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G. A. NORTON
294112,46?
ELECTRONIC COMPUTER
Filed April 28, 1945
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ATTORNEY.
Patented Dec.. l0, 1946 _
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2,412,467
ELECTRONIC COMPUTER `
George A. Morton, Princeton, N. J., assignor_ to
Radio Corporation of America, a corporation
of Delaware
Application April 28, 1945, Serial No. 590,849
5 Claims. (Cl. 235-61)
2
l
from which a positive pulse is provided for re
setting the counter in a manner well known in the
art. Representations of other' values of the
This invention relates to electronic computers
such as are utilized to derive a function of a
plurality of variables, and has for its principal>
object the provision of an improved apparatus
and method of operation whereby there is estab
function are similarly established by the applica
tion of other deflecting voltages proportional in
amplitude to other values of the Variables and
lished a representation or indication of the value
of a function predetermined by a set of applied ` are similarly erased if the auxiliary target pre
viously mentioned is connected to the counter.
potentials each of an amplitude proportional to
Important objects of the invention are the pro
the value of a different variable.
The present applicationis a continuation-in l0 vision of an improved computer for deriving a
predetermined function of two variables which
part of an application Serial No. 481,051, filed
are available in the form of voltages having am
March 29, 1943.
4
.
plitudes proportional to the selected values of the
In the accomplishment of this object, use is
variables; the provision of means for causing
made of a cathode ray tube wherein the cathode
two simultaneous applied deñecting voltages to
be utilized successively; and the provision of
means for resetting a counter in response t'o the
completion of the scanning of the target of a
ray is normally deñected to a reference point near
one corner of a'target provided with secondary
electron emissive marks arranged in accordance
with the particular function to be derived. The
ray is deflected from this reference point along
cathode ray tube.
The invention will be better understood from
one rectangular coordinate in response to a volt- -
age of an amplitudeproportional to a selected
v the 'following' description considered in connec
tion with the accompanying drawing and its
scope is indicated by the appended claims.
Referring to the drawing:
Figure 1 is a wiring diagram of the improved
value‘of one of the variables. When the deflec
tion of the ray along this coordinate is completed.
the ray is deflected` along the other rectangular
coordinate and across the secondary electron
emissive lines of the target in response to a volt
computer, and
another of the variables. As the cathode ray
crosses each secondary electron emissive mark,
there is delivered from the target to a counter a
series of positive pulses whereby a representa
tion of the value of the function is established in
the counter. The secondary electrons emitted
from the target are collected by a cylindrical
`
Figure 2 is a front elevation View of the tar
age of an amplitude proportional to a value of ~
v
get bearing the secondary electron emissive lines
representative of the function to be derived.
The computer illustrated by Fig. 1 includes a
cathode ray tube -I which has a cathode 2 heated
by a heater 3, a control grid Il, a screen grid 5,
an anode 6, a, pair of horizontal defiectors 9_9', a p
pair_of vertical deñectors Ill-I0', a cylindrical
collector and returned to the cathode of the tube
secondary electron> collector 21, a target I2 pro
through a voltage dividing resistor from which
vided with secondary electron emissive marks I3,
and an auxiliary target II-having a secondary
_ certain other operating potentials of the tube
electron emissive surface.
are derived.
The ray deflecting voltages proportional in am
plitude to the selected values of the variables may =
be applied'separately or simultaneously.
If ap
plied separately, they may be applied directly to
the deflectors of the tube. If they are applied
simultaneously, means including a trigger circuit
The'various potentials required for operation
of the tube I are derived from a voltage divider
resistor 'I connected to a source of voltage (not
shown) . Suitable operating voltages for the var'
ious electrodes of the tube I are indicated by
legends near their various leads.
It should be
of the slide-back type are provided for delayingr 45 understood, however, that these indicated volt
the application of one of the voltages to the de
ages are merely exemplary and are not to be re- ñectors of the tube until the deflection produced
garded as critical for the reason that they may
by the other of the voltages has been completed.
`be varied over a considerable range without im
pairing the operation of the tube. ,
After the application to the defiectors of each
set of voltages proportional in amplitude to se
The cathode ray of the tube I may be biased
lected values of the variables, the ray returns to
to the reference point 20 (Fig. 2) in different
its normal position at Ithe reference point near
ways. Thus the various electrodes of the- tub»l
one corner of the target. During its return travel,
may be so alined as to cause the ray to be at,
it is blanked out. It is eventually re-established
the point 20 when no voltage -is applied to the de
at a secondary electron emissive auxiliary target 55 ñectors 9-9' and Ill-I0’. Another way of ac
2,412,467
complishing the same result is to aline the elec
trodes so that the ray tends to follow the path
indicated by the broken line 8 and to apply to the
deñectors such biasing voltages as are required to
| |. When the ray strikes the secondary electron
emissive area of the auxiliary target |’|, a posi
tive pulse is applied to the grid of a normally
biased off triode 46, and this triode draws current
cause the ray to be at the point 20 when no 5 through an~ anode resistor 41, thereby applying
signal voltage is applied to the terminals |4--|5
a negative pulse to the counter :23 for resetting
and |6--| 1. Thus assuming the biasing resist
this counter to a standby condition. In cases
ors 40 and 4I to have been so adjusted that the
Where it is not desirable to‘clear the counter 23
immediately after return of the beam to the ref
beam is at the reference point 20 and no signal
voltage to be applied to the terminals |4-| 5 and 10 erence point 20, the pulse applied to the terminals
|6---|1, the tube 36 is cut oli, the voltage drop of
43 and 44 may be of such duration as is required
to cut oir the beam for the required period or the
the resistor 39 is reduced to a minimum, and a
morev positive voltage is applied to the elec
beam may be returned to a position Where it does
trode I0.
not strike the target II until it starts its travel
Voltage pulses proportional in amplitude to th 15 along the path I9.
A
selected values of the variable :c are applied to the
The counter 23 may be of any suitable form,
terminals |4-I5 and thence directly to the de
many of which are well known in the art. For
ñector 9. As is well understood, the application
example, it may include a plurality of trigger cir
of a voltage pulse of positive polarity to the de
cuit‘units connected in cascade and each opera
ñector 9 causes the cathode ray to move from the 20 ble to two stable operating conditions in response
reference point 20 along the path |9 (Fig. 2) to
(1) to a negative pulse applied to the common
ward a point 2| determined by the amplitude of.
terminal of the anode resistors of the unit, (2)
the voltage pulse.
to a negative pulse applied to the control grid
Voltage pulses proportional in amplitude to the
of a conducting tube of the unit, or (3) to a posi
selected values of the variable .y are applied either 25 tive pulse applied to the control grid of a non
directly to the deflector i0 through the terminals
conducting tube of the unit. Means for resetting
Isf-I1’ and a switch 42, or through terminals
counters of this type in response to the applica
|6--|1, the switch 42, and a pulse delay circuit,
tion of a negative pulse form no part of the pres
depending on whether a given set of :lt-repre
ent invention and are too well known to require
sentative and y-representative pulses are applied 30 detailed description (see U. S. Patent 2,272,070).
successively or simultaneously. As is well under
The means for delaying the y-represenative
stood, the application of a voltage pulse of nega-.
voltage pulse includes a trigger circuit unit
tive polarity tothe deflector IIJ causes the cathode
3ü--3|---33-34 which diiïers from those of the
ray to move from the point 2| to a point 22 de
counter 23 in that it has only one stable operating
pending on the amplitude of the pulse. The same
condition. Such a unit is commonly known as a
result is produced of course if the lresistor 4| be
slideback trigger circuit unit. -It includes a pair
connected to the de?lector -Iû and a voltage pulse v
of triodes 30 and 3| which (1) have their grids
of positive polarity .be applied to the deflector I0’
and anodes cross connected in a well known man
through the terminals |5'--|1’ or otherwise.
ner, (2) have their cathodes connected to ground
The voltage pulses applied to the deñectors 9
through resistors 48 and 49, (3) have their anodes
and I0 are of su?licient duration to ensure that
connected to a source of +B voltage through a
the cathode ray moves from the point 20 tothe
„ common resistor 50 and through individual re
point 2| and thence to the point 22, the distance
sistors 5| and 52, and (4) have their grids con
between the points 20 and 2| being determined by
nected to a source of negative bias potential
the amplitude of the a: representative pulse and 45 through a common lead 53 and individual re
that between the points 2| and 22 being deter
sistors 33 and 34.` Suitable values for the various
mined by the amplitude of the y represenative
parts of the unit are indicated by legends placed
pulse. After the cathode ray has completed its
adjacent the respective parts.
travel it returns to the reference point 20. Dur
Due to the fact that the resistance of the grid
ing its return, it is blanked out by a negative pulse 50 resistor 34 is much higher ,than that of the grid
applied lbefore the end of the :1: and y representa
resistor 33, current normally flows through the
tive pulses from any suitable source to the control
triode 3| as indicated by the arrow. When a
grid 4 through terminals 43-44 and a coupling
negative pulse is applied to the common anode
capacitor 45. Continuous operation of the com
termina] 32, however, current is temporarily in
puter is thus responsive to an :I2-representative 55 terrupted at the triode 3| and is taken by the tri
pulse applied to the terminals |4`--|5, a y-repre
ode 30. After a time interval of a length deter
sentative pulse applied to the terminals |5’-|1”
mined by the difference between the values of the
or Iii-.41, and a negative pulse applied to the
resistors 33 and 34, current automatically returns
terminals 43--44 for blanking the cathode ray
the triode 3| and is interrupted at the triode
during its return travel so that output pulses are 60 delivered by the cathode ray tube | only during
Thus' when a positive pulse is applied to the
the travel of the ray from the lpath I9 to the _
terminals |4-I5, a tube-35 becomes conductive;
y proper point on the target.
a negative pulse, due to the potential drop of a
As the beam travels upwardly from the path
resistor 38, is applied through> a coupling capac
I3, there is applied to the terminals 25--26 and 65 itor 31 to the lead 32, and current is temporarily
to a counter 23 a positive pulse each time the ray ‘
taken by the triode 30 and interrupted at the tri
crosses one of the secondary electron emissive
ode 3|. While the triode 3| is not conducting
marks |3. An indication of the number of these
current, its cathode is at more negative potential
positive pulses is shown by the indicator 24 or by
and no current is conducted by a tube 36 which
any other suitable indicating means. These 70 has its first control grids connected to this cath
pulses may also be applied on utilization circuits ‘
or the like. During its return travel, the cathode
ray is blanked out until it reaches the reference
ode. After a predetermined time delay, (1) cur
rent is taken by the triode 3| and interrupted at
the triode 30, (2) the first control grid of the
point 2B where its blanking voltage is removed
tube 36 becomes more positive, (3) the tube 36
' and it is permitted to strike the auxiliary target 75 takes current if a positive potential is applied to
aeraeev .
.
its second control grid through the terminals
iB-Il, (4) a more negative potential is applied '
to the deñector l0 due to the potential drop of
a resistor 39, and `(5) the cathode ray is deflected
upwardly from the auxiliary target i i across the
a value of said function predetermined by the
selected values of said variables, and'means for
interrupting said ray during its return to said
reference point.
'
3. The combination of a target having sec
secondary electron- emissive marks of the targetk
ondary electron emissive marks representative
I2. The time delay circuit thus functions to de
of a function of a plurality of variables, means
lay application of thel y-representative pulse to
for «forming a cathode ray, means for biasing said
the deilector iii until the cathode ray has com
ray to a reference point near said target, means
pleted its travel along the path IS in response to 10 responsive to a voltage having an amplitude pro
the :r-representative impulse. As previously in
portional to a selected value of one of said vari
dicated, this time delay circuitmay be omitted
ables for moving said ray along one edge of said
and the y-representative pulses applied directly
target, means responsive to a voltage of _an am
to the deflector i@ if the .1t-representative and
plitude proportional to a selected value of an
y-representative pulses are applied successively
other of said variables for moving said ray across
instead of simultaneously. It is oi course appar- saidv secondary electron emissive marks, means
ent that the cathode ray is deñected upwardly
responsive to said movement of said ray across
across the target i2 either in response to the ap
_l said marks for establishing a representation of a
plication of a positive pulse to the terminals
value of said vfunction predetermined by the se
iii-H or to the application of a negative pulse 20 lected values of said variables, means for inter
to the terminalsl iS’---il'.
.
rupting said ray during its return to said refer
The principal features of the invention were
ence point, and means responsive to saidray at
disclosed in my eopending application Serial No.
said reference point _for erasing said representa
481,051, ñled March 29, 1.943, of which the pres
tion.
ent application is a continuation in part.
'
4. The combination of a target having second
25
I claim as my invention:
ary electron emissive marks representative of a
l. The combination of a target having second
function of a plurality of variables, means for
ary electron emissive marks representative of a
forming a cathode ray, means for biasing said ray
function of aplurality of variables, means for
to a reference point near said target, means re
forming a cathode ray, means for biasing 'said 30 sponsive to a voltage having an amplitude pro
ray to a reference point near said target, means
portional _to a selected value of one of said vari
responsive to a voltage having an amplitude vpro
ables for moving said ray along'one‘edge of said
portional to a selected value of one of said vari
target, means responsive to a voltage of an am
ables for moving said ray along one edge of said
plitude proportional to a selected value of|antarget, means responsive to a, voltage of. an am
other of 'said variables for moving said ray across
.plitude proportional to a selected value of an
said secondary` electron emissive marks, and
other of said variables for moving said ray across
means for delaying the movement of said ray
said secondary electron emissive ’ marks, and
across said marks until its movement along the
means responsive to said movement of said ray
edge of said targethas been completed.
across said marks for establishing a representa 40
5. The combination of a target having second
tion of a value of said function predetermined by
ary electron emissive `marks representative of a
the selected values of said variables.
function of a plurality of variables, means for
Y -` 2. The combination of a target having second
forming a cathode ray, means for biasing said
ary electron emissive marks representative of a
ray to a reference point near said target, means
function of a plurality of variables, means for 45 responsive to a voltage having an amplitude pro
forming a cathode ray, means for biasing said
portional to a selected value of one of said vari
ray toa reference point near said target, means
ables for moving said ray along one edge of said
responsive to a voltage having an amplitude pro
target, means responsive to a voltage of an am
portional to a selected value of one of said vari
plitude -proportional to a selected value of an
ables for moving said ’ray along one edge of said 50 other of said variables -for moving said ray across
target, means responsive to a voltage of an am
4said secondary Aelectron emissive marks, and
plitude proportional to a selected value of an
means including a slideback trigger circuit unit
other of said variables for moving said ray across
for delaying the movement of said ray across said
said secondary electron emissive marks, means`
marks,
l .
responsive to said movement of said ray across 55
GEORGE A. MORTON.
said marks for establishing a representation of
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