charge is ignited by an electric spark.
tric spark occurs in an attempt to coordinate a
This invention is an internal combustion en
sulted in advancing the point of ignition into a
slower burning range of lower compression pres
gine that operates on a selective expansion ratio
which may be as high as 1 to 25 and which cor
variable point of ignition with a variable uncon- '
trollable compression pressure, all of which re
sures and temperatures that were more uncertain
respondingly determines the volume of the com
of uniform ignition and burning. This condition
pression space, to which are correlated a ?xed
increases the degrees of crank shaft rotation over '
point of ignition and certain varying volumes of
intake charge, to the extent that as the compres
which ignition and burning of the charge takes
10 place, and as concerns the speed of revolution of
an engine, amounts to increasing the time re
sion space decreases in volume the ?xed point of
quired to burn the charge as the time available
ignition approaches top center and the varying
to burn the charge decreases. At extreme high
volumes of intake charge decrease. The ?xed
speed ignition takes place greatly in advance of
point of ignition is in the proximity of top center.
The volume of intake charge retained in the cyl 15 top center and the additional work required to
move the piston on the latter portion of the com
inder is automatically varied in relation to the
pression stroke, against the additional pressure
speed of the engine and correspondingly adjusted
due to burning which is in excess of the pres-,
relative to the temperature of the engine and the
pressure of the atmosphere so as to retain in the
sure of compression, represents a net loss in
cylinder a volume of intake charge which will 20 power. The longer periods of time required to
burn the charge, from these advanced points of
raise the compression pressure at the ?xed point
of ignition as the speed of the engine increases ‘ ignition in the slow burning range of compres
sion pressure and temperature, and at the in
in order to decrease the burning time of the
creased temperature and pressure resulting from
charge as the time available to burn the charge
decreases. The varying volumes of charge are 25 burning, preclude attainment of higher peak
pressures that otherwise could be reached if it
such as will burn without critical detonation at
were possible to e?ectively burn the charge in a
the respective engine speeds at which they oc
shorter period of time. i The resulting peak pres
cur. The reduced burning time provides higher
peak expansion pressures and the reduced com
sures that are attained under the most favorable
pression space provides expansion to a lower {pres 30 conditions seldom reach half the value of the
theoretical.
‘
sure and temperature.
Heretofore, internal combustion engines using
spark ignition have had no way to confine igni
tion and. burning of the charge, with the'resultant
Under working conditions the ordinary engine
will discard via the exhaust, heat of a value, that
at times will exceed three times the amount of
pressure rise, to a relatively small number of de 35 heat that is converted into work. Combustion is
grees of crankshaft rotation in the proximity of
far from complete as is evidenced by the presence
top center.
of ?ame in the exhaust, which is at such high
In the ordinary engine, a reduction in the volu
pressures as to require the exhaust period to
metric ei’rlciency of the charge, whether from high
begin greatly in advance of bottom dead center
speed, high altitude, high degree of heat, or re
to relieve such pressure prior to commencement
of the exhaust stroke.
striction to induction with the carbureter throt
tle valve is such that the resultant charge con
Thus instead of the charge being burned near
tains a higher percentage of residuum gas, and
the top of the power stroke and providing high
provides a lower compression pressure. Both of
pressures to expand as the piston is forced down,
these seriously retard the speed of ?ame travel, 45 burning of the charge in the ordinary engine con
which determines the lengthy of time required to
tinues throughout the power stroke, providing
effectively burn the charge, and this is of the ut
only such working pressures as delayed burning
most importance in determining the rate of pres
in an increasing volume with decreasing temper
sure rise due to the burning of the charge.
ature and pressure will supply, and this burning
In an endeavor to obtain the most favorable 50 is Still in progress when the exhaust period com~
peak presurse at an early degree on the power
mences.
,
stroke with the ever changing uncontrolled com
In View of the foregoing, I have provided an en
pression pressures that occur in the ordinary en
gine operative on a selective expansion ratio
gine, various ways have been used in changing the
whereby the volume of the compression space
degree of crank shaft rotation at which the elec 55 is determined, and to which are correlated a ?xed
2,412,457
3
4
degree for the occurrence of the electric spark
and certain automatically regulated volumes of
intake charge, and the objects of the invention
relative to changing pressure of the atmosphere
and changing temperature of the engine to retain
within the cylinder a volume of intake charge of
approximately like volumetric efficiency in rela
tion to speed of the engine, and having manual
are:
First, to provide an engine of the type herein
concerned operable on fractional volumes of in
means to vary the volume of the intake charge
retained in the cylinder independently of the
take charge relative to the piston displacement
which are varied in relation to engine speed and
temperature and to atmospheric pressure con
junctive to minimize power requirements during
the compression stroke, provide higher power
multiplication factors from a given volume of
charge under all operating conditions, and ex
automatic means;
Fifth, to provide an engine of the type herein
concerned having higher thermal efficiency
throughout the entire operating range than en
gines heretofore constructed;
Sixth, to provide an engine of the type de
scribed with a higher effective speed of revolution
pand the burned charge to a lower pressure and
temperature than possible with engines hereto
15
at greater operating e?iciency than engines here
tofore constructed;
fore constructed;
Seventh, to provide an engine of the type here
Second, to provide an engine of the type herein
in concerned that will maintain its sea-level
concerned operable on fractional volumes of in
power output at high altitudes;
take charge relative to the piston displacement
Eighth, to provide an engine of the type de
which are varied in relation to engine speed to 20
scribed that will expand the burned charge to
,‘vary the compression pressure at a ?xed point
approximately atmospheric pressure at maximum
of ignition in the proximity of top center whereby
full load performance;
the burning time of the charge, con?ned in a re
duced volume of compression space shaped and
proportioned to burn a maximum of the volume
Ninth, to provide an engine as herein con
cerned with a ?xed clearance volume and means
of charge therein with a minimum distance of
to vary the volume of the charge retained in the
?ame travel, is greatly reduced which provides
correspondingly higher peak pressures and tem
peratures with the expansion therefrom carried
cylinder;
concerned with automatic means for varying the
to much lower pressures and temperatures, and
compression pressure;
Tenth, to provide an engine of the type herein
wherein the fractional volumes of charge are au~
Eleventh, to provide an engine of the type here
tomatically increased and decreased relative to
the temperature of the engine and to the pressure
in concerned, with automatic means to vary the .
of the atmosphere, to maintain proper relation of
relative to the temperature of the engine;
the compression pressure to the speed of the en
gine;
volume of the charge retained in the cylinder
35
Twelfth, to provide an engine of the type here
in concerned with automatic means to vary the
volume of the charge retained in the cylinder
Third, to provide an engine of the type herein
relative to atmospheric pressure;
concerned, wherein the expansion ratio of the
Thirteenth, to provide an engine of the type
clearance volume is selective and not governed
by the fuel to be used, and wherein the volumetric 40 describedwith automatic means to vary the vol
ume of the charge retained in the cylinder rela
efficiency of the intake charge is determined by
tive to the speed of revolution of the engine;
the burning characteristics of the fuel to be used
Fourteenth, to provide an engine of the type
in conjunction with the clearance volume se—
herein concerned With automatic means to vary
lected, and wherein the volumetric ef?ciency of
the volume of the charge retained in the cylinder;
the charge is increased and decreased with in
Fifteenth, to provide an engine of the type
creasing and decreasing speed of the engine re
herein concerned with automatic co-active means
spectively and the volume of the intake charge is
to vary the volume of the charge retained in the
increased and decreased with increasing and de
cylinder relative to temperature of the engine and
creasing temperature of the engine respectively
and increased and decreased with decreasing and . pressure of the atmosphere and speed of revolu
tion of the engine;
increasing pressure of the atmosphere respec
Sixteenth, to provide an engine of the type
tively to maintain within the cylinder a volume
herein concerned having automatic co-active
of charge of the same approximate volumetric
means to vary the volume of the charge retained
efficiency at a given speed of engine revolution ir~
in the cylinder relative to the temperature of
respective of temperature of the engine and pres
the engine and relative to the pressure of the
sure of the atmosphere so that the compression
atmosphere;
pressure is varied in relation to the speed of the
Seventeenth, to provide an engine of the type
engine to provide burning of the charge in the
herein concerned having automatic co-active
shortest possible time to avail of the additional
power from higher peak pressures corresponding 60 means to vary the volume of the charge retained
in the cylinder relative to thepressure of the
with the decreased burning time and greater ex
atmosphere and relative to the speed of revolu
pansion of charge;
tion of_ the engine;
Fourth, to provide an engine of the type herein
Eighteenth, to provide an engine of the type
concerned, wherein the expansion ratio of the
herein concerned having automatic co-active
compression space is selective and not governed
by the burning characteristics of the fuel to be
means to vary the, volume retained in the cylin
der relative to temperature of the engine and
used, and having automatic means to vary the
speed of revolution of the engine;
volume of the intake charge retained in the cyl
inder in relation to the speed of the engine, the
Nineteenth, to provide an engine of the type
volumetric efficiency of the varying volumes,
herein concerned having- manual means to vary
being governed by the burning characteristics of
the volume of the charge retained in the cylinder;
the fuel to be used in conjunction With the com
Twentieth, to, provide an engine of the type
pression space and the engine speed, increases
herein concerned with automatic means to vary
as the speed of the engine increases, and having
the volume of the‘ charge retained in the cylinder
co-active automatic means to adjust the volume 75 and manual means to vary the volume of the
2,412,457
5
charge retained in the cylinder, the manual
means being dominant over the automatic means;
Twenty-?rst, to provide an engine of the type
herein concerned with means to vary the valve
spring pressure;
Twenty-second, to provide an engine of the
type herein concerned with automatic means to
vary the valve spring pressure relative to speed of
revolution of the engine;
an enlarged scale taken substantially on lines
l1—|1, Figure 2, showing an exempli?cation of
a cylinder head with a clearance volume such
as is used with an expansion ratio of approxi
mately 1 to 25;
’
-
Figure 18 is a similar view taken substantially
on lines I8—-I8, Figure 2, showing an exempli?
_ cation of a cylinder head with a clearance volume
such as is used with an expansion ratio of 1 to
Twenty-third, to provide an engine of the type 10 11;
Figure 19 is a sectional View taken substan
herein concerned with means to disrupt and, ab
tially on lines [9-19, Figure 18; ,
sorb valve spring vibrations;
Twenty-fourth, to provide an engine of the
Figure 20 is a sectional view taken substan
type herein concerned with means to greatly pro
tially on lines 20——20, Figure 19;
Figure 21 is a fragmentary elevation showing
duce the time required to burn the charge;
15
Twenty-fifth, to provide an engine of the type
part of a valve rocker arm with a means for main
herein concerned with a ?xed clearance volume
taining it in place on its bearing;
.
Figure 22 is a section taken substantially on
correlated with a ?xed point of ignition and such
_varying volumes of charge as will burn without
lines 22—22, Figure 21;
‘
Figure 23 is a compression-expansion chart.
critical detonation at the respective speed of 20
Similar numerals refer to similar parts in the
revolution of the engine at which they occur, and
means to vary the volume of charge relative to
a change in atmospheric pressure and relative to
temperature of the engine and relative to the
speed of revolution of the engine, all co-active
to maintain high useful compression pressure at
the point of fixed ignition in relation‘ to operat-
ing conditions.
Other objects will appear hereinafter.
I attain the foregoing objects by means of the
mechanism construction and devices illustrated
in the accompanying drawings, in which—
Figure 1 is a partial plan view of a four cyl
inder engine provided with one type of my im
proved construction;
_
Figure 2 is a partial side elevation thereof;
Figure 3 is a front elevation thereof with the
front cover plate removed;
Figure 4 is a partial cross sectional elevation
taken substantially on lines 4—4, Fig, 2;
several views.
’
Referring to the drawings, 2 represents the
cylinder block of a four cylinder four stroke cy
cle engine, 3 a cylinder, 4 the crankshaft, '5 a
main bearing cap, ‘6 a connecting rod, 1 a piston,
8 the oil pan forming the bottom of the crank
.
case, 9 a ‘?ywheel housing, Ill a V belt pulley, H
a cranking attachment to the crankshaft for
30 starting, all of which are similar to such parts
in conventional use. The cylinder block 2 has
a cover plate 12, in the front thereof which is re
movable to give access to the accessories and
their drive mechanism as shown in Figure 3,
wherein I3 and M are timing gears forming a
two to one reduction from crankshaft speed,
sprocket I5 is operatively connected to gear 14
and through the means of the timing chain 64
rotates sprockets l6 and l‘! at a like speed of
or one-half crankshaft speed.
40 revolution
taken substantially on lines 5-5, Fig. 1 drawn
Sprocket I9 is a guide sprocket, sprocket 20 is
free to rotate on the pin 2|, carried in the brack
on an enlarged scale;
et 22 which is pivoted on pin 23 which has one
Figure 5 is a‘ fragmentary sectional elevation
end secured to the cylinder block casting 2. The
position of bracket 22 may be altered by the bolt
on lines 6—B, Fig. 1 and drawn on a somewhat
24 to properly tension the timing chain 64. The
enlarged scale;
spindle 25 is attached to cylinder block casting
Figure 7 is a section on lines 'I-l, Fig. 6;
v2 and provides a support for rotation of the
Figure 8 is a partial section taken substan
sprocket ll, which has a spiral gear operatively
tially on lines 8—8, Fig. 1 and drawn on an en
60 attached thereto adapted to operate the distrib
larged scale;
utor gears l8 to rotate at one-half crankshaft
Figure 9 is a partial sectional elevation taken
speed. 26 is a gear tooth lubrication pump af
substantially on lines 9—9', Fig. 1;
?xed to the cylinder block casting 2 with bolts
Figure 10 is a fragmentary sectional elevation
21 and 28. 29 is an intake oil line communi
taken substantially on lines 10-10, Figure 2, of
the stabilized speed-atmospherical-thermal regu 55 cating with the oil supply line drilled in the
cylinder block casting 2 as indicated by the dot
lator, drawn on an enlarged scale;
ted lines and connection is at the dotted circle
Figure 11 is an elevation taken substantially on
200. The oil pump 26 is driven by distributor
lines ll—-l I, Figure 10, with the adjusting shaft
shaft 3|, making a slip joint connection with the
52 and the ball end bolt I I6 removed to show the
adjusting unit in the position it occupies at high 60 pump drive shaft 32, as indicated by the dotted
lines at Figure 3.
engine speeds, temperature and at high altitudes;
The distributor receptacles 35 ‘are a part of the
Figure 12 is an enlarged sectional view of the
Figure 6 is a partial section taken substantially
cylinder Iblock casting 2. The screws 33 secure
the distributors in position, and 34 is a lock nut
65 thereon. The distributor bases 36 have a shield
3'! a?ixed thereto and are rotative therewith; the
Figure 13 is a sectional view taken substantially
screws 38 provide for manual adjustment of the
on lines l3-l3, Figure 12, showing the interposed
ignition and for securing the timing in a ?xed
manual control;
position. Condensers are contained within the
Figure 14 is a sectional view of the handle end
distributors and operatively connected thereto.
of manual control mechanism;
39 is a coil with provision for connection to a
Figure 15 is a section taken substantially on
engine speed co-active adjusting mechanism
termed a variable force regulator, taken substan
tially on lines I 2—l2, Figure 2;
suitable electric current to supply satisfactory
spark ignition under high compression pressures.
40 indicates conventional spark-plugs suitably
Figure 17 is a partial bottom view drawn on 75 connected as shown to provide spark ignition to the
lines [5-15, Figure 14;
Figure 16 is an elevation of the face of the left
end of the cam shaft;
2,4ia457
7
cylinders, the spark of the twoplugs of eachcyl
clockwise and counterclockwise within a prede
inder being simultaneous. 4|, Figure 4', is an inlet
termined arc, by means and in a manner herein
opening in the cylinder block 2 for the cooling
liquid. 42 and 43, Figures 1, 2 and 3; form places
of attachment for mounting the engine.
,
Referring particularly torFigures 1, 2 and 3,
44 is ‘a; cylinder head casting, 45, 45, 41 and 43
are cam shaft supporting brackets which are af
after described. The rotative movement of the
adjusting shaft 52, through the eccentrically po
sitioned journal 13 thereon, imparts movement
to the intake valve adjusting lever 14, The in
take valve adjusting lever 14 is pivotally mounted
on the eccentrically positioned journal 73 and
has a flat cam contacting surface 15 adjoining
fixed on the cylinder head‘ casting 44, and held
in place by the cylinder head studs 49 and cylin 10 the pivot end for primary engagement with the
lobe of the intake cam 18 during the raising of
der head nuts 50. These cam shaft supporting
said lifter and opening of the intake valve‘, this
brackets 45, 48, 41 and 48 support the cam shaft
flat surface 15 terminates in an arcuate surface
5|, and the adjusting shaft 52, and provide bear
16 curved .in the direction of cam rotation for
ings 89 and 61 respectively; each group v:lo‘eing
engagement with the lobe of the intake cam 18
maintained in perfect alignment. The holes in
during the receding of the lever lifter and clos
the cylinder head casting 44 and the respective
ing of the intake valve, the radius of the arcuate
holes in the cam shaft supporting brackets 45,
surface 16 approximates the radius of the circle
46, 41 and 48, that receive the cylinder head studs
of gyration of the cam lobe travel of the intake
49, are precision bored and then counterbored to
valve cam 18 and may extend throughout an arc
receive the alignment thimbles 53, which have
of one hundred degrees. On the opposite side
ample tolerance within their interior to allow for
of the lever from the ?at cam contacting sur
customary variations in stud alignment, while
face 15 and in a plane parallel therewith is a flat
their exterior forms aclose fit with the respec
portion 15a adapted to transmit cam motion
Referring particularly to Figure 3, 54 is an ex 25 thereform to open and close the intake valve.
Rotative movement of the adjusting shaft 52 im
haust manifold, 55 is an intake manifold, 56 is
parts movement to the intake valve adjusting
a carbureter which is connected with a source of
lever 14 which changes the lateral position there
fuel supply, lever 51 operates a conventional
of relative to the axis of rotation of the intake
throttle valve in the conventional manner, lever
58 operates a conventional choke valve in the 30 valve cam 18. This changes the number of de
grees of rotation throughout which the lobe of
conventional manner. 59 represents a cover to
the intake valve cam 18 maintains contact with
enclose the mechanism mounted on the head cast
the arcuate surface ‘IE, ‘during the receding of
ing 44, and 68 indicates the position of an oil
tive counterbores (see Figure 8) .
?ller and breather. Cover 59 is held in place by
the nuts 6 I, attached to bolts 62 on brackets 46.
the lever lifter l4 and closing of the intake valve.
The motion imparted to the intake valve ad
The crankshaft 4 rotates clockwise when look
ing at the engine from the front, which with the
justing lever 14 at the eccentrically positioned
journal 13 is arcuate, and as shown at Figure 5,
arrangement shown in Figure 3, imparts counter
will cause a deviation of the ?at cam contacting
surface 75 of approximately one and one-half
clockwise rotation to the camshaft 5!, on which
is mounted sprocket [6, which is driven by the 40 degrees from its common plane at the two ex
treme positions in its arcuate movement, This
timing chain 64.
angle of deviation of the flat cam contacting surface
The cam shaft supporting brackets 45, 4-6, 47
15 has its apex located between two arcuate sur
and 48 have adjustable split bearings to accom
faces convexly opposed when the valve is at closed
modate the respective journals on the adjusting
position, which are the intake valve cam circle
shaft and permit free rotative movement thereof.
18 and the intake valve stem cap nut I66. This
The adjusting shaft 52 forms part of the lubri
deviation, as herein concerned, is not sufficient to
cating oil distribution system and communicates
affect the proper operation of the valve when
with the oil supply furnished through the cylin~
set with customary clearance and amounts to a
der head casting 44', as shown in Figure 8, through
variance in the opening of the intake valve which
the drilled passage 65 which provides communi- approximates three degrees of crankshaft rota
cation for the drilled oil hole 56, throughout the
tion in a four stroke cycle engine.
arc of rotative movement of the adjusting shaft
(Jo-active with the intake valve adjusting
52-. In’ addition to supplying oil to the various
levers 14, through operative attachment, and
bearing surfaces indicated in the drawings at Fig
communication with, the adjusting shaft 52, are
ures 6, 8 and 9, this shaft provides a continuous
means hereinafter described, operative to move
supply of ?uid while the engine is‘op'era'ting to
the adjusting levers l4 laterally relative to the
the hydraulic stabilizing mechanism hereinafter
axis of rotation of the intake valve cam 18, both
described.
,
Referring particularly to Figure 9, on‘the ad
manually and automatically, and operative to
justing shaft 52 are rocker arm journals 10, which 60 stabilize the adjusted positions of the adjusting
levers l4, and control the rate of change of ad
are concentrically positioned and provided with‘
depressions 68 in the sides thereof, and which
justment thereof.‘
On cam shaft 5| is formed exhaust valve cam
support the exhaust valve rocker arm ‘H, which
11, and intake valve cams 78; the cams being
is retained in place thereon by the spring clip
Hand is provided with retaining impress-ions 69
properly located to operate the respective valves
in their proper sequence for a suitable ?ring or
engaging said depressions as‘ shown in detail at
der of .the cylinders such as 1—2—4—3 for a
Figures 21 and 22. Referring now to Figures 5
four cylinder four stroke cycle engine.
and 6, the journals 13 are‘ eccentrically positioned
Referring particularly to Figure 12 and Figure
on the adjusting shaft 52 and pivotally support
the intake valve adjusting levers 74 which are
16, attention is called to what I term a “variable
force applicator,” the rear cam shaft journal 19,
interposed between the intake valve cams l8 and
the intake valves I59.
_
_
is formed to provide arcuate pa'ssageBO radiating
Referring to Figure 5, the cam shaft 5| rotates
from the center thereof, which provide guides to
counterclockwise in the direction of the arrow
retain the balls 8| and coact therewith in im
at this ?gure. The adjusting shaft 52 is rotative 75 parting longitudinal movement to the sliding
2,412,457
10
plunger 82, which is freely movable within its
guide hole 83, centrally drilled in the camshaft
cylinder barrel for the proper function of the
unit. The top end of the cylinder barrel III) is
threaded to accommodate the cylinder ‘cap II2,
5| and communicates with the relief hole 84 and
the lubricating oil passage 85, so arranged to im
part the resultant force exerted by the balls SI
due to the centrifugal motion of the cam shaft
5|, in a force that is longitudinally transmitted
by the sliding plunger 82 to the pivoted lever arm
the threads of which are of such tolerance as to
permit a slight leakage of a ?uid such as lubricat
ing oil. The central portion of the cylinder cap
I I2 is centrally depressed to provide for exhaust
ing any air or gases from the cylinder that may
enter or form therein. On-the lower exterior of
the lever bolt 81, imparts a resultant rotative 10 the cylinder barrel III! is formed a multiple
force to the adjusting shaft 52, the magnitude of
thread H19 which imparts a rapid advance to the
which is indirectly dependent on the speed of
multiple thread nut I I3 which is operative there
revolution of the engine. Referring also to Fig
on. The lower end of the cylinder barrel III'I'is
ure 13, it will be noted that the lower portion of
closed except for the centrally located‘ opening
the lever bolt 81, when moved as above described, 15 to provide admission of the connecting pin H4
is free to move unobstructed within the guide
and is of such tolerance as provides for a close
but freely slidable ?t and will permit a slight
sleeve 90, while the slot 88, cut in the bottom
leakage of a fluid such as lubricating oil. Slid
end of the lever bolt 87, permits free movement
86 which, through contact with a top portion of
without contacting the pull wire 9 I.
ably operable within the cylinder barrel III) is a
Referring particularly to Figures 13 and 14, 20 piston H5 skirted at both ends and having a
wherein Figure 14 is a manual pull rod mecha
nism suitable for mounting on an instrument
central section in which is formed a cylindrical
bore I20 horizontally across the piston H5, and
panel IE0, or a stationary portion of the engine
frame, IIlI is .a handle attached to pull rod I02, .to
movement of the ball end of the bolt H6, which
which is connected one end of the pull wire 9i;
the other end of the pull wire 9| being attached
is operative therein through the hole I06 in the
side of the cylinder I II]. The‘ ball end bolt, I I6
adapted to provide free rotative and slidable
to the spring retaining plunger 92, Figure 13,
is securely fastened to the adjusting shaft 52
wherein the compression spring 93 is shown ex
tended to its free length and no pressure is ex
erted on the free plunger 94, which is slidable
within the guide sleeve 90 and about the pull wire
9|. It will be noted that when the pull rod IE2
is withdrawn from the pull rod sleeve I03 any
material distance, the lever spring I 04 will en
gage with the ratchet teeth in the pull rod I02
retaining it in the selected position, Whereon any
resistance to rotative movement of the adjust
which is drilled and formed to seat the bolt col
lar on the inner side thereof and the vwasher I I 1
and the nut H8 on the outer side thereof, form
ing a substantially tight joint with the bolt “6.,
In the ball end bolt IIG the oil channel I I8' is
centrally drilled longitudinally from the ball
ing shaft 52 directly opposing movement of the
free plunger 94 through the lower end of the
lever bolt 8'! will cause compression of the com
pression spring 93 and the stored energy therein
can only be released by movement of the lever
bolt 81 or the releasement of the pull rod I02.
40
end, to a depth that will extend across the bore
of the adjusting shaft 52 when assembled there
on, and oil communication holes II9 are’ drilled
through the ball end bolt II6 intersecting oil
channel H8 at a point coinciding with the bore
of the adjusting shaft 52. This connects the cy
lindrical bore I20 of the piston I_I5 with the pres
sure lubrication system. The piston I I5 has iden
tical ori?ces I2I forming oil passages from the
cylindrical bore I20 to its respective outer ends,
The latter may be accomplished by a twist of the
from which it can be seen a continuous supply of
handle which will disengage the lever spring I04 45 lubricating oil under like pressure is furnished
from the ratchet teeth and permit return to the
at both ends of the piston H5 when the engine
original position. It can be seen from the fore
going that any movement of the lever bolt 81,
is operating.
7
,
Therefore, it followsthat rotative movement
either from the manual means or the automatic
of the adjusting shaft 52 must be accompanied
means hereinafter described, will impart rotative 50 by the displacement of fluid contained in the
movement to the adjusting shaft 52 and thereby
cylinder barrel Ill} through the ori?ces I2I, and
transmit lateral movement to the intake valve
adjusting lever ‘I4 through the eccentrically po
sitioned journal ‘I3.
Referring particularly to Figures 1, 2, 3, 10 and
11, near the forward end of the adjusting shaft
52 is operably connected the mechanism adapted
to stabilize the adjusted positions of the intake
valve adjusting levers ‘I4 and control the rate of
the dimensions of the ori?ces IZI directly affect
the rate of displacement of the ?uid and the
rate of speed at which the adjusting shaft 52 can
rotatively move. 7
_
Attached to the multiple thread nut II3 is a
bellows carrying case I39, which is provided for
attachment thereto by the screws I3I inserted
in the slots I32. The bottom of the bellows carry
change of adjustment'thereof, and co-actively, GO ing case M9 is provided with an opening therein
with the variable force applicator heretofore de
which provides a convenient means for suitably
scribed and shown at Figure 12, automatically ad
a?'ixing the closed base of the metallic bellows
‘ just the lateral position of the intake valve ad
L33 in ?xed union therewith, such as by soldering
justing levers ‘M, by changing air pressure and by
or rolling. To the open top of the metallic bel
changing temperature of the engine and by
lows I33 is securely affixed the metal cup I34
changing speed of revolution of the engine. In
by rolling the open convolution of the bellows
over the edge of the open end of the metal cup
corporated with the automatic mechanism, man
ual means are provided to correlatively regulate
and suitably soldering thereto. This metallic cup
the several automatic means in their cooperative
I34 may be formed to extend into the interior
of the bellows and provide a stop or, limitation
function,
Referring particularly to Figure 10, the cylinder
to the compression of the bellows to keep it with
in its proper working limits, if‘ so, desired. A
barrel III) is rigidly attached to the supporting
hole is centrally formed in the. base of the metal
member III, which is attached to the cam shaft
supporting bracket 48 on a suitable mounting;
cup £34 to accommodate the connecting pin VH4
all of which provide proper alignment of, the . which is soldered in place. All soldered connec
2,412,457
11
12
tions to the metallic cup I34 are airtight and
theinterior of the metal bellows is evacuated to
ous special purpose engines, only certain adjust
ing elements or certain combinations of the ad
the desired absolute pressure prior to sealing,
to secure the desired differential pressure within
and without the metallic bellows I33.
Referring to Figure 11, from the bellows carry
ing case I30 is cut and formed the bearing I35
which is freely slidable on the connecting shaft
I33, which forms an adjusting connection with
arately or collectively in ful?llment of such spe
the thermostatic bi-metal spiral I31 and is rigidly
fastened thereto by means of the eye I38 provided
therefor. Referring also to Figure 10, the cen
tral end of the thermostatic bi-metal spiral I31
is held secure in place at I39 by provision for
such attachment in the cylinder head casting l
44 by the cast lugs I01, and from which it is ap
parent that movement of the outer end of the
thermostatic bi-metal spiral I31 will transmit,
through the connecting shaft I36, rotative move
ments to the bellows carrying case I39, which is
transmitted to the multiple thread nut I I3, which
imparts vertical movement to the metallic bel
lows I33 and the connecting pin I I4.
The thermostatic bi-metal spiral I31 is located
at the bottom of a well formed in the cylinder I
justing elements may be necessary or desirable
in the ful?llment of such special purpose for
which such engines may be constructed. There
fore, it is to be understood that any of the ad
justing elements or any combination of said ad
justing and regulatory elements may be used sep
cial purpose engine requirements, and herein
after such designations as “speed,” “thermal,”
“atmospherical,” and “stabilized,” or hyphenated
combinations thereof, are to be understood to in
clude such mechanism as the terms imply, where
in “speed” refers to mechanism to vary the meas
urement of volume retained in the cylinder due
to variations in speed of the engine; “thermal”
refers to mechanism to vary the measurement of
volume retained in the cylinder due to variations
in temperature of the engine; “atmospherical”
refers to mechanism to vary the measurement of
volume retained in the cylinder due to variations
in the pressure of the atmosphere, and “stabi
lized” means ‘to include the hydraulic mechanism
therewith. The “variable force applicator" is to
be included in the “speed” designation, but not
necessarily with the “thermal” and “atmospheri
head casting 44, as indicated at Figures 10, ll, 19
and 20. One side of this well has a low side wall
cal” designations unless so stated. “Thermal" or
MI. The well is adapted to receive the drainage
“atmospherical” designations, in combination
from leakage of lubricating oi1 furnished to the
with the manual mechanism, are to be under
various mechanism on the cylinder head that
stood to include the tension coil spring I22 and
may drain to the front of the‘engine. This oil,
its conjunctive connections providing the yield
‘by the time it reaches the well, is of high tem
able connection therebetween, and it is here
perature and will vary in temperature with varia
pointed out that the forces of cam contact with
tions in temperature of the cylinder head. The
the intake valve adjusting lever 14, which are
top of the wall MI is of su?icient height‘to main
transmitted to the adjusting shaft 52, are di
tain the bi-metal spiral I31 submerged in hot
rectional and su?icient to properly tension the
oil. As indicated at Figure 10, it will be noted
coil spring I22 in these combinations. When the’
that the well is positioned where it is subjected
“thermal” adjustment is not included in the ad
to the hot liquid as it leaves the cylinder head
casting 44 through the outlet 226, whereby a re 40 justing mechanism employed, a lock nut I38 is
used in conjunction with the multiple thread nut
lationship of engine operating temperature is con
II3, as indicated by the dotted lines—Figurcs
ducted to the thermostatic bi-metal spiral I31.
10 and 11, which render the multiple thread nut
The upper end of the connecting pin H4 is
II 3 inoperative. When the “atmospherical” ad
slotted and, after insertion through the hole in
the bottom of the cylinder I ID-provided there- - justment is not included in the adjusting mech
anism employed, the connecting pin II4 may be
for, it passes through the conical end of the coil
affixed to the base of the bellows carrying case
tension spring I22 and the conical washer I23.
I33 in a like manner to which it is ai?xed to the
The slotted end of the connecting pin I I4 is then
metal cup I34 and as indicated by the dotted
spread to hold the conical washer I23 thereon
and maintain a pivotally operable connection with 50 outline at Figure 11. When the “speed” adjust
ment is not included in the adjusting mechanism
the tension coil spring I22. The opposite end
employed, the parts of the variable force appli
of the tension spring I22 is formed with a small
cator, otherwise unnecessary, may be omitted.
eye centrally located and adapted to engage the
It is to be understood that suitable substitute ar
pin end of the screw pin I24, which is threaded
in the lower portion of the central section of 1
rangements adapted to special purpose require
the piston H5, whereby a yieldable connection
is established between the piston II 5 and the
ments may be employed singularly or collectively.
The clearance volume or compression space is
formed in the cylinder head casting 44. This
space may be of relatively small dimensions. The
“stabilized speed-atmospherical-thermal regula~
tor,” and it can be seen that all of the adjusting (SO volume of the compression space is determined by
the selection of the expansion ratio. Figure 17
movements pertaining to the measurement of the
shows the bottom view of the clearance volume
cylindrical volume of charge which is retained
pockets contained in the cylinder head casting 44,
in the cylinder, are stabilized in position, and in
which is representative in outline of a compres
position changing movement and the speed there
sion space such as is used with an expansion ratio
of regulated by the hydraulic mechanism, and
of the order of 1 to 25., and Figures 4, 6, 9 and 18
that the stabilized speed-atmospherical-thermal
show the relative proportions of a clearance vol
regulator is coactive in conjunction with the var
ume representative of an expansion ratio of 1 to
iable force applicator in adjusting the volume
11. The exhaust valve I40 and the intake valve
of charge retained in the cylinder, to control
the compression pressure occurring at the ?xed 70 I59 are set at alternate angles from the horizon
connecting pin II4.
This mechanism I term a
point of ignition so as to maintain a high de
gree of operating e?iciency under all operating
tal, so that a pocket for each valve is formed
within the compression space to bulk the major
portion of the compressed charge adjacent to
the spark plug holes 30 to permit burning the
However, it is conceived that for certain vari 15 greatest volume of charge with the least distance
conditions such as heretofore have been unat
tainable in a combustion engine.
2,412,457
13
of ?ame travel. This is entirely opposite to the
head construction and spark plug placement in
14
and subjects the exhaust valve spring base to the
?uid pressure of the lubricating system when the
engine is operating. From which it can be seen‘
that the area of the valve spring base I46 and the
exhaust valve seat, I43 the exhaust channel com Cl pressure of the ?uid exerted thereon may be pro
portioned and adjusted respectively to a force
municating with the exhaust manifold 54. I44 is
that will exceed the force of the exhaust valve
a valve stem guide pressed into the cylinder head
spring 548 when the exhaust valve 140 is at closed
casting 44; :45 is a packing ring in a groove on
engines heretofore used.
7
Referring particularly to Figure 9, I42 is the
the valve stem guide I44; I46 is the exhaust valve
position and the engine not operating, and such
spring base; i4l is a packing ring in a groove on 10 excessive pressure will raise the valve spring base
I46 off the seat i‘lI when the exhaust valve is at
the exhaust valve spring base I46; I48 is a valve
spring, and I49 is a valve spring retaining nut.
Referring particularly to Figure 6, I52 is the
intake valve seat; I53 the intake channel com
municating with the intake manifold 55; I54 is
an intake valve stem guide pressed in the cylin
der head casting 44; N55 is a packing ring in a
ring grove on the intake valve stem guide; I56 is
the intake valve spring base; I5? is a packing
. closed position, and impart a resilient action to
the exhaust valve spring base I46 that will have
a tendency to yield during compression of the‘
exhaust valve spring and advance when such
compression is released and will likewise yield to
forces of vibration or inertia forces that may be
transmitted thereto, dissipating and disrupting
such forces and thereby preventing occurrence of
'
.
ring mounted in a ring groove in the intake valve 20 spring surge.
Referring now particularly to Figure 6, the in
spring base; i 58 is an intake valve spring; I59 is
take valve I56 is likewise provided with a resilient
a combination valve spring retaining nut and
valve spring base I56 which is operative within
thrust piston; £36 is a thrust sleeve pressed in
the thrust sleeve I66 in a similar manner as above
the cylinder head casting 44 and is provided with
described for the exahust valve, and provides ad
a relief hole I6I.
ditional side thrust at the top of the valve stem
Referring now to Figures 6', 7 and 9, the outer
through the slidable engagement of the top in
end of the valve stems of the exhaust valves I40
teriorsurface of the thrust sleeve I 66 and the
and the intake valves I50 are threaded for en
skirt of the combination valve spring retaining
gagement with the threads in their respective
valve spring retaining nuts I49 and I59. In the Si) nut and thrust piston I59, thus providing for
the lateral force that may be imposed on the cap
outer end of the valve stem a longitudinal groove
I 63 is formed in part of the threaded end portion
to receive the lug I64 on the valve holding nut
I65. The interior diameter of the valve holding
nut IE5 is such as will freely pass the exterior .
of the threads on the valve stem ends and the
lug I64 is freely movable in the valve stem groove
I63; the outer perimeter is of hexagon form, The
nuts I66 by the lateral movement of the intake
valve adjusting levers surface 15a.
Referring particularly to Figure 5, the cam
shaft 5| rotates in a counter clockwise direc
tion as indicated by the arrow in this figure. It
is to be understood that the intake cam 78 is: of
such proportions that it will hold the intake valve
in an open position throughout the entire intake
cap nuts I66 are threaded for engagement with
the valve stem threads. They have suf?cient 40 stroke, when operation is with'the intake valve
adjusting lever ‘I4 in the position as shown in
space in the domes thereof to permit adjustment
solid lines, and that the adjustment of the clos
of the valves allowing customary clearance for
ing point of the intake valve is varied over a
the proper operation of the valves, and together
portion of the stroke commonly termed the com
with the respective valve spring retaining nut
and the interposed holding nut I65, a means is 45 pression stroke, and that when operation is with
the intake‘ valve adjusting lever ‘I4 in the po
provided for frictionally locking the cap nut I66
sition as shown in dotted lines, that the intake
directly on the valve stem in its adjusted position.
valve has been held open throughout the in
Referring particularly to Figure 9, the exhaust
take stroke and a considerable portion of the
valve spring base I46 has a centrally located bore
of such tolerance as to be easily slidable on the 50 compression stroke. From which it can be under—
stood that operation of this engine is not deter
upper portion of the outer perimeter of the ex
mined by the volume of the charge that enters
haust valve stem guide £44, which is suitably ?n
ished for such engagement and provided with the
the cylinder, but by the volume of the charge that
packing ring groove which holds the packing ring
is retained in the cylinder, and that any excess
I45. the exterior perimeter of which makes oper—
volume of charge that may be admitted to the
ative contact with the centrally located bore of
cylinder by the carbureter throttle valve, that
would normally cause detonation if the entire
the valve spring base I46 to minimize oil leakage.
‘The large diameter exterior perimeter of the
charge were retained in the cylinder, will be ex
valve spring base I46 is concentric with the cen
truded during the early part of the compression
trally located bore thereof and is provided with 60 stroke through the intake port and transferred to
a packing ring groove to accommodate the ex
an adjacent cylinder for admission. As shown at
haust valve base packing ring I45 and is freely
Figure 5, the variation in the lateral position of
slidable within the bore I'Ili provided in the cylin
the intake valve adjusting lever ‘I4, as shown in
der head casting 44 therefor. Near the bottom of
the solid lines and as shown in the dotted lines,
the bore H6, the diameter is somewhat reduced
is provided by rotative movement of the adjust
and forms a stop or bearing surface I'II which
ing shaft 52 through an arc of sixty degrees and
limits the downward travel of the valve spring
the resultant closing points of the intake valve are
base I46. The small or reduced bore extends a
thereby varied over approximately 35 degrees of
little further into the cylinder head casting 44 in
cam rotation therefrom, which in a four stroke
the formation of a pocket surrounding the ex 70 cycle engine equals '70 degrees of crankshaft
travel. For example, if the timing of the ‘intake
haust valve stem guide I44 and together with the
larger diameter bore intercepts the longitudinal
valve with the adjusting lever in the position as
oil channel 206, which is drilled in the core pro
shown in solid lines, in cooperation with a cam
vided for same. in the cylinder head casting 44,
of the general outline as the cam ‘I8, were used,
and the .camrepresenting 230 degrees of crank
and which carries lubricating oil under pressure,
2,412,457
15
16
shaft travel, was timed to open the intake valve
10 degrees before top center and close the intake
40 degrees after bottom center, which is considered
good practice for maximum induction, it can be
understood that the position of the adjusting
mechanism with the engine at rest and a mini
mum of temperature and pressure of one at
mosphere. The tension coil spring I22 is wound
with initial tension; it is the principal yielding
member to increasing speed of engine; it is sub
lever 14, as shown in dotted lines, would then
ordinate in force to the thermostatic bi-metal
represent a closing point of the intake valve when
spiral I31 and the metallic bellows I33; it is also
the piston had reached a point corresponding to
subordinate to the force of the compression spring
110 degrees after bottom, and would thereby re
93, Figure 13; it is the principal yielding member
tain in the cylinder a volurne of charge approxi 10 to the manual control mechanism. From which
mating 39 per cent of the piston displacement.
it can be understood that with the engine operat
This volume of charge gives excellent results for
ing at moderate speed the tension spring I22 will
slow speed operation with an expansion ratio of
yield to the extent of counteracting the force ap
eleven to one when the atmospheric pressure is
plied by the variable force applicator due to the
approximately one atmosphere and the engine is
engine speed, and that if at such speed conditions
cool. When the engine becomes hot, the heat im
are encountered to cause undue heating of the
parted to the charge expands it and it is neces—
engine, the rotative action of the thermostatic bi
sary to retain an additional volume of the rare?ed
metal spiral I3? will move the multiple thread
charge to compensate for the expansion thereof.
nut H3 on its companion thread IE9, thereby
Likewise, if the atmospheric pressure decreases, 20 raising the adjusting portion of the unit attached
as is the case with increasing altitude, the rare
thereto by the screws I3I, which may result in
?ed charge must be compensated for by retain
the position as shown in Figure 11, and it can
ing an additional volume of the rare?ed charge.
be understood that with such vertical movement
Further, with increasing speed of revolution of
resulting therefrom, the constant force that tends
the engine the time available to burn the charge
to rotate the adjusting shaft clockwise remains
from the ?xed point of ignition rapidly decreases,
substantially constant throughout this movement
and to compensate for the limitations of time,
andat the advanced position of the adjusting shaft
faster burning characteristics are imparted to
52, and it also can be understood that if at these
the charge by raising the compression pressure
above operating conditions, a higher elevation is
at the point of ignition and reducing the percent 30 encountered causing a decrease in atmospheric
age of residuum gas of the charge, by retaining
pressure, that the metallic bellows I33 will ex
in the cylinder increasing volumes of charge as
pand and thereby impart additional upward
the speed of revolution of the engine increases.
movement to the pin I I4, which allows further
In order to accomplish these adjustments and
advancement clockwise of the adjusting shaft
at the same time keep the dimensions of the
52 to take place by reason of the same substan
mechanism used therefor in practical limits, ad
tially constant pressure applied to rotatively move
justing forces of small magnitude are employed.
the adjusting shaft clockwise. It further can be
The contact of the cam 18 with the adjusting
understood that encountering a lower altitude
lever ‘M imparts a force thereto which tends to
with the corresponding higher pressure atmos
move it laterally away from its point of support. 40 phere, and the engine attaining a lower operat
This force is transmitted to the adjusting shaft
ing temperature, the converse actions therefrom
52 through the eccentrically positioned journal
will cause the adjusting shaft 52 to rotatively
13 and normally would turn the adjusting shaft
move counter clockwise while the clockwise rota
52 in a clockwise direction to a position that
tive' force remains substantially constant, and
would be out of adjustment and retain too large 45 that a slower speed of engine revolution will
a volume of charge in the cylinder and cause
diminish the force tending to clockwise rotative
detonation of the charge and pre-ignition at cer
movement, and that the tension spring I22 will
tain time from excessive compression pressures, if
rotatively move the adjusting shaft 52 counter
unrestrained. The magnitude of this force is
clockwise to a point where the tension spring I22
greatest at the slowest speeds of engine revolution 50 balances the reduced force that is diminished by
with the intake valve adjusting lever 14 wherein
reduced speed. It is also apparent that the me
cam contact with the arcuate surface ‘It is at a
chanical advantage afforded by the multiple
maximum. To reduce this periodic force of vary
thread nut I I 3 is such as to permit rotative move
ing frequency to subordination of the forces of
ment thereof due to the force imposed by the
the adjusting mechanisms which transmit con
thermostatic bi-metal spiral I37, and at the same
stant forces, I use the hydraulic means included
time afford the thermostatic bi-metal spiral I32l
in the adjusting mechanism shown at Figure 10,
a mechanical advantage in resisting rotative
and heretofore described.
movement of the multiple thread nut H3 due to
The mechanism shown at Figure 12, and here
vertical force that may be indirectly imposed
tofore described, also applies force to the adjust 60 thereon from tension within the coil spring I22.
ing shaft 52 to rotatively move it in a clockwise
It is further apparent that the differential air
direction. This force is a constant force which
pressure within and without the metallic bellows
increases in intensity with increasing speed of
I33 may be of considerable magnitude, but this
revolution of the engine.
condition is not re?ected in such magnitude to
Referring particularly to Figure 10 and Figure
any other elements of the adjusting mechanism,
11, it is to be understood that when the engine
but represents a self-contained force wherein the
is in operation there is constant active force ap
bellows I33 is under compression from the ex
plied to the adjusting shaft 52, as above described,
terior atmospheric pressure.
rotatively clockwise. This mechanism co-ac
It also can be understood that the connecting
tively limits the clockwise movement of the ad
shaft I36 establishes a ?xed rotative relationship
justing shaft 52 and rotatively moves it counter
of the metal bellows carrying case I36 with the
clockwise, and thereby adjusts the lateral posi
eye I38 in the thermostatic bi-metal spiral I31,
tion of the intake valve adjusting levers ‘i4 that
and that it is necessary to establish a coordinated
are pivotally mounted on the eccentrically posi
stress between the coactive adjusting members,
tioned journals ‘I3. ' Figure 10 represents the
which might be said to pre-load the active ad
2412,45’?
17
.
18
~
justing members; the tension coil spring I22,
the metal bellows I33, and the bi-metal spiral
position of the intake valve adjusting lever '14
I31 to the extent of eliminating a delicate bal
ance of force that would exist within the bi
metal spiral I3‘! at free position, and a delicate
balance of force that may occur in the metal bel
lows I33, if evacuated to a pressure that would
be such as not to exceed the maximum deflec
tain- a large minimum volume in the cylinder,
whereuponv the automatic mechanism is coac
tion of the beliows wherein no stop were used
.t can be understood that herein the relative vol
ume of the compression space in the cylinder head
is so small that a variation of several ratios of
expansion may be had from a single cylinder head
will have been indirectly laterally altered to re
tively adjusted manually, as heretofore described,
in accordance with this new condition, wherein
the pre-loaded force therein is counterbalanced
by a force set up in the compression spring 93.
to prevent excessive de?ection thereof. It is also
necessary to provide means for varying the mag
nitude of this above mentioned pre-load resist
casting by using spark plug holes of generous size,
ance when adjusting the engine for proper per
and in conjunction therewith, variations in the
formance, or when “tuning up the engine.”
This is accomplished by loosening the screws I3I 15 type of spark plugs, so that the spark plugs may
displace varying volumes therewith, and in ?nish
that hold the carrying case I30 which permits of
of the interior of the compression space, and with
rotative movement of the multiple thread nut I IS
reasonable thickness change in the cylinder head
without rotatively affecting the carrying case
gasket wherein a separate cylinder head is used.
I30, and of rotative movement of the carrying
To compensate for this change of minimum vol
case I39 without aifecting the vertical position of 20
ume accompanying the change in expansion ratio
the multiple thread nut H3, from which it can
of an engine, in conjunction with an identical
be understood the above mentioned adjustment
“stabilized speed-atmospherical-thermal regula
and regulation can be accomplished thereby.
tor,” an adjustment of volume regulation there
Referring now to Figures 10, 12, 13 and 14, it is
to may be e?ected by laterally positioning the
desirable when starting a cold engine to raise the
longitudinal axis of the cylinder barrel Illl rel
compression pressure to compensate for the heat
ative to the adjusting shaft 52 in conjunction
extracted from the compressed charge by the
with the bracket I I I or with shims, or by chang
cold metal parts of contact therewith, so that
ing the position of the collar on bolt I I6, so that
high pressures conductive to positive ignition and
the arcuate movement of the ball end bolt H6
fast ?ame travel can be had. This I accomplish
is effected with a changed radius to correspond
by means of the manually operated mechanism
with the change in minimum volume, so that as
heretofore described, from which it can be under
the minimum volume to be retained in the cyl
stood that withdrawal of the pull rod I02 causes
inder is reduced, the effective radius of arcuate
movement of the retaining plunger 92 through
its connection therewith by the pull wire SI. oil
that may be retained in the cylinder Ill! must
be displaced through the ori?ces I2I, to permit
movement of the mechanism adjusting the intake
lever ‘M, Figure 5, to a new position to permit re
taining a charge of larger volume in the cylinder
to raise the compression pressure. This displace
ment is not immediate and it can be understood
that withdrawing the pull rod I02 and ?xing
the position thereof by engagement of the spring
ltd with a ratchet tooth in the pull rod I02 will
compress the spring 93 and the stored energy
therein will cause clockwise rotative movement
of the adjusting shaft 52 at a rate allowed by
the oil displacement through the ori?ces I2 I, and
thus relieve the necessity of a constant manual
pull being exerted on the pull rod I02 for the
duration of the period required for such move
ment, and as heretofore pointed out, the force
of the compression spring 93 is in excess of the
resisting force of the tension coil spring I22, the
latter will yield until a balance of pressure is
reached. This provides a convenient means for
adjusting the charge for starting and provides
manual means that is dominant over the auto
matic means at any and all times. It is further
pointed out that this mechanism is expressly used
for the purpose of regulating the minimum vol
ume of charge that may be retained in engines
of various expansion ratios, and consequently of
different power output with corresponding vari
ance in thermal e?iciency. These I term “se
ries engines,” being identical in all respects ex
cept the clearance volume in the cylinder head,
from which it can be seen that by changing the
movement of the ball end bolt H5 is increased
relative to actuation thereof by the “stabilized
speed-atmospherical-thermal regulator” so that
identical responsive action of the adjusting ele
ments therein effect their respective adjustments
conjunctively with the intake valve lever lifter
"it in‘a correspondingly reduced relationship. It
is here pointed out that the ball end of the ball
end bolt IIB in its arcuate movement does not
laterally traverse the entire length of the cylin
drical bore I20; su?‘icient length being provided
in the said bore for this position change to be
elfected;
'
Means for the supply of lubrication, heretofore
described, is furnished to the horizontal channel
202, indicated by the dotted lines at Figure 2,
through oil channel ‘280 and 2M. Figure 4 indi
cates a means of supplying the bearing surfaces
within the crankcase proper with lubricating oil
from the channel 202, which extends longitudi
nally back to a cross channel 203, Figure 1, which
in turn, connects with a vertical riser channel
2%, Figure l, which is centrally positioned and
with a hole provided in the head gasket forms
communication with the vertical riser channel
205 drilled in the cylinder head casting 44, which
intersects the channel 266 drilled longitudinally
and centrally located in the cylinder head.
Referring to'Figures 1'7, 18, 19 and 20, near the
front of the cylinder head casting 45, an angular
ly descending channel 201 is drilled in a core pro
vided therefor which intersects the channel 206
and also a horizontal cross channel 208. This
cross channel leads to a relief valve wherein 2 I2
is a ball seated in the casting on a seat provided
relative position of the retaining plunger 92 on 70 therefor; 2I3 is a compression spring and 2M
an adjusting screw locked in position‘ with the
the pull wire 9|, a new position for the adjust
nut 2E5; 2“ is an outlet hole directing the oil
ing bolt 8'! will be established for that shown in
that passes the relief valve back to the crankcase
solid lines at Figure 13, and that when moved
over the timing gears and timing chain. It will
toward the position of the adjusting bolt 81, as
be noted that the relief valve is provided at the
shown in the dotted lines, the relative lateral '
19
20
termination of the lubrication system. It can be
understood that this provides for the maintenance
pression ratio of 6 to 1 wherein curve A repre?
sents compression of a charge of a volumetric
e?iciency of 34 percent; curve B a charge equal
ling '51 percent volumetric e?iciency, and curve
C representative of 85 percent volumetric ef?~
of pressure on the valve spring bases, and it is
pointed out that the relief valve is of compara
tively small dimensions, which with adjustment
ciency which approximates the maximum. Coni
of the spring 213 provides for a substantial rise
in the pressure in the lubricating system with in
creasing speed of revolution of the engine, there
by raising the pressure on the valve spring bases.
press'ion curves A and D give representative com
pression of charges of like volumetric eiiflciency
and curves B and F are of like volumetric e?i
This engine is capable of extremely high speed 10 ciency. It is pointed out that the residuum gas
mixed with these charges, based on the volume
of revolution. It is at very high operating speeds
of the compression space, would be twice as much
where valve spring breakage often occurs due
in the ordinary engine.
to vibrating forces within the valve springs. Also,
It is generally recognized that the percentage
it is very desirable at high operating speeds to
have increased valve spring pressures to effect 15 of residuum gas mixed with the fresh charge
fast closing of the valves, which at slow speed
effects the rate of burning of the charge, and that
the initial slow burning period can be materially
would be unnecessary and cause undue wear and
shortened by igniting the charge at a higher
strain on the Valve actuating mechanism. It can
compression pressure, and that in the burning
be understood that the valve spring bases as used
of the charge the velocity of ?ame travel is the
herein and heretofore described, provide resil
chief factor affecting the rate of the pressure rise.
iency which will absorb the vibrating forces that
Flame travel is generally termed in slow burn
may be transmitted to the valve spring bases,
ing ‘and fast burning stages, which resolves into
and that as the engine speed is increased and a
rates of burning in relation to temperature and
greater volume of lubricant is furnished to the
pressure wherein at low pressure and temperature
lubricating system by the oil pump 26, it will
burning is very slow and at high pressure and
cause an increased pressure Within the ‘distri
temperature burning is very fast.
bution system to pass the additional supply that
is not required through the relief valve which
The element of time also has a relationship to
the pressure and temperature in the burning of
will increase the pressure on the valve spring
the charge to the extent that when the charge is
bases and thereby compress the valve springs
maintained at a certain high temperature and
slightly at closed positions of the valves in coun
pressure for a certain period of time the remain
terbalancing this additional pressure, and it can
ing unburned portion of the charge will instan
be understood that in operation, the valve spring
taneously ignite. This is known 'as detonation
pressure diminishes as the valve approaches the
or ping and is very detrimental to an engine and
closed position, and that it is in this range of
is accompanied by a serious loss of power. This
minimum stress that the additional pressure fur
relationship is recognized to the extent that as
nished the valve spring, through the hydraulic
the burning time is reduced the maximum pres
pressure on the valve spring bases, becomes most
effective.
sure and temperatures can be increased.
'
The chart at Figure 23 is set forth to graphi- .
cal-1y convey the conception of this highly e?i
cient engine and furnish a relative comparison
of compression pressures with an ordinary en
gine. Compression and expansion curves are an
creases as the size of the cylinders increase.
Therefore, to effect a material increase in the
maximum pressure and temperature that is at
tained in a combustion engine of the constant
volume type, a material decrease in the time re
quired to burn the charge must be provided.
Ordinary engines capable of what is considered
interpolation of points taken from straight line
logarithmic plots of small scale wherein n equals
1.3. The compression pressures are below actual
working pressures wherein heat is imparted to
the charge during compression but form a, basic
comparison.
The peak expansion pressures and '
the degree of occurrence thereof are assumed,
vguidance thereof being solely on impression
formed from experiments. The solid line curves
are considered fairly representative for an en
gine with an expansion ratio of 1 to 11 as shown
in the drawings; due allowance being made for
The
best testimony of this relationship is the ordi
nary engine of present day manufacture of a ?xed
type of engine wherein the compression ratio de
high speed, such as present day high speed auto
mobile engines, provide for ignition that varies
over a considerable portion of the compression
stroke as the piston approaches top center. The
maximum advance points of ignition for such
engines may occur when the piston has traveled
not less than '70 to 85 percent of the distance of
the compression stroke.
the peak pressures and the occurrence thereof,
I have provided an engine wherein the time
wherein compression curves D, E, and F, and
required to burn the charge is greatly reduced.
expansion curves G, H, and J represent operation
on a charge of which the volumetric e?iciency is 60 Ignition occurs at a, ?xed point corresponding
34 percent, 43 percent and 51 percent respec
with the expansion ratio of the engine. In an
tively. It is here pointed out that there is a
engine with an expansion ratio of the order of
charge of certain volumetric e?iciency that can
1 .to 25, ignition does not occur until the piston
be used with the minimum speed, and that charges
has traveled not less than 99 percent of the dis
of larger volumetric efticiency become available
tance of the compression stroke. In an engine
for use only when increasing operating speeds
with an expansion ratio of the order of 1 to 11
permit. Operation on volumes representing a
ignition does not occur until the piston has trav
volumetric efficiency below that set for the max
eled not less than 97 percent of the distance of
imum at a particular speed is obtained by re
the compression stroke, In an engine with an
striction to admission with the carburetor throt 70 expansion ratio of the order of 1 to '7_ ignition does
not occur until the piston has traveled not less
tlevalve.
\
'
The circles on curves D,
and F represent
than 9.5 percent of the distance of the com
points of ignition. The dotted compression
pression stroke. These ?xed points of ignition in
curves, Figure 23, are considered relatively rep
the proximity of top center are suitable for en
resentative for an ordinary engine with a com
75 gines of such cylinder dimensions as are capable
2i
22
of high speed and as the cylinder size is reduced
the point of ignition approaches top center for
engines of the same expansion ratio.
By ?xing the point of ignition at a given de
gree of revolution and cooperating with the en
gine, which is very insistent on the time element
~
~
be retained in the cylinder varied in volumes
equalling from 40 to 63 percent of the piston dis
placement, the timing cam was located on the
crankshaft and the ignition breaker points were
set to commence opening at 101/2 degrees before‘
top center and they were fully open at 4 degrees
before top center. This engine gave excellent
results at all speeds and on a spurt speed test
attained a speed of 9486 revolutions’ per minute
as regards its speed of revolution, by supplying
the charge in such amounts that will efficiently
burn to a high pressure and temperature within
the time provided by the engine in passing 10 and at no time at any speed was there any flame
present in the exhaust. The compression space
through a given are of revolution, a very high
was of very poor design which was necessary to
degree of operating e?ciency can be maintained.
provide the expansion ratio, having a very shal
In the ordinary engine, such as are used in
low channel connecting the Valve pocket with the
automobiles, at high rates of speed wherein a
substantial drop in pressure is present in the 15 cylinder which undoubtedly had a restricting in~
fluence on the performance, especially at high
induction system, maximum advance points of
speed.
ignition are provided that may occur 40 to 60
A multiple cylinder engine of this type direct
degrees before top center, or in other words,
‘the extreme conditions might be stated, ignition
is provided that may occur when the volume in
connected to an air compressor, the engine hav~
ing a bore and stroke of 315-6 x 3% inches and
using a somewhat smaller expansion ratio, indi
cates that performance on a charge of 40 percent
the cylinder has been compressed to equal 250
percent of the compression space, or ignition is
volumetric efficiency at slow speed will equal the
provided that may occur at a point requiring the
slow speed performance of the ordinary engine
piston to travel 30 percent of the distance on the
compression stroke against excess pressure caused 25 on full charge, and that increasement ot‘speeds
up to approximately 1200 revolutions per minute
by burning of the charge which is in excess of
with the corresponding increasement in volu
compression pressure and the work required to
metric e?iciency of the charge permissible for
overcome the additional pressure must be sup
such speeds will greatly surpass the performance
plied by expansion of the charge and represents
of the ordinary engine at like speeds on full
a net loss in power and causes additional stressv
charge.
7
and wear on certain working parts, subjects the
In these experiments gasoline sold under the
metal areas con?ning the charge to additional
trade names of Ethyl gasoline and Third Grade
heat and prolongs the period for loss of heat
White were used. Best results are obtained with
thereto.
'
When an ordinary engine is operated at maxi~ !
mum throttle opening with no load and attains
Third Grade White.
It is considered that mechanism adapted to
regulation from changing conditions within the
its maximum speed, the speed of revolution thus
intake system is well within the scope of this in
attained is likely to be at the maximum degree
vention. However, such is inferior to the means
of advance provided for the ignition of that en
gine, and this maximum speed represents the in 40 shown in the drawings due to similarity of condi
tions that may occur within the induction system
dividual engine’s abilitiy to burn its charge and
under vastly different operating conditions.
provide pressure on the piston to force it down
within a given length of time, and it can be rec
ognized that if it were possible to burn the charge
materially faster, or in a much shorter period
of time, the spark could be retarded from-its
advanced position and occur nearer to top cen
ter, cause a higher peak pressure to occur nearer
It can be recognized that I have provided an
engine that will give highly efficient operation
at all speeds and load conditions encountered
within a vast range of altitude and temperature
that has heretofore been unattainable. While it
is the primary purpose to provide a highly eni
cient atmospheric induction engine, this engine
to top center on the expansion stroke and pro
utilizing pressure induction or supercharging can
vide a greater force of expansion with less after
maintain correspondingly high e?iciencies to
burning which would further increase the speed
greater altitudes, and attain greater speeds
thereof, and that in so doing it would convert
thereby.
more of the potential heat contained in the
It is also pointed out that wherein a single cyl
charge into useful work as the charge inducted
would decrease in volumetric efficiency with the 55 inder engine is used or a multiple cylinder engine
wherein there is not a constant induction by a
additional speed. If this failed to convert more
cylinder, an extension on the carbureter intake
of the potential heat contained in the charge into
with a capacity to retain the gases that may be
useful work the speed of the engine would not
extruded from a cylinder at a time when induc
increase.
'
In experimenting with engines operating with 60 tion is not in progress by another cylinder, and
the volume of charge admitted exceed the Volume
which can be retained, will suiiice to prevent the
air-fuel mixture being wasted. This may be in
the form of an air cleaner.
Having now fully described my engine and ex
head type engine, air cooled, ?ywheel magneto, 65
plained its use, I realize that to those familiar
the ignition being at a fixed point when operat
with the art various changes and modi?cations
ing, fuel was supplied ‘with a mixing jet on the
may be made, all of which, however, may well
intake, the spark plug was located at the outer
remain within the spirit of the invention. There
edge of the intake valve pocket and required two
and one-half inches iiame travel to the outer edge 70 fore, I wish to be bound only by the following
claims.
of the exhaust Valve pocket, the cylinder head
I claim:
and piston were aluminum alloy, the bore was
1. In an internal combustion engine having a
one and three-quarters inches and the stroke one
a ?xed degree of ignition and means to increase
the volume of the charge to compensate for the
induction de?ciencies that occur in operation, I
used a small single cylinder four stroke cycle, L
and seven-eighths inches, the expansion ratio
cylinder piston operative therein, an intake valve,
was 1 to 11, and the volume of charge that could 75 an exhaust valve, a cam shaft, an operative con
2,412,457‘
.
23
24
supported eccentrically positioned journal adapt
nection between the valves and the cam shaft,
and means for varying the amount of fuelto be
compressed in the cylinder including a pivotally
ed to rotative movement within a predetermined
arc and operable to swingably support and impart
mounted valve lifter interposed between the op
a lateral movement to a lever valve lifter, a one
erative end of the intake valve and the intake
piece lever valve lifter swingably supported on
cam, having a
surface adjacent the axis of
said journal and operable in conjunction with
pivot with a curved surface extending arcuately
a cam and adapted to maintain operative contact
therefrom in the direction of cam rotation, to
with the lobe of said cam throughout varying
gether with means for adjusting the longitudinal
degrees of said cam rotation during the receding
position of said valve lifter whereby the cam will 10 movement of said lifter by changing the position
contact either said flat surface or varying por
of said supporting journal relative to the axis of
tions of said curved surface during its rotation
rotation of said cam, the lever portion of said
so that the time of closing of the intake valve
lifter extending from said journaled end having a
may be adjustably varied during operation while
?at cam contacting surface for primary engage
the time of opening will remain substantially 15 ment with said cam lobe and during the lifting
?xed, said means for longitudinally adjusting
of said lever valve lifter and a curved arcuate
said valve lifter including an eccentrically mount
cam contacting surface deviating therefrom in
ed journal on a valve adjusting shaft, together
the direction of cam rotation for engagement
with means for actuating said valve adjusting
with said cam lobe during the receding movement
shaft during the operation of said engine includ 20 of said lifter and a flat portion on the opposite
ing mechanism responsive to the speed of said
side from said ?at cam contacting surface and
engine mechanically connected so as to accel
in a plane parallel therewith adapted to operate
erate the closing of said intake valve as the speed
a valve, and mechanism operable to change the
of said engine increases, mechanism responsive to
position of said supporting journal with a change
atmospheric pressure interconnected with said 25 in temperature of said engine.
speed responsive mechanism to accelerate the
f1. In an internal combustion engine of the type
closing of said intake valve as atmospheric pres
described, as a sub-combination, a pivotally sup
ported eccentrically positioned journal adapted
sure decreases and mechanism interconnected
with both said devices to advance the closing of
said intake valve as the heat of the engine in
to rotative movement within a predetermined arc
and operable to swingably support and impart lat
creases.
eral movement to a lever valve lifter, said lever
valve lifter comprising a lever swingably support
ed on said journal and operable in conjunction
2. An internal combustion engine having a
cylinder with a head, a rotative drive shaft, a
piston operable in said cylinder and operable to
with a cam and adapted to maintain operative
rotate said drive shaft, means to exhaust said 35 contact with the lobe of said cam throughout
cylinder, an intake valve operable in conjunction
varying degrees of said cam rotation during the
with said cylinder, a cam operable to open and
close said intake valve in conjunction with an
receding movement of said lifterby changing the
position of said supporting journal relative to the
interposed lever valve lifter, a pivotally sup
axis of rotation of said cam, the lever portion of
ported eccentrically positioned journal adapted 40 said lifter extending from said journaled end
to rotative movement within a predetermined arc
having a flat cam contacting surface for primary
and operable to swingably support and laterally
engagement with said cam lobe and during the
lifting of said lever valve lifter and a curved arcu
move the lever valve lifter, said lever valve lifter
comprising a lever swingably supported on said
journal and operable in conjunction with said
45
cam and adapted to maintain operative contact
with the lobe of said cam throughout varying de
grees of said cam rotation during the receding
movement of said lifter by changing the position
of said supporting journal relative to the axis of :
rotation of said cam, the lever portion of said
lifter extending from said journaled end having a
flat cam contacting surface for primary engage
ate cam contacting surface deviating therefrom
in the direction of cam rotation for engagement
with said cam lobe during the receding movement
of said lifter and a ?at portion on the opposite
side from said ?at cam contacting surface and in
a plane parallel therewith adapted to operate an
intake valve, mechanism operably responsive to
change the position of said supporting journal
with a change in speed of revolution of said im
gine, and hydraulic mechanism adapted to sub
ment with the lobe of said cam and during the
due the forces of said cam engagement with said
lifting of said lever valve lifter and a curved arcu- ;
lifter, thereby stabilizing the adjusted positions
ate cam contacting surface deviating therefrom
of said supporting journal.
in the direction of cam rotation for engagement
with said cam lobe during the receding movement
of said lifter and a ?at portion on the Opposite
side from said flat cam contacting surface and in
a plane parallel therewith adapted to transmit
said cam lobe action to said intake valve, engine
temperature responsive means operatively con
nected with said cam to vary the degree of cam
action on the lifter during the receding move
ment of said lifter.
3. In an internal combustion engine of ‘the
type described, as a sub-combination, a pivotally
5. In an internal combustion engine compris
ing a cylinder, a piston operating in said cylinder,
an intake valve, an exhaust valve, a cam shaft
and an operative connection between the cam
shaft and the intake and exhaust valves for ac
tuating said valves. and means operatively con
nected to the intake valve operative connection
to vary the rejection of a predetermined portion
of a fuel charge in accordance with the engine
speed.
LAURENCE D. HARRISON.
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