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Dec. 10, 1946. ‘
2,412,486
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STEERING DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT OR OTHER VESSELS
Filed Nov. 17, 1942
“Q.‘Q‘a. a“Qw
8 Sheets-.-Sheet 1
Dec. 10, 1946.,
‘
‘
w. G. WILSON-
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‘2,412,486
STEERING-‘DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT OR OTHER VESSELS
Filed Nov. 17, 1942
S-Sheets-Sheet 2
Dec. 10,‘ 1946-
w, (5', WILSON
2,412,486
STEERING DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT OR OTHER VESSELS
Filed NOV. 17, 1942
8 Sheets-Sheet 3
Déc. 10, 1946.
w, G, w|1_soN
'
2,412,486
STEERING ‘DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT OR OTHER VESSELS
Filed Nov. 1'7, 1942
'
8 Sheets-Sheet 4
Dec. 10, 1946.
2,412,486
w. G. WILSON
STEERING DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT OR QTHER VESSELS
Filed Nov. 17, 1942
8 Sheéts-Sheei’c 5
'In 0612222’
58'5012/ ‘
Dec. 10, 1946. ‘
‘
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w. G. WILSON
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STEERING‘ DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT OR OTHER VESSELS
Filed Nov. 17, 1942 '
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2,412,486
STEERING DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT ‘OR OTHER VESSELS
Filed Nov. 17, 1942
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Dec.10,1946.l
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2,412,486
STEERING DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT OR OTHER VESSELS
Filed NOV. 17, 1942
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Patented Dec. 10, 1946
2,41,486
UNITED ST
.
2,412,486
STEERING DEVICE FonamcRAF'r on
OTHER VESSELS
Walter Gordon ‘Wilson, Martyr Worthy, near
Winchester, Hampshire, England
Application November 17, 1942, Serial No. 465,880
In Great Britain May 23, 1941
21 Claims. (Cl. 114-144)
2
1
This invention relates to the steering of air or
water craft, torpedoes and the like, and partic
ularly to such craft of the type that have the
inherent tendency _to oscillate transversely at
. ing on the forces acting externally upon the rud
def‘ such as the speed of the vessel or projectile,
the density of the medium in which it is moving
or the position of the centre of pressure.
regular-periodicity in relation to a given track
line v'of ‘flight.
It is to be understood that;
curve is smoothed out and the normal sinuous
(1) The term “deviation” refers to the lat
eral distance of the craft from its desired track.
(2) The term “de?ection” means the angular
departure of the craft from the desired course.
(3) A rendering device consists of a plurality
of resiliently or yieldingly connected members
adapted to receive and absorb an incoming move
ment and resolve it into an outgoing movement
track line is resumed.
of variable degree and speed.
The invention hereinafter described is a devel
opment of the invention set out in the speci?ca
tion of my prior United States patent applica
(4) Permanent helm means the application of
rudder to correct a constant tendency of the
craft to de?ect in one direction.
‘ Electrically actuated means have been proposed
to correct any deviation off the course.
By such electrical means when a deviation is
detected and before it develops, a correction of
rudder is made which will anticipate and pre
vent the full deviation with the result that the
tibn Serial No. 448,506 according to which the
(5) The term “stabilised” hereafter used refers
:rudder movement was effected by a pair of bel
to the interceptor valve as having been moved
lows to which a supply of air was regulated by 20 into a position wherein the bellows are static.
the action of a pivoted intercepter valve com
The invention will now be described With refer
prising a shield, which under gyroscopic in
ence to the accompanying drawings, in which:
?uence was movable to and fro between pairs
Figure l is a diagrammatic view of the means
of jets so that air pressure could pass alternae
for controlling and stabilising an aerial torpedo
tively to either of the bellows and thus move the 25 as described in the speci?cation of my prior
rudder to either port or starboard as the case
might be.
The object of the present invention is to cor
reet a deviation off course by the use of mechan
ic'al devices to be actuated to cause the restora
United States application above referred to, sup- _
plemented by a mechanical follow up train for
controlling the rudder according to the pres
ent invention.
80
Figure 2 is a detail view of a combined damp
tion of the intercepter shield to lag behind the
rudder deflection, and thus prevent further de
ing and inertia device.
velopment of the deviation that has commenced.
The invention consists in a mechanical follow
up mechanism interposed between the bellows
actuated tiller lever and the intercepter valve,
ance curves.
‘
Figure 3 shows a graph of certain spring resist
Figures 4 to '7 show in four displaced positions,
views of a spring controlled linkage for actuating
the rudder.
said mechanism comprising a damping element
and/or an inertia element coupled through re
silient or yielding means with incoming and out
going transmission members by means of which
'
Figures 8, 9 and 10 show three curves illustrat
ing the action of different springs, whereby the
characteristics of two of such spring curves (Fig
mechanism the interceptor valve is stabilised,
ures 8 and 9) are superimposed upon one another
to produce a characteristic combined curve (Fig
after it has been initially opened by a commenc
ing deviation to give a large amount of helm.
ure 10).
Figures 11 and 12 illustrate on an enlarged
The invention also consists in a mechanical
scale and detached from Figure 1 a rendering
follow-up mechanism, which after it has sta 45 transmission train between the tiller and the in
bilised the interceptor valve, re-opens the in—
terceptor valve.
,
terceptor valve by the subsequent rendering ac
Figure 13 is a diagrammatic view of a modi?ed
tion of the mechanism to reduce the amount of
rendering device.
helm, to give permanent helm, or opposite helm.
Figure 14 shows a modi?ed transmission train.
The invention also consists in a steering device 50
Figures ‘15,“16“and 17 show in elevation other
in which a relay by acting upon the tiller causes
forms of rendering devices.
the latter through rendering devices to act upon
Figure 18 shows a detail modi?cation herein
the rudder, so that the latter for a substantially
equal amplitude of movement of the tiller will
automatically assume different positions depend
after referred to, ‘and
Figure 19 is a “diagram of a course line to be
55
vfollowed by a "vessel as hereinafter explained.
2,412,486
3
Reference will now be made to Figure 1 which
illustrates the general lay out of steering mecha
nism as described in the speci?cation of my prior
application above referred to and with which is
combined the devices operating according to the
present invention.
Referring to Figure 1, whenever the craft, as
described in my prior speci?cation, deviates from
its proper course, a lever 20 universally jointed at
so is oscillated by the resistance offered by ‘a
gyroscope 3i, rotating around an axis stationary
in space, the pin 32 of which engages one end of
the lever.
The lever 26 is pivoted at the point
4
The mechanism for adjusting the rudder will
first be described.
The connections provided between the rudder
2i and the tiller lever 39, are shown drawn
to an enlarged scale in Figures 4 to 7, the mecha
nism being shown in four positions of relative
displacement. Mounted on a-?xed base 43 and
pivoted at 44 is a pair of swinging arms 45 one
on each side of the central axis 42, the free end
of ,each arm engaging by means of a knife edge
or other bearing with a pressure plate as, cen
trally and slidingly carried upon a tension rod
47 which tensions both arms 135 by springs 48 ar
ranged at the respective ends of the tension rod
crank 16 and at the other end with a link 39a
Ill. Each spring 48 presses at one end upon the
pivoted at 301). The lever 28, its fulcrum 3i)
pressure plate 46 and at the other end against
and the gyroscope 3| all move with the ship
the headed end d9 of the tension rod 131. Both
when it deviates, but the spinning axis of the
of the arms 45 are therefore under constant spring
gyroscope being constant in direction, causes
pressure forcing them inwards towards one an—
relative movement between the pin 32 and the 20 other, and the arms are connected by toggle links
end of the lever thereby oscillating. the latter
56 which links are centrally pivoted together at
5i, at which point they are also pivoted to one
about the. point 39. The other end of the ‘lever
carries a shield 330i very light weight, forming
end of a central rod 52 the other end of which
part of a sphere (as shown in Figure l) or part
impinges upon a cap 53 at the centre of a spiral
of a cylinder, which is adapted to intercept or
spring 54 centeredon the axis 52. Also pivoted
permit communication between two sets of aligned
at 5! is one end of a rod 55 whose other end is
pivoted to a pair of links 56 pivoted together at
nozzles 34 and 35 and Ma and 35a, to the former '
30 on a rod 78 connected at one end ‘with. a bell
34 and 34a of which compressed air is supplied
by a duct 36. These are therefore supply nozzles
56a which extend outward from each side of the
centre axis and have their ends each pivoted
feeding into receiver nozzles 35 and 35a.
30 to one arm 5': of a‘ bell crank lever fulcrummed
Depending upon the direction of the swing of
on a ?xed point 58, the other arm 59 being pivoted
the shield, so the ‘set of nozzles 34 and 35 or
34a and 35a are uncovered and allow air to pass
from one open nozzle to the corresponding re
to a link or cable <60,’ 611a, these cables being
attached to the respective ends of the tiller lever
39, Figure 1. Extending from the pivot 55a is a
ceived nozzle, after which the air is led away by 35 link 61, the further end of which is jointed at $52
ducts 31, 31a to a servo motor device comprising
to the apex of a triangular frame having side
bellows 38 and 38a or equivalent means, such as
members 63, and a base 64, which is pivoted
a cylinder and piston. The shield 33 thus acts
upon a central ?xed point 55. The opposite
. as .an interceptor valve by which one of a pair
ends of the base 64 are connected by links 6%,
of bellows is expanded and thus directly actuates 40 66a, to the respective ends of a. double armed
a tiller lever 39, fulcrummed at 46. The opposite
lever 31 on the fulcrum E8, and on which the
ends of the tiller, lever'in the arrangement dis
rudder 2! is centered. For the sake of clearness
closed in the above mentioned application Serial
the pivots 58a and 65 are shown as slightly spaced
apart, but in practice it is preferred that the pivot
No. 448,506 are connected respectively by cables
to the ends of a two armed lever on the fulcrum 45 5% shall be coincident with, but separate from,
65.
of .which .the rudder is carried. The fulcrum
point All of the tiller lever 39 is adapted to have
Figure 4 shows the assembly and the rudder in
a floating movement under the control of a link
the centralv or neutral position a and Figures
5, 6 and '7 show the apparatus in three different
46 centered at 41, and when one of the bellows
38 or 38a is expanded by a jet of air passed
positions, giving three non-central positions I), c,
into either of the receiving nozzles 35 or 35a,
. and d of the rudder.
Assuming that the tiller lever. 36 has been
so the tiller lever is oscillated on its fulcrum lit}
to swing the rudder in one direction or the other,
swung on its pivot by the bellows, cylinder and
and the fulcrum 40 is also caused to move bodily
piston or the like, and that the upper cable 59
in Figures 4 to 7 has been pulled, so that the bell
. or ?oat, so as to prevent any sagging movement
crank lever arms 51in Figure 4 are swung into
of that cable which is not actuated by the ex
panding bellows. Also, according to application
the positions 51a shown in Figure 5, the parts
of the assembly are so correspondingly moved
Serial No. 448,506, as soon as the rudder is thus
that the pivot point 56a is laterally moved to
actuated, the tiller lever 39, by means of an arm
ti, and a pair of bell crank levers connected by 60 one side of the centre axis 42, the links £55 are
a plain link restores the interceptor valve to a
swung by a somewhat parallel movement to stress
position in which the flow of air between the
the spiral spring 54 and the springs 48, and the
triangular frame is rocked on its pivot 65 so that
nozzles is cut off, i. e., it is restored to a stabilised
. position.
All of these parts are symmetrically
bythe connections 65, 66a, to the double armed
disposed around a central longitudinal axis 452,
lever 57, the rudder 2| is moved from its centre
and the arrangement constitutes a pneumatic or
position 0:. Depending however upon the outside
hydraulic relay to initiate the adjustment of the
forces that tend to oppose this movement, such
rudder. It will be hereinafter assumed that the
as the speed of the vessel or the density of the
relay is pneumatic.
medium in which it is moving and which are
usually concentrated upon the centre of pres
According to the present invention, however,
the means for actuating the rudder from the
sure indicated at 2 la for example, the rudder will
bellows are modi?ed, and a mechanical foliow
move to such a position that the forces acting
up train between the tiller lever and the inter
upon it from within and from without will be
ceptor shield is substituted for the plain link
come balanced; thus it may assume any of the
above referred to.
positions- b, c and d, with-corresponding displace
2,412,486
5
6
ments of the ‘linkage connections, such as are
transmission described, that the work on the bel
shown in Figures 5, 6 and '7 and without a?ecting
lows, pistons or equivalent devices is considerably
the amplitude of movement of the bell crank lever
reduced especially when the rudder has to move
arms 5? and 59 which is constant. Such a vari
through a large angle in comparison with the
able yielding movement of the parts is provided GI travel of the cables or rods 66, tea, which may
for by the helical springs 48 and the spiral spring
occur when the vessel is travelling at low speed
54, which are designed to have a special in?uence
and when the pressure of air in the bellows is at
the one on the other.
a minimum. If the pressure of ?uid or air on the
Referring to the curves in Figures 8, 9 and 10,
rudder is such that the angle required brings the
the helical springs 43 at the respective ends of 10 links 55 and (SI into a straight line, no effort
the tension rod 41, have a higher rate or stiffness
other than that for overcoming inertia is re
of spring force as shown by the curve 69, Figure
quired on the pull rods or cables 69, but as the
8, than that of the spiral spring 54, which has
pressure of the rudder is increased owing to an
a lower rate or sti?‘ness, as shown by the curve
increase in velocity or density of the surrounding
70 in Figure 9. By arranging these springs how
medium, the pressure of air available for working
ever in the manner shown in Figures 4 to 7, the
the bellows is increased and consequently the pull
effect of one spring is superimposed upon the
on the cables or rods is increased, although the
other to produce the characteristic effect of a
moment imparted ‘to the vessel is the same in
spring having a force curve ‘H, Figure 10. In
both cases. It should also be noted that unless
these ?gures, the horizontal component of each 20 the rudder goes over further than this point the
graph may be travel in inches, and the vertical
pull or push on all the rods or levers does not
component may be spring force in pounds, so
reverse sign, therefore any slackness in the
that as seen in Figure 10, the ?rst portion of the
joints does not make for inaccuracy in the func»
curve ‘H has a quick rise corresponding to Figure
tioning of this linkage, i. e., no high precision
8, while the latter part of the curve in Figure 10
machining is necessary.
'
7
partakes of the character of the curve in Fig
Having thus far described the manner in which
ure 9. In this way as the linkage parts are dis
the rudder is actuated by an opening movement
placed as shown in Figures 4 to '7, so this move
of the interceptor valve relay through the air
ment takes place against an increasing and
nozzles and bellows, the means by which the in
maintained force as shown in the curve ‘H. By
terceptor valve is restored again to its closed
the action of the combined springs 58, 54, the
position, will be considered.
pull on the link 6| due to that of the rod 55,
Referring now to Figures 1, 12, 13 and 14 when
exerts a moment on the double armed lever 65
one of the bellows 38 or 38a is expanded due to
thereby causing a pull in opposite directions on
a displacement of the interceptor valve shield
the rods 65, 66a, by which a de?ecting moment 35 33, so as to give a considerable amount of rud
is put upon the fulcrum of the rudder 2i, and
der, the oscillating movement of the tiller lever
so applying a load transversely of the longitudi
39 through the arm all actuates a rod 12, see Fig- '
nal centre axis 42 and thereby exerting a steerure 1, which by means of a bell crank lever 13,
ing in?uence on the vessel.
fulcrumed at 14, moves the rod ‘175 toward the
By a suitable arrangement of the springs 40 right or to the left depending upon which of
which in?uence the characteristic spring. curve
the bellows is actuated. The movement to the
‘II, it is possible to make this moment for any
right or left of the rod l5, after passing through
predetermined de?ection of the bell crank 51, 59,
a train of devices, as, x1, an to be described, acts
constant for that de?ection and independent of
upon the second bell crank '56 fulcrumed at T!
the speed of the vessel, the density of the sur
by which the rod 18 is adjusted to move the ful
rounding medium or of the position of the pres
crum 38 of the interceptor lever 2i! back to the
sure centre Zia. The result of this is that the
position where the shield 33 is stabilised. The
period of swing of the vessel due to the action
devices :0, ml, which are in the nature of resilient
of the bellows as controlled by the tiller relay
or yielding mechanism, with which is combined
remains substantially a constant. As the ve
dampening means, such as air beater fans, and/or
locity or density of the medium surrounding the
inertia means, are designed for the purpose of
rudder is increased or decreased so the rods or
arms 66, 66a will render due to the movement
of the double armed lever 54 without any move
ment taking place of the control cables or rods 5'
60, 68a. As stated, the moment on the vessel
remains constant although the movement of the
rudder may have been reduced or increased by
the rendering of the rods 65, 65a, as the velocity
making the movement of the rudder anticipate
the restoration of the interceptor valve to its
stabilised position, with the ?ow of air between
the jets interrupted.
The device or (which may be seen on an en
larged scale at 1/ in Figure 14), comprises a seg
mental shaped plate 19, pivoted at Bil at the
narrower end, and is made with a curved toothed
of the medium acting on the rudder increases or (EU rack 8!, at its wider end, the rack teeth engag
decreases.
ing with a toothed pinion 82 mounted on the
Moreover it will be understood, in a case where
?xed shaft 83. Carried by the pinion is a cir
the fuel is consumed in a self propelled vessel,
i. e., an aerial torpedo as described in the speci
cular casing 85, shown in detail in Figure 2
forming part of a ?uid damper of a well known
?cation of my prior United States application f kind comprising a number of intercommunicat
Serial No. 448,505, that the moment of inertia
ing segmental compartments into and out of
of the vessel may be increased or decreased.
which a ?uid such as oil is adapted to flow when
This may be compensated by so arranging the
the casing 84 is rotated by the pinion. The ex
characteristic of the curve ‘H that with higher
terior of the casing is ?tted with a series of radi~
air velocities the moment exerted by the rudder ; ating air impact vanes so that the whole device
on the vessel is increased or decreased so as to _
forms a combined air beater fan and/or inertia
control the period of the swing of the vessel as
device. By such a combined device, the charac
desired.
>
teristic resistance curve of the air beater fan and
It is to be noted from the arrangement of the
?uid damper respectively, is modi?ed as shown
toggle levers and the arms and links of the
in Figure 3. In the graph shown in this ?gure,
2,412,486
7
8
the horizontal component is velocity in revolu
tion of the incoming movement of rod 15 is im
mediately transmitted to the outgoing rod, but
tions per minute and the vertical indicates re
sistance in inch pounds torque. The character
istic curve of the usual ?uid damper is shown
at 832) which has a quick start, whilst 930 shows
the curve of an air beater fan and which has a
slow start, and is approximately as the square
of the velocity. By combining the two dampen
ing devices however, a new combined curve 83d
the segment 19 can only with a~time lag follow
up this movement, such lag being determined by
the period of the inertia and damping device, and
which period is so determined and selected that it
shall be appropriate for the period of swing se
lected for the steering of the craft. It is to be
understood that either the air fan or the ?uid
is obtained which possesses the advantageous l0 damper may be used alone or they may be com
bined, and that a dashpot device may be used
features of both curves without their disadvan
if preferred.
tages, and resulting in a quickly and continuously
From the foregoing description the actuation of
rising resistance value.
the incoming rod 15 results in two movements
The segmental plate 79 carries on the pivot
I01, a .L-shaped lever I96, to the end I95 of 15 being given to the outgoing rod. The ?rst is a
direct and immediate reduced movement through
which is pivoted the rod 75, which may be called
the lever I96 on its pivot I91 and thence through
the incoming rod, the lever H99 being restrained
the connection I98 to the outgoing rod 99; and
in a normal central position by springs I99 and
the second movement in the same direction as the
19911, one on each side. One end of each spring
is secured to the cross member of lever 195 20 ?rst which is given by the rendering action of
the inertia damping device, and associated parts.
whilst their remote ends are secured to the seg
From the device is the movements of the rod 99
mental plate 19. Also pivoted at 198 to the lever
are transmitted to the next device 001, and after
I06 is a rod 90, the outgoing rod, which extends
actuating a spring centralising device $2 they pass
in a direction opposite to that of the incoming
to the rod 18 where they act upon and restore
rod 15.
the interceptor valve 33, Figure 1, to its sta
At the commencement of the curve 83d, Figure
bilised position. The devices x1, x2 are shown on
3, springs I99 and “1911 are in balance and when
an enlarged scale in Figure 12. In the device an,
rod 15 is moved in relation to segment 19 the
the incoming rod 99 is connected to a segmental
tension of one spring is increased and the other
reduced, and for small angular movements such 30 plate 9| pivoted on a ?xed point 92. Similarly to
Figure 1, the wider end of the segment has a
as is the case in the present speci?cation, the
rack and pinion connection 8 I, 82 with a damping
moment exerted on lever I99 willvbe practically
device which may be similar to that already de
proportional to the movement of ‘£5 with regard
scribed consisting of an air beater fan and/or
to 19 away from normal.
?uid damper. In this case the pinion 82 is
Due to the action of one of the bellows 38 and
mounted on the end of an arm 93 pivoted at 92,
38a the incoming rod 15 is pushed or pulled in one
while to the arm 93, between its pivot 92 and
direction or the other, and assuming that it has
pinion B2, is connected the outgoing rod 94. The
been pushed to the left, the lever 196 is also swung
pinion 82 is thus adapted to roll around the rack
towards the left round the pivot 19'! tensioning
81 with the moving arm 93. No springs are used
the spring [9911. This movement, with a slight
in this device and when a linear movement to the
retardation due to the stretching of the spring,
left is given to the rod 99 from the device :c, the
is directly transmitted to the outgoing rod 99 with
movement of the toothed pinion being retarded
a reduced leverage moment represented by the
by the action of the air beater fan, causes the
distance between the fulcrum point 19‘! and the
pivot 198 where the outgoing rod is connected. 45 whole device to swing bodily round the pivot 92,
so that a direct movement is given to the out
On the ?rst actuation of the incoming rod 15 a
going rod 94. From the device an the movement
proportionately less movement is immediately
is transmitted to the spring centralising device
transmitted to the outgoing rod 99. Due to the
m which comprises a pair of arms 95, 95a, piv
effect of the tensioned spring Ill9a, the segment
oted together at 99 so that they form an open
19 by rotation on its pivot 89, endeavours to fol
ended fork, between the jaws of which is a ?xed
low the movement of the lever I96, but it can
zero stop 91 and a ?nger 98 on the rod es. The
only do so, when the inertia device, the damper
arms 95, 95a are normally drawn towards one
and the associated parts have begun to render.
another and against the stop 97 by a lateral
Thus before the segment 79 can commence to
spring 99, the arrangement being such that the
turn on its pivot 89, the toothed rack and pinion
arm 93 will have a tendency to be always drawn
gear have ?rst to overcome the moment of iner»
or pushed back to a central position after it has
tia and the damping effect of the combined air
been moved in one or the other direction.
fan and/or the ?uid damper, by the effect of
The combined action of the train of devices
which the movement of the segment 19 is at ?rst
slow but which subsequently increases in speed 60 x, .101 and 0:2 is as follows:
With the interceptor lever and valve in the
as the inertia device gets into rotation, then slows
central position shown in which there is an equal
down and ?nally stops due to damping action.
but retarded flow of air through the two sets of
Means may be provided whereby the propor
receiver and supply nozzles keeping the bellows
tion of movement ‘due to the time lag can be
varied by a predetermined setting adjustment, for 65 equally although not fully expanded, it will be
which purpose the position of the pivot 193 on
the lever I96 may be previously set, as by being
moved in a slot or into one of a series of holes
(shown in dotted lines) at I91, and thus vary
its distance from the pivot MN. The greater the
distance between the pivots I95 and I98, so the
amount of lag in the movement of the outgoing
rod due to the springs and the damping action
will be proportionately increased.
By such an arrangement therefore ‘a propor
assumed that the vesselhas a drifting movement
to starboard in the direction of the arrow I09,
Figure 1. Such drifting movement by the action
of the gyroscope will move the intercepting valve
shield 33 in a clockwise direction and cause a
full, supply of air to pass from nozzle 34a to 35a
through the duct 31a and actuate the bellows
38a. The passage of air, however, between the
other nozzles 34 and 35 is completely interrupted
75 by this movement of the intercepting valve, and
2,412,486
9
the bellows 38 is allowed to slowly collapse by
a back-?ow of air through the duct 3'! which
exhausts by the nozzle 35. When by the expand
ing movement of the bellows 380. the tiller lever
10
of permanent rudder must be very slow in rela
tion to the rudder called for by the gyroscope.
Instead of using the devices a: and 331, two of
the former may be used as shown in Figure 14
is rocked, a pull is exerted on cable 69a by which, 5 and indicated at y‘ and g1 respectively. They
through the linkage mechanism already de
scribed, the rudder will be moved to port. Simul
taneously with this movement of the tiller lever,
may have different periods and by thus using
two, more e?ective control may be obtained. In
the bell crank lever 73, will move the incoming
place of the device as, Figure 1, or y, Figure 14,
the modi?ed device shown in Figure ll'may be
used. This consists of a segmental shaped plate
79, pivoted at 80 at the narrower end and is made
rod 15 in the direction of the arrow I02 to actuate
with a curved toothed rack 8| at its wider end,
its centre arm 41 will exert a pull on the rod
72 in the direction of the arrow I01 and through
the rack teeth engaging with a, toothed pinion
82 mounted on the ?xed shaft 83. Carried by
restore the intercepting valve is transmitted to 15 the pinion is a circular casing 84, shown in de-'
tail in Figure 2, forming part of a ?uid damper
the device a: and by the lever I06 is immediately
as already described.
passed on to the second device an and through
The segmental plate 19 carries on the pivot 80 a
‘ the rod 915 acted on by the centralising members
lever 86, to the end of which is pivoted the incom
rm, to the intercepting valve to stabilise the lever
26 and so check further action of the rudder. 20 ing rod 15, the lever 86 being restrained in 2. nor
the ?rst delay action device at, see Figure 1. The
movement of the arm 4! on the tiller lever 39 to
This action is simultaneous with the rudder
movement. Then by the rendering action of the
inertia damping mechanism 84 and associated
mal central position by springs 87 and 88 one on
each side. The adjacent ends of the springs are
secured to the lever 86 whilst their remote ends
are secured to the segmental plate 19. Also piv
parts on the device :12, a further increment of
movement is passed on and subsequently moves 25 oted at 89 to the plate ‘Ill is a rod 90, the outgoing
rod, which extends in a direction opposite to that
the interceptor valve, and should the rate of de
of the incoming rod 15. The use of the device
?ection of the craft be greater than the rate
shown in this ?gure ensures that an increased
of rendering, then more rudder will be put on
movement will be imparted to the outgoing rod
by increase of pressure on the bellows 38a; but
should the rate of de?ection of the craft be less 30 90 as against the reduced movement given to
S0 or 900. by the device y or 211.
than the rate of rendering, the pressure on the
Instead of using the device :51, Figure 1, the
bellows 38a as well as the rudder movement, will
gearing mechanism shown in Figure 13 may be
be reduced.
used. The toothed segment 9! and lever arm 93
These conditions will be repeated in conso
nance with the periodic changes from side to side 35 are used as in Figure 1, and these are connected
to the incoming rod 9!} and the outgoing rod
of the sinuous curve of the track line, until the
94 respectively. The upper end of the lever 93,
craft is steadied on its course. On each succes
which is free to oscillate from side to side on
sive swing the rudder will anticipate the further
the pivotal support 92 at its other end, carries
deflection of the craft and so reduce the ampli
tude of swing, until the craft is once more on 40 on the spindle 83 a pinion 82 which is attached
to alarge gear wheel 83c and the latter is in mesh
its course.
with a pinion 83]‘ on the spindle 92 which forms
It may be explained that when the interceptor
the pivotal support for the whole device. Such
valve is centred between the two sets of nozzles,
pinion 83]‘ is arranged to drive an air beater fan
the opposite edges of the shield 33 will lie on
a centre line between each set of nozzles, so that " and/or ?uid damper as before. By the train of
gearing thus formed and the high speed which
there will be a retarded flow of air from each
‘tends to be given to the gear wheel 83c and the
supply nozzle to its associated receiver nozzle so
pinion 83]‘, the damper movement is slow under
that both bellows are equally and partly ex
the in?uence of the spring ?nger 95 but is not
panded. When therefore the rate of de?ection
_ of the craft is less than the rate of rendering or 50 a?‘ected appreciably by the movements of 90
vice versa, the interceptor valve is not central
ised exactly between the two sets of nozzles, the
and 94.
Instead of the devices x1, x2 above described,
the device ya in the train of devices y, 111, yz, Fig
bellows 38a in the example being described re
ure 14, may be used. This constitutes a means
ceives a greater or lesser charge of air as the
case may be and regulates accordingly the 55 acting in conjunction with a secondary relay,
whereby the movement it receives from the out
amount of rudder.
going rod 90a of the previous device (1/1 is trans
Whilst such a control is however being exer
mitted substantially without any lag to stabilise
cised, another factor is introduced by the action
the interceptor valve 33 this being followed by a
of the one-way rendering device x1, and the cen
tralising means an by the effect of which the 60 relatively slow reverse movement for the purpose
hereinafter described. For this purpose the rod
interceptor valve is stabilised short of its centre
90a. is pivoted at IN to a segmental lever H2
position so that air is still supplied to the par
and the outgoing rod I 13, which actuates the in
ticular bellows concerned to maintain the rud
terceptor valve 33 of the tiller relay, is also piv
der. Each time that port rudder, for example,
oted at I Hi to the segmental lever H2 at a posi
is demanded by the gyroscope the spring pres
tion close below the pivot ill. Attached also by
sure of the ?nger 95 causes a small amount of
the pivot M4 to the segment H2 is a two armed
rendering of the damped member 84 of the de
lever H5, lying in front of the segment H2 and
vice r1, thereby reducing the length of the trans
being fulcrummed on a shaft H6, its lower end
mission m, x1, x2, so that when the interceptor 70 being of arcuate form and bent laterally under
valve is in the stabilised position a certain
the drum to form a valve plate I H in a manner
amount of port rudder will remain on perma
similar to that of the interceptor valve shield 33
nently, i. e., during the particular swing of the
of the tiller relay. On the shaft i it is mounted
a rotary impeller drum H8 formed with a series
craft. The converse will of course occur when
starboard rudderis called for. The application 75 of radial vanes or blades H9. Freely mounted
2,412,486
on the shaft H5, and secured to the side of the
drum H1, is a toothed pinion £26 engaging with
12
mounted on a shaft IEI, the other end of which
carries the pinion I20 which is in mesh, as be
an arcuate toothed rack 529 on one end of the
fore, with the toothed segment H2
segmental lever H2, and arranged beneath the
peller drum H8 which carries the vanes H9 is
connected by means of a spring I33 to the disc
impeller drum is a hollowcasing I22 to the in
ternal space of which is led a supply of com
pressed air or other pressure ?uid by an inlet
duct I23 that may be branched off the pipe 36,
Figure 1, which supplies the bellows. The pres
sure ?uid supplied through the inlet E23, issues
from the casing I22 through a pair of nozzles I24
and I24a which are symmetrically arranged re
spectively on each side of and beneath the aXis of
the impeller drum and impinges upon the blades
H9 of the drum. The arcuate valve plate II'I
whichis also symmetrically arranged in the nor
mal position shown, has its ends equally overlap
ping a part of each nozzle £24, I24a, so as to leave
a space through which the pressure ?uid, prefer
ably compressed air, can pass out and impinge
with equal force on the blades I I9 at both sides of
the axis of the impeller drum. The arrangement
The im
I34 which forms part of the annulus I29. On the
back of the disc I34 are ?xed a number of vanes
£35 to form an air fan beater device and/or a
?uid damper.
The action of this epicyclic rendering device is
similar to that of 1/2, so that by a linear movement
of. the incoming rod 98a, the outgoing rod H3
connected to the segmental lever H2 is directly
moved as before, and the lever I I5 is swung bod
ily to actuate the arcuate' valve H1. The im
peller drum is now rotated to carry round the
planet pinions I28, and at the same time tension
the spring 533. By this movement the pinion I33
is rotated to drive the pinion I20 so as to draw
back the outgoing rod I33 as before, and the an
nulus I 29 is rotated by the overspeed drive to ro
tate the disc I34 against the resistance of the
damping and/or inertia device I35. Owing to the
thus forms a pneumatic or other pressure relay
resistance offered by the latter the movement of
which in the position of the parts shown in the
the pinioni2€l is increased and by the segment
figureis nonoperative, but it may be pointed out
i i2 draws back the outgoing rod 99 and stabilises
that the impeller drum forms also an air beater
the interceptor valve 33, as before. Subsequent
fan, due to the movement of those vanes or blades
ly, the unwinding action of the spring tends to
which are not being immediately acted upon by
restore the normal alignment of H8 and I34.
the compressed air. Moreover, if desired a ?uid
In any of the anticipating devices hereinbefore
damper may be used.
30
mentioned the degree of anticipation is governed
It is to be understood that during a ?ight the
by two factors:
rods 36, 90a and H3 will be moving backward
(a) The anticipation due to the velocity of the
and forward periodically due to the sinuous
incoming movement is governed by the degree of
~course line. Thus when the incoming rod 96a
damping, whether by ?uid or air, or both, of the
moves in a linear direction for example, to the
rotary damper element.
left, which resultslfrom the rudder having been
(17) The degree of anticipation due to the rate
adjusted to give port rudder, the movement is im
of change of velocity of the incoming movement
i-parted directly without appreciable lag, to the
is governed by the moment of inertia of the ro
Outgoing rod H3, and stabilises the interceptor
tary damper element.
valve. By the same movement of the rod 90a, 7
As previously stated, by the rendering device
the lever H5 is swung bodily around the shaft
.112, Figure '14, the vessel is steered back to its
is I It and moves the curved valve plate II‘! to the
right intercepting the ?ow of air through the
course, although not on its original line, but a
modi?cation shown in Figure 16 of the device yz
nozzle i24a,-and opening the nozzle I24, so that
the impeller drum i I8 is now set into rotation in _, will provide means by which the vessel is brought
a clockwise direction. The rotation of the drum
rocks the segmental lever I I2 about its pivot H4
‘in an anticlockwise direction and owing to the
~pivot IH being above the pivot H4 a differential
movement is obtained which is equivalent to
shortening the attachment of 98a to the rod I is,
thereby putting on permanent port rudder. The
effect of this permanent rudder .Will tend to
straighten out the craft on its original course,
but vnot on the same line but on a line parallel
back to its original course line.
The modi?ed arrangement for this purpose
comprises a pair of devices a, .21, constituting a
compound relay which are both somewhat simi
lar to 11/2 in Figure 14, and the parts of 2 which
are similar to ya are lettered the same as in Fig
ure 14, whilst to the similar parts of 21 the in~
~dex “(1" is added.
The incoming rod 30a is pivoted at IIIa to
the segmental lever I In of the device ziand the
lever “Ed at one end is pivoted at II4a to one
thereto. The leverage ratio of the parts is pref
erably such that this shortening movement is
end of a link I36, the other end of the link be
ing pivoted at III to the segmental lever H2 of
slow in relation to the previous actuation of the
the device 2.
outgoing rod to the left.
The shaft IIGa freely carries a secondarcuate
'In the modi?cation shown in Figure 15, which 60
valve II M similar to that of .2 but the valve
is armodi?ed elevation at a right angle to the de
member is provided with a lateral segmental
vice yz, Figure 14, the said device is supplemented
extension I31 having a toothed rack I38 which
“by an epicyclic mechanism. The segmental le
engages with the pinion I20 carried on the shaft
-ver H2, connected at I I I to the incoming rod 900;
(not shown), the two armed lever I I5 and pinion 05 HG of the device 2. The other end of the lever
Him is loosely pivoted on the shaft IISa.
I 20, remain as before and are positioned at one
end-of the epicyclic device, but the impeller drum
The second arcuate valve II'Ia is adapted to
1 I8 and the arcuate valve I El, and the associated
co-act with nozzles I24a by which compressed
pneumatic casing I22 are arranged at the other
7 air or other fluid from the casing I22a acts upon
side, the lever arm H5 being extended laterally 70 the blades II9a of the impeller drum H8.
at Him to carry the arcuate valve H1.
The operation of the apparatus is as follows:
The impeller drum is adapted to carry a set of
Assuming that the incoming rod 90a, is moved
planet pinions I23 which are each engaged on
to the left, the segment H20, and the lever H511,
one side with an internally toothed annulus I29
pivot‘idly round the pinion 120a and the shaft
and on the other side with a centre pinion I30 75 -»I IBa respectivelypand has no appreciable effect
2,412,486
14
,
,
upon the device 21. The movement of the rod
90a is however transmitted by the link I36 to
the device 2 and directly onward to the outgoing
rod H3, and at the same time swings the lever
H5 bodily in an anti-clockwise direction around
the shaft I I6, opening the arcuate valve II‘! as
before, by which the impeller drum I I8 is set into
helm.
its central position only when the total amount
of starboard ‘rudder has equalled the total
I05 to the incoming rod ‘I5, the .L-shaped lever
is extended beyond the fulcrum Ill? and they
outgoing rod 90 is secured at I08 to such extendedl
The original deviation is now under con»
trol and the vessel is beginning to swing on to a
course which will be parallel to the proper‘
line A1. By the time the vessel reaches A51
the vessel is on its course but not on the original‘.
line, and the ?rst relay 2 is closed, but the second relay 21 is still in operation, because perrotation in a clockwise direction and by the ro
inanent helm from the ?rst relay‘ still‘ active"
tation of the pinion I26, swings the toothed rack
From the position A6 to A", the first relay per
I38 downwards and the second arcuate valve 10 manent helm is being reduced and permanent,v
I lid to the right, so that the impeller drum I IBa
helm is increasing by the second relay, and when‘
is also set into rotation in a clockwise direction.
A8 is reached opposite helm is applied through
During these movements the segment H2 is
the ?rst relay and the second relay is nearly
swung to the right shortening the relative posi
back in its zero position, and the vessel is now
tion 'of I36 and H3 as already described, but 15 nearly back to its proper course line. At A9 the
when the second impeller drum IIBa is set into
?rst relay is at zero and the second relay is cor
rotation, the segment “2a by the pinion IZUa
rect for the further progress of the vessel along
and oscillating round the fulcrum IMa again
its course line A1.
shortens the relative length of the connection
A modi?cation is illustrated in Figure 1'7, of
99a to I36.
either of the devices y, 1111, Figure 14. The mech
As long as port rudder is applied, the drum I I8
anism is very similar to that in y or g1, and
will be rotated in a clockwise direction, but
similar parts have the same reference letters,
when starboard rudder is applied the reverse
and it will be seen that instead of attaching the.
takes place, and it rotates in an anti-clockwise
outgoing rod 90 to the .L-shaped arm I06 between,
direction, but the valve II'Ia will be restored to 25 the fulcrum I8‘! and the pivotal connection at.
amount of port rudder. Permanent rudder has
however been applied by both these devices and
stability will be reached when the permanent
rudder due to the device .2 has been removed, the
permanent rudder due to a1 is applied and the
total starboard rudder equals the total port rud
der that has been applied. By this method the
end.
the lower end of the lever I06 is swung to the,v
left around the fulcrum IIll so that a free and».
extended movement towards the right is given;
to the outgoing rod 90 and tensioning the corre-
vessel is brought back not only to its own course, .
but also to the original track line, as shown in
Figure 19. It must be understood that this ?g
ure shows the commencement and recti?cation
of a complete deviation on the track line, the
sinuous curve which the craft actually follows 40
being however omitted.
It may be noted that both sets of nozzles I24
and IZGa are of elongated form following the
curve of the impeller drum, and either made as
a single slot, or a line of small apertures, and
further that the nozzles I24 are longer than
l2lia. The object of this is to ensure that there
will be a free flow of compressed air through I24
whether the torpedo or other craft is moving fast
or slow, i. e., they will respond efficiently to >~
changes in speed conditions. The amount of
opening of I24 should be proportional to the
movement of link I36, but the nozzles I24a should
only be sufficient to impart a predetermined
' maximum speed to the associated impeller drum.
The outgoing rod II3 has a very small move
ment in moving the arcuate valve In and the
resulting movement subsequently causes the,
movement of the tiller which in turn gives the
movement to the incoming rod 90a.
In the case when the compound relay above
described, Figure 16, is used in train with the
l/Vhen therefore a linear movement of the:
incoming rod ‘I5 occurs to the left for example:
sponding spring IIl9a to cause the follow-up;
movement of the segment ‘I9. As the segment;
‘is overcomes the moment of inertia of the damp-ening device 84, as well as the dampening effect;_
the rendering action causes a movement of the:
fulcrum ID'I towards the left, the lever I96 turning about the pivot I05 so that the outgoing rod.
99 is moved in the reverse direction i. e. to the:
left.
In order that the interceptor valve shield 33,,
Figure 1 and the similar arcuate valves II'I, “la.
in Figures 14 and, 16 will, during normal opera
tion, both assume their central non-operative
positions accurately when the vessel is on its
course and either simultaneously or one after the
other, a ?ne adjustment may be used as shown in
Figure 18. For this purpose, the rod I I33: leading
to the interceptor valve shield 33, and the out
going rod II3 from either of the devices yz,
Figures 14 and 16, are pivoted at H!!! and NH
to one end of a link I42, the other end of which
is pivoted at I43 to one arm of a bell crank
lever fulcrumed at 154. The other arm I45 is
movable over a ?xed quadrant I 46 and ?tted with
a clamping screw I4? which may be tightened
in any position in a slot I48 to which the bell
crank arm I445 may have been adjusted. The
pivots I40 and MI act as alternative ?oating
devices 3/, 1111, Figure 14, in the manner in which,
fulcrum points depending upon the amount of
after a vessel has been deviated off its course,
adjustment required for either or both of the
it is brought back to its proper course line, is 65 rods “3.2 or II 3 to centralise the valves asso
illustrated in Figure 19.
._
ciated therewith.
Assuming that the vessel A should“ be follow
By the use of the variousydevices according to
ing the course line A1—A1, but by reason of a :
the invention, all deviations of the vessel off its
displacing force at A2 it commences ‘to deviate,
the tiller relay is brought into action. At about
the position A3 the ?rst relay 2 is opened and
the tiller relay is closing. At A4 the ?rst relay
2: commences to give permanent hehn, and the
second relay 21 also applying permanent helm
opens, and at A5 both are’ inducing‘ permanent
course are under automatic control and the suc
cessive swinging movements of the vessel whilst
it is being brought back to its course are smoothed
out without there being any appreciable “hunt”
ing” if any, andvthe rudder movements are de
. signed to anticipate further de?ection of the.
craft.
agrees-6»
16
The invention may also be applied to control
ating means connected to‘ the other lever, and
the fore'and aft pitching movement of a pro‘
jectile for example,‘ and in that case an addi
an outgoing transmission‘rod connected‘at one
tional set of bellows and mechanism ‘associated
therewithv would be employed; Means may also
posite end to said valve, said mechanism forming
end to the ?rst mentioned lever and at its op
a delay action ‘train.
‘
e. In automatic mechanism of the kind indi
cated, and having a rudder, a tiller lever for
jectile when it attains the peak of its trajectory
operating the rudder, air-actuated means, for
and guide it downward, or when as with a sub
moving the tiller lever, an interceptor valve for
marine the direction has to be changed after a
certain distance has been followed. For this l0 controlling the admission of air to the air-actu
be employed to control the movement of a pro
ated means, the combination of a mechanical
purpose either a slip stream device may be used
or the clamping screw Ill‘! may be adjusted, Fig
ure 18.
delay action train between the rudder and in
terceptor, valve, said' train including resiliently
When the latter ‘is to be used on a
connected inertia and damping devices, a one
projectile, the clamping screw may be adjusted
by radio transmission.
I claim:
'
1. In an automatic mechanism for checking
and rectifying any deviation off-course of air
borne craft or other vessels or projectiles such as
way rendering device, a spring pressed centraliz
‘ing device, and pull and push rods, the several
devices and rods being arranged and connected
in series between the valve and tiller lever, where
by the interceptor valve is ?rst closed after a
for example aerial torpedoes, the combination 20 delayed action, after which by the rendering
action of the resiliently connected devices in the
of a pivoted rudder, a pivoted tiller lever for
train, a further movement is given to the valve
operating the rudder, a pair of servo-motors to
to re-open it.
swing the tiller lever on its pivot one way or
5. In automatic mechanism of the kind indi
the other and thus actuate the rudder, means for
supplying pressure ?uid to the servo-motors, a 25 cated, and having a rudder, a tiller lever for oper
ating' the rudder, air actuated means for mov
gyroscope controlled interceptor valve normally
ing the tiller lever, an interceptor valve for con
occupying a stabilized position and operable to
trolling the admission of air to the air-actuated
interrupt the air supply to one of the servo—
means, the combination of a delay action trans-'
motors and admit air supply to the other when a
deviation occurs, and a mechanical follow-up 30 mission between the tiller lever and the inter
ceptor valve, said transmission including a one
mechanism forming a delay action train extended
way rendering device, a spring pressed centraliz
between the tiller lever and the interceptor valve
ing device, and pull and push rods, said devices
to stabilize the valve after it has been initially
and rods being connected in series to form part
operated to pass air to one of the servo-motors
by a commencing deviation to adjust the helm 35 of mechanical delay action transmission, and
-means whereby the centralizing and one-way
and correct such deviation, said follow-up mecha
rendering devices so mutually interact that the
nism including a movement damping element,
length of the mechanical train is varied depend
an inertia element operatively connected and
ing upon the swing of the vcraft steered by said
combined with the damping element, incoming
'
and outgoing transmission members connected to 40 rudder.
6. Automatic mechanism for rectifying any
the tiller lever and interceptor valve respectively,
deviation off-course of air-borne craft or other
and means connecting the transmission members
vessels comprising the combination of a rudder,
to the combined inertia and damping elements so
atiller lever for operating the rudder, a pair of
that they resiliently cooperate.
2. Automatic mechanism for rectifying any 45 servo-motors for actuating, the tiller lever, an air
pressure'duct for each servo-motor, a gyroscope
deviation o?-course of air-borne craft or other
operated interceptor valve normally occupying
vessels, comprising the combination of a rudder,
a tiller lever for operating the rudder, a, pair of
servo-motors for actuating the tiller lever, an
air pressure duct for each servo-motor, a gyro~
scope-operated interceptor valve normally oc
50
a stabilized position and operable to selectively
control passage of air to the servo-motors, and
a mechanical follow-up train between the tiller
lever and interceptor valve, said train including
two sets of series connected yielding means, a
relay, an incoming rod from the tiller, lever con
nected to one set of yielding means, an outgoing
servo-motors, a mechanical, retarding follow-up
train between the interceptor valve and the tiller 55 rod from the other set of yielding means con
nected to the relay, and a link connecting the
lever to stabilize the valve after‘ it has been ini
relay to the interceptor valve, whereby the move
tially actuated to pass air pressure to’ one of
ment of the tiller lever by one of the servo
the servo-motors, and yielding operating means
motors is first ‘transmitted directly through the
between the tiller lever and the rudder whereby
the rudder is actuated to such an extent as will 60 yielding means, rods, relay and link to the in
terceptor valve, to stabilize it, after which by the
ailford an automatic balance between the forces
rendering action of the two sets of yielding means
imparted to the rudder from the tiller lever and
a further movement is imparted to the intercep
those which exist externally of the rudder.
tor valve by the relay to vary the length of the
3. In automatic mechanism of the kind indi
cated, and having a rudder, air actuated means 65 mechanical train‘and give a degree of perma
nent rudder to bring the craft on to its course
for moving the rudder, and an interceptor valve
but not on the original course line;'
for controlling the admission of air to said air
7; In automatic mechanism of the kind indi
actuated means, the combination of a mechanical
cated and having a rudder, a tiller lever for oper
follow-up mechanism between the rudder moving
means and the interceptor valve, said mechanism 70 ating the rudder, an‘ actuated means for mov
> cupying a stabilized position and operable to se—
lectively control passage of air pressure to the
ing the tiller'lever, an interceptor valve for con
trolling the admission of air to the air actuated
means, the combination of a delay action trans
including a pair of pivoted levers, ‘springs'oper
atively connecting together said, levers,'a rotary
damper and inertia device, gearing‘connecting
the rotary device with one of the levers, an in
_,coming transmission rod from the rudder actu
1,6
mission between the tiller lever‘and the inter
ceptor valve,‘ said transmission including two sets
2,412,486~
17
18
of yielding means, an’ incoming rod from the
tiller lever connected to one set of yielding means,
the retarding mechanism, an outgoing, rod ex-;
tending from the one-way device to theinter
means for series connecting the two sets of yield
ceptor valve, a ?nger on said outgoing rod, a'
pair of arms engaging the ?nger and pivotedto
able means, a pair of relays, means for connect
ing and gearing together both relays, a link con
gether at a ?xed point, a ?xed zero center stopi
necting one relay to one set of the yielding
between the arms and spring means normallyv
means, and an outgoing rod connecting the other
drawing the arms towards each other and against
the stop, whereby after the outgoing rod has
vrelay to the interceptor valve, said transmission
been moved in one direction or the other against;
forming a mechanical train, by which the rudder
is so controlled that the craft is brought back 10 the action of the spring drawn arms, said arms, ,
tending to return to the zero position, will cause
to its original course line after a deviation there
from.
the one-way device to render.
‘
_
8. In automatic mechanism of the kind indi
11. In an automatic mechanism of the kind
cated and having a rudder, a tiller lever for oper
indicated and having a rudder, a tiller lever for
ating the rudder, air-actuated means for mov 15 operating the rudder, air-actuated means for
ing the tiller lever, an interceptor valve for con
moving the tiller lever, an interceptor valve for
controlling the admission of air to the air-actu
trolling the admission of air to the air-actuated
ated means, the combination of a delay action
means, the combination of a delay actiontrans
mission between the tiller lever and the inter
transmission between the tiller lever and the
ceptor valve, said transmission including a seg 20 interceptor valve, said transmission including 'a
ment-shaped lever having teeth on its larger
segmental lever having teeth on its larger end
end and pivoted on a ?xed point at its smaller
and pivoted on a ?xed point at its smaller end,
a shaft adjacent the toothed larger end, a pinion
end, a lever arm also pivoted on said ?xed point,
springs each connected at one end to the lever
on said shaft in mesh with the teeth on the seg
arm and connected at their other ends tov the 25 mental lever, a ?uid damper device on said shaft,
segment shaped lever, an ingoing actuating
an air beater fan mounted on the shaft, a T
shaped lever fulcrumed at its lower end on the
rod connecting the tiller lever to the free end
segmental lever, a spring extending in opposite
of the lever arm. an outgoing rod extending to
the interceptor valve and connected'to the seg
directions from each side of the T-shaped lever
ment-shaped lever, an air beater fan, a ?uid 30 to the segmental lever, an incoming actuating
rod connecting the free end of the T-shaped le-'
damper, a ?xed shaft on which the fan and ?uid
damper are respectively mounted, and a pinion
ver with the tiller lever and an outgoing rod con
necting said T-shaped lever at a point between
on the shaft in mesh with the teeth of the seg
ment-shaped lever so that the movement of the
its fulcrum and its free end with said valve, said
ingoing rod is transmitted to the outgoing rod 35 outgoing rod receiving a direct transmitting
only after the resistance of the air fan, ?uid
movement and, when the device renders by the
damper and springs is overcome.
action of the air fan, the outgoing rod receiving
9. In automatic mechanism of the kind indi
a further increment of movement after a time
lag interval.
‘I
cated and having a rudder, a tiller lever for oper
ating the rudder, air-actuated means for moving 40
12. In automatic means of the kind indicated
the tiller lever, an interceptor valve for control
and having a rudder, a tiller lever for operat
ling the admission of air to the air-actuated
ing the rudder, air-actuated means for moving
means, the combination of a movement-retard
the tiller lever and rudder, an interceptor valve
ing mechanism, an incoming rod connecting said
for controlling the admission of air to the air
mechanism to the tiller lever, a one-way render 45 actuated means, the combination of resiliently
ing device consisting of a segmental lever hav
mounted means constituting delay action train
ing teeth on its larger end and pivoted on a
between the tiller lever and the interceptor valve,
fixed point at its smaller end, a lever arm also
said train including a segmental lever having
pivoted at one end on said ?xed point, a shaft
teeth on its larger end and pivoted on a ?xed
on the opposite extremity of the lever arm, a 50 point at its smaller end, a shaft adjacent the
toothed pinion On the said shaft in mesh with
toothed larger end, a pinion on said shaft in
the teeth on the segmental lever, a, rotary air
mesh with the teeth on the segmental lever, a
beating fan carried on ‘said shaft, a ?uid damper
?uid damper device mounted on said shaft, an
carried on the shaft, a link connecting the seg
air beater fan mounted on the shaft, a T-shaped
mental lever to the retarding. mechanism, and
lever fulcrumed at its lower end on the seg
an outgoing rod from the lever arm to the in
mental lever, a spring extending in opposite di
terceptor valve, said retarding mechanism and
rections from each side of the T-shapecl lever to
rendering device forming a, mechanical train such
the segmental lever, an incoming actuating rod
that whether the incoming rod is pulled or
connecting the free end of the T-shaped lever‘
pushed, both the segmental lever and the arm 60 with the tiller lever, an outgoing rod connected
will ?rst be moved substantially in unison with
with the valve, and means for connecting the
the incoming rod driving the outgoing rod in
outgoing rod at any one of a number of positions
the same direction after which the device renders
between the free end and the fulcrumed .end of
said T-shaped lever.
7
by means of the damper and fan to shortenor
lengthen the mechanical train.
10. In automatic mechanism of the kind'in
65
13. In automatic means of the kind indicate -
and having a rudder, a tiller lever for operating
dicated and having a rudder, a tiller lever for'
the rudder, air-actuated means for moving the
operating the rudder, air-actuated means for
tiller lever, an interceptor valve for controlling
moving the tiller lever, an interceptor valve for
the admission of air to the air-actuated means,
controlling the admission of air to the air-actu 70 a movement retarding mechanism, an incoming
rod connecting said mechanism with they tiller
ated means, the combination of a delay action
transmission, said transmission including a move
lever, and a relay connecting said mechanism‘ to
the interceptor valve, said relay including a seg
ment retarding mechanism and an incoming rod
mental lever, a link connecting one end of the
from the tiller lever to said mechanism, a one
way rendering device connected in series with 75 segmental lever with said mechanism, a toothed '
2,412,486
19
20
rack at the other end of the segmental lever, an
impeller drum, a shaft carrying said drum, a
pinion on the shaft in mesh with the toothed
rack, vanes on the impeller drum, a pair of ?uid
pressure supply nozzles by which air may be
the tiller lever, and a relay device operatively
)
caused to impinge on said vanes to rotate the
drum in one direction or the other, a valve lever
fulcrumed centrally on the drum shaft, an ar
cuate valve on one end of the valve lever and
connecting said mechanism to the interceptor
valve, said relay device including an impeller
drum, vanes on said drum, an air beater fan, a
helical spring connecting the drum and the fan,
an internally toothed annulus on the fan, planet
Wheels carried by the drum and meshing ‘with
the annulus, a sun pinion in mesh with the planet
wheels, a shaft carrying the sun wheel, a pinion
mounted between the nozzles and the drum, and 10 on the sun shaft, a segmental lever, a toothed
rack on the larger end of the segmental lever,
an outgoing rod pivoted to the other end of the
an incoming rod pivoted to the smaller end of
valve lever and also to the segmental lever and
the segmental lever, an outgoing rod extend
connected with the interceptor valve, the ar
, ing to the interceptor valve also pivoted to the
rangement being such that a linear movement of
smaller end of the segmental lever, a valve lever
the link actuates the outgoing rod to close the
of right angled form mounted on the sun wheel
interceptor valve and at the same time swings
shaft and pivoted at one end to the segmental
the arcuate valve to one side to interrupt the
lever, an arcuate valve at the other end of the
passage of pressure fluid from one of the nozzles
valve lever covering a part of the periphery of
and open the other nozzle to rotate the drum
the impeller drum, and a pair of pressure ?uid
which through said pinion moves the outgoing
supply nozzles for driving the impeller drum in
rod in the reverse direction to again open the
one direction or the other depending upon the
interceptor valve and cause a degree of perma
position of the arcuate valve which is interposed
nent helm to be imparted to the rudder.
between the nozzles and the impeller drum, the
14. In automatic mechanism of the kind indi
arrangement being such that the speed for clos
cated and having a rudder, a tiller lever for
ing the interceptor Valve will be fast as compared
operating the rudder, air-actuated means for
with that for closing such valve when giving
moving the tiller lever, an interceptor valve for
permanent rudder.
controlling the admission of air to the air-actu
16. In automatic means of the kind indicated
ated means, a movement retarding mechanism,
an incoming rod connecting said mechanism with 30 and having a rudder, a tiller lever for operating
the rudder, air-actuated means for moving the
the tiller lever, and a double relay device con
rudder tiller lever, an interceptor valve for con~
necting said mechanism to the interceptor valve,
trolling the admission of air to the air-actuated
said double relay device including a primaiy and
means, and resiliently connected means between
secondary bladed impeller drums, a shaft sup
porting each drum, a pair of pressure ?uid sup 35 the tiller lever and the interceptor valve, said re
siliently connected means including a segmental
ply nozzles for each drum, a valve lever ful-,
lever having teeth on its larger end and pivoted
crumed on the primary drum shaft, an arcuate
on a ?xed point at its smaller end, a shaft adja
valve on one end of said valve lever interposed
cent the larger end of the lever, a pinion on said
between the primary drum and the related ?uid
pressure nozzles, a toothed pinion on each drum 40 shaft in mesh with the teeth on the segmental
lever, a fluid damper device on said shaft, an
shaft, a segmental lever having teeth at its larger
air-beater fan mounted on the shaft, a T-shaped
end meshing with each associated pinion, an in
lever fulcrumed on the segmental lever, a spring
coming rod pivoted to the smaller end of the
extending in opposite directions from each side
segmental lever of the secondary drum, a link
freely connected at one end of the secondary 45 of the lever, to the segmental lever, an incoming
actuating rod connected to the T-shaped lever
drum shaft, and pivoted at its other end to the
at a point on one side of its fulcrum, and an out
smaller end of the segmental lever of the sec
going rod connected to the free end of the T
ondary drum, a connecting link between the
shaped lever on the other side of the fulcrum,
smaller ends of both segmental levers, an out,
going rod connected to the other end of the valve 50 whereby the incoming rod may transmit a free
lever of the primary drum, and to the associ
ated segmental lever and to the interceptor valve,
a bell crank lever fulcrumed on the secondary
drum shaft, an arcuate valve at one end of the
movement to the outgoing rod, but when the two
levers render owing to the movement of the
fulcrum of the T-shaped lever, the outgoing rod
receives a slow and retarded reverse movement.
17. In automatic means of the kind indicated
bell crank lever arranged between the secondary 55
and
having a rudder, a tiller lever for operating
drum and the associated nozzles, and a toothed
the rudder, air-actuated means for moving the
rack on the other end of the bell crank lever in
tiller lever, an interceptor valve for controlling
mesh with the pinion on the shaft of the primary
the admission of air to the air-actuated means, a
drum, the arrangement being such that when the
arcuate valve of the primary drum is opened 60 mechanical delay action train between, and in
operative connection with, both the tiller lever
and the related drum is rotated the movement
and the interceptor valve, said train including
transmitted through the bell crank lever causes
yielding devices and a zero stop, means for ?nely
opening of the valve of the secondary drum, the
adjusting the interceptor valve in relation to the
rotation of the secondary drum closing the valve
said yielding devices, said adjusting means in
of the primary drum and then re~opening it to 65 cluding an adjustable link connected in said train,
reverse the rotation of the primary drum to
a pivoted lever connected at one end to said link,
thereby close the valve associated with the sec
and an adjustable clamping device at the other
ondary drum for the purpose described.
end of the lever whereby upon the movement of
15. In an automatic mechanism of the kind in—
the pivoted lever and link positions of the inter
dicated and having a rudder, a tiller lever for 70 ceptor valve and‘ the zero stop in the mechan
operating the rudder, air-actuated means for
ical train may be mutually and accurately ad~
moving the tiller-lever, an interceptor valve for
justed.
.
'
controlling the admission of air to the air-actu
18. In automatic means of the kind indicated
ated means, a movement retarding mechanism,
and having a rudder, a double ended tiller lever
an incoming rod connecting said mechanism with 75 for operating the rudder, a yielding transmission
21
2,412,486
between each end of the tiller lever and the rud
der, said yielding transmission including a pair
of two-armed levers, an operating connection
from one arm of each two-armed lever to the
22
crank levers, one arm of each bell crank being
actuated from the related end of the tiller lever,
a linkage mechanism between the pair of levers
and the rudder, said linkage mechanism includ
ing a longitudinal rod, a sprial spring connected
with one end of the longitudinal rod, a ?xed base
for said spring centered on a longitudinal axis
respective end of the tiller lever, a center rod, a
link extending from the other arm of each lever
and connected to the center rod, a spring bear
ing for one end of the center rod, a triangular
passing through the rudder axis, links extending
linked frame having a base part mounted cen
in opposite directions from the longitudinal rod
trally upon a ?xed point in line with an axis 10 and pivoted to the respective other arms of the
passing through the center of the rudder and the
bell crank levers, a pair of toggle links connected
spring bearing, a link pivoted at one end to the
at one end to, and extending in opposite direc
end of the center rod and at the other to the
tions from the longitudinal rod, a Pair of lever
apex of the triangular frame, an actuating double
arms centered at one end on the ?xed base and
armed lever for said rudder, and a transmission 15 connected to the other ends of the toggle links,
member from each end of the base part of the
helical springs arranged on opposite sides of the
triangular frame to the respective ends of the
longitudinal rod, adapted to act upon the toggle
rudder double armed lever, whereby for a con
links, a tension rod carrying said helical springs,
stant amplitude of movement from the tiller
and a self-adjusting link mechanism arranged
lever, the rudder is actuated but is allowed to 20 between the longitudinal rod and the rudder.
independently adjust itself to the forces acting
21. Automatic mechanism for steering air
externally thereupon.
'
borne craft and other vessels comprising in com
19. In automatic means of the kind indicated
bination a rudder, a two armed tiller lever for
and having a pivoted rudder, a double-ended
operating said rudder, a pair of servo-motors for
tiller lever for operating the rudder, a yielding 25 operating the tiller lever, selective gyroscope con
transmission between each end of the tiller lever
trolled fluid pressure means for actuating one or
and the rudder, said yielding transmission in
the other of the servo-motors, a pair of bell
cluding a pair of tWo armed levers, an opera*
crank levers, one arm of each bell crank lever
ing connection from one arm of each two armed
being actuated from the related end of the tiller
lever to the respective ends of the tiller lever, a 30 lever, a linkage mechanism between the pair of
spring bearing, a ?xed base supporting said bear
levers and the rudder, said linkage mechanism
ing and disposed central to an axis passing
including a longitudinal rod, a spiral spring con»
through the spring bearing and the rudder pivot,
nected with one end of the longitudinal rod, 2.
a longitudinal rod mounted at one ‘end in the
?xed base for said spring centered on a longi
spring bearing, links at the opposite end of the 35 tudinal axis passing through the rudder axis, lat
longitudinal rod extending in opposite directions
eral links extending in opposite directions from
therefrom and connected to the other arm of
the longitudinal rod and pivoted to the other
each of the two-armed levers, a pair of toggle
arms of the bell crank levers, a pair of toggle
links each pivoted at one end to the longitudinal
links connected at one end to and extending in
rod, means whereby the other ends of the links 40 opposite directions from the longitudinal rod, a
are under pressure, a triangular linked frame
pair of lever arms centered at one end on the
having a base part mounted centrally upon a ?xed
?xed base and connected to the other ends of the
point in line with an axis passing through the
toggle links, helical springs arranged on opposite
pivotal axis of the rudder and the spring bear
sides of the longitudinal rod adapted to act upon
ing, a link pivoted at one end to the second men 45 the toggle links, a tension rod carrying the helical
tioned end of the longitudinal rod and at the
springs, parallel levers, one of said parallel levers‘
other to the apex of the triangular frame, a dou
being movable about the rudder axis and the
ble armed lever on said rudder, and a transmis
other being movable about a second axis, links
sion member from each end of the base part
connecting said parallel levers and forming a
of the triangular frame to the respective ends
parallelogram therewith, a rod connecting the
of the double armed rudder lever, whereby for a
parallelogram to the lateral links and the longi
constant amplitude of movement from the tiller
tudinal rod to swing the parallelogram and also
lever, the rudder is actuated but is allowed to
stress the helical and spiral springs, the arrange
independently adjust itself to the forces acting
ment being such that for the constant amplitude
externally thereupon.
of movement imparted to the swinging rod, such
20. Automatic mechanism for steering air
movement will be transmitted to the rudder
borne’craft and other vessels comprising in com
through the parallelogram as will alloy the rud
bination a rudder, a two armed tiller lever for
der to automatically assume a position that will
operating said rudder, a pair of servo-motors for
balance the spring force against the external
operating the tiller lever, selective gyroscope con
forces acting on the rudder.
trolled ?uid pressure means for actuating one
or the other of the servo-motors, a pair of bell
WALTER GORDON WILSON.
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