Dec. 10, 1946. ‘ 2,412,486 w. cs.-w|‘|_soN STEERING DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT OR OTHER VESSELS Filed Nov. 17, 1942 “Q.‘Q‘a. a“Qw 8 Sheets-.-Sheet 1 Dec. 10, 1946., ‘ ‘ w. G. WILSON- ~ - ‘2,412,486 STEERING-‘DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT OR OTHER VESSELS Filed Nov. 17, 1942 S-Sheets-Sheet 2 Dec. 10,‘ 1946- w, (5', WILSON 2,412,486 STEERING DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT OR OTHER VESSELS Filed NOV. 17, 1942 8 Sheets-Sheet 3 Déc. 10, 1946. w, G, w|1_soN ' 2,412,486 STEERING ‘DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT OR OTHER VESSELS Filed Nov. 1'7, 1942 ' 8 Sheets-Sheet 4 Dec. 10, 1946. 2,412,486 w. G. WILSON STEERING DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT OR QTHER VESSELS Filed Nov. 17, 1942 8 Sheéts-Sheei’c 5 'In 0612222’ 58'5012/ ‘ Dec. 10, 1946. ‘ ‘ I w. G. WILSON ~ , 2,412,486 STEERING‘ DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT OR OTHER VESSELS Filed Nov. 17, 1942 ' SPFRO'INCEG SkFiO/RCNEe(Pow/v0.9 ' a Sheets-Sheet s (Pow/v05 1m: HES - "4 R’ Q15 ‘3”? $1“ ‘own/CH“ ' . - I Izzvezziaz fly-l0 1!. 6 ,JZZZSQJV (1/, Dec‘ 10, 19146. w_ G_ wlLsoN ‘ ‘ ‘- 2,412,486 STEERING DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT ‘OR OTHER VESSELS Filed Nov. 17, 1942 8' Sheets-Sheet 7 Dec.10,1946.l ] WGMSON .' 2,412,486 STEERING DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT OR OTHER VESSELS Filed NOV. 17, 1942 8 Sheets-Shéet 8 446122 vezzior - " G, l v 6' Z5010 I ' 5‘ I"; "I. Patented Dec. 10, 1946 2,41,486 UNITED ST . 2,412,486 STEERING DEVICE FonamcRAF'r on OTHER VESSELS Walter Gordon ‘Wilson, Martyr Worthy, near Winchester, Hampshire, England Application November 17, 1942, Serial No. 465,880 In Great Britain May 23, 1941 21 Claims. (Cl. 114-144) 2 1 This invention relates to the steering of air or water craft, torpedoes and the like, and partic ularly to such craft of the type that have the inherent tendency _to oscillate transversely at . ing on the forces acting externally upon the rud def‘ such as the speed of the vessel or projectile, the density of the medium in which it is moving or the position of the centre of pressure. regular-periodicity in relation to a given track line v'of ‘flight. It is to be understood that; curve is smoothed out and the normal sinuous (1) The term “deviation” refers to the lat eral distance of the craft from its desired track. (2) The term “de?ection” means the angular departure of the craft from the desired course. (3) A rendering device consists of a plurality of resiliently or yieldingly connected members adapted to receive and absorb an incoming move ment and resolve it into an outgoing movement track line is resumed. of variable degree and speed. The invention hereinafter described is a devel opment of the invention set out in the speci?ca tion of my prior United States patent applica (4) Permanent helm means the application of rudder to correct a constant tendency of the craft to de?ect in one direction. ‘ Electrically actuated means have been proposed to correct any deviation off the course. By such electrical means when a deviation is detected and before it develops, a correction of rudder is made which will anticipate and pre vent the full deviation with the result that the tibn Serial No. 448,506 according to which the (5) The term “stabilised” hereafter used refers :rudder movement was effected by a pair of bel to the interceptor valve as having been moved lows to which a supply of air was regulated by 20 into a position wherein the bellows are static. the action of a pivoted intercepter valve com The invention will now be described With refer prising a shield, which under gyroscopic in ence to the accompanying drawings, in which: ?uence was movable to and fro between pairs Figure l is a diagrammatic view of the means of jets so that air pressure could pass alternae for controlling and stabilising an aerial torpedo tively to either of the bellows and thus move the 25 as described in the speci?cation of my prior rudder to either port or starboard as the case might be. The object of the present invention is to cor reet a deviation off course by the use of mechan ic'al devices to be actuated to cause the restora United States application above referred to, sup- _ plemented by a mechanical follow up train for controlling the rudder according to the pres ent invention. 80 Figure 2 is a detail view of a combined damp tion of the intercepter shield to lag behind the rudder deflection, and thus prevent further de ing and inertia device. velopment of the deviation that has commenced. The invention consists in a mechanical follow up mechanism interposed between the bellows actuated tiller lever and the intercepter valve, ance curves. ‘ Figure 3 shows a graph of certain spring resist Figures 4 to '7 show in four displaced positions, views of a spring controlled linkage for actuating the rudder. said mechanism comprising a damping element and/or an inertia element coupled through re silient or yielding means with incoming and out going transmission members by means of which ' Figures 8, 9 and 10 show three curves illustrat ing the action of different springs, whereby the characteristics of two of such spring curves (Fig mechanism the interceptor valve is stabilised, ures 8 and 9) are superimposed upon one another to produce a characteristic combined curve (Fig after it has been initially opened by a commenc ing deviation to give a large amount of helm. ure 10). Figures 11 and 12 illustrate on an enlarged The invention also consists in a mechanical scale and detached from Figure 1 a rendering follow-up mechanism, which after it has sta 45 transmission train between the tiller and the in bilised the interceptor valve, re-opens the in— terceptor valve. , terceptor valve by the subsequent rendering ac Figure 13 is a diagrammatic view of a modi?ed tion of the mechanism to reduce the amount of rendering device. helm, to give permanent helm, or opposite helm. Figure 14 shows a modi?ed transmission train. The invention also consists in a steering device 50 Figures ‘15,“16“and 17 show in elevation other in which a relay by acting upon the tiller causes forms of rendering devices. the latter through rendering devices to act upon Figure 18 shows a detail modi?cation herein the rudder, so that the latter for a substantially equal amplitude of movement of the tiller will automatically assume different positions depend after referred to, ‘and Figure 19 is a “diagram of a course line to be 55 vfollowed by a "vessel as hereinafter explained. 2,412,486 3 Reference will now be made to Figure 1 which illustrates the general lay out of steering mecha nism as described in the speci?cation of my prior application above referred to and with which is combined the devices operating according to the present invention. Referring to Figure 1, whenever the craft, as described in my prior speci?cation, deviates from its proper course, a lever 20 universally jointed at so is oscillated by the resistance offered by ‘a gyroscope 3i, rotating around an axis stationary in space, the pin 32 of which engages one end of the lever. The lever 26 is pivoted at the point 4 The mechanism for adjusting the rudder will first be described. The connections provided between the rudder 2i and the tiller lever 39, are shown drawn to an enlarged scale in Figures 4 to 7, the mecha nism being shown in four positions of relative displacement. Mounted on a-?xed base 43 and pivoted at 44 is a pair of swinging arms 45 one on each side of the central axis 42, the free end of ,each arm engaging by means of a knife edge or other bearing with a pressure plate as, cen trally and slidingly carried upon a tension rod 47 which tensions both arms 135 by springs 48 ar ranged at the respective ends of the tension rod crank 16 and at the other end with a link 39a Ill. Each spring 48 presses at one end upon the pivoted at 301). The lever 28, its fulcrum 3i) pressure plate 46 and at the other end against and the gyroscope 3| all move with the ship the headed end d9 of the tension rod 131. Both when it deviates, but the spinning axis of the of the arms 45 are therefore under constant spring gyroscope being constant in direction, causes pressure forcing them inwards towards one an— relative movement between the pin 32 and the 20 other, and the arms are connected by toggle links end of the lever thereby oscillating. the latter 56 which links are centrally pivoted together at 5i, at which point they are also pivoted to one about the. point 39. The other end of the ‘lever carries a shield 330i very light weight, forming end of a central rod 52 the other end of which part of a sphere (as shown in Figure l) or part impinges upon a cap 53 at the centre of a spiral of a cylinder, which is adapted to intercept or spring 54 centeredon the axis 52. Also pivoted permit communication between two sets of aligned at 5! is one end of a rod 55 whose other end is pivoted to a pair of links 56 pivoted together at nozzles 34 and 35 and Ma and 35a, to the former ' 30 on a rod 78 connected at one end ‘with. a bell 34 and 34a of which compressed air is supplied by a duct 36. These are therefore supply nozzles 56a which extend outward from each side of the centre axis and have their ends each pivoted feeding into receiver nozzles 35 and 35a. 30 to one arm 5': of a‘ bell crank lever fulcrummed Depending upon the direction of the swing of on a ?xed point 58, the other arm 59 being pivoted the shield, so the ‘set of nozzles 34 and 35 or 34a and 35a are uncovered and allow air to pass from one open nozzle to the corresponding re to a link or cable <60,’ 611a, these cables being attached to the respective ends of the tiller lever 39, Figure 1. Extending from the pivot 55a is a ceived nozzle, after which the air is led away by 35 link 61, the further end of which is jointed at $52 ducts 31, 31a to a servo motor device comprising to the apex of a triangular frame having side bellows 38 and 38a or equivalent means, such as members 63, and a base 64, which is pivoted a cylinder and piston. The shield 33 thus acts upon a central ?xed point 55. The opposite . as .an interceptor valve by which one of a pair ends of the base 64 are connected by links 6%, of bellows is expanded and thus directly actuates 40 66a, to the respective ends of a. double armed a tiller lever 39, fulcrummed at 46. The opposite lever 31 on the fulcrum E8, and on which the ends of the tiller, lever'in the arrangement dis rudder 2! is centered. For the sake of clearness closed in the above mentioned application Serial the pivots 58a and 65 are shown as slightly spaced apart, but in practice it is preferred that the pivot No. 448,506 are connected respectively by cables to the ends of a two armed lever on the fulcrum 45 5% shall be coincident with, but separate from, 65. of .which .the rudder is carried. The fulcrum point All of the tiller lever 39 is adapted to have Figure 4 shows the assembly and the rudder in a floating movement under the control of a link the centralv or neutral position a and Figures 5, 6 and '7 show the apparatus in three different 46 centered at 41, and when one of the bellows 38 or 38a is expanded by a jet of air passed positions, giving three non-central positions I), c, into either of the receiving nozzles 35 or 35a, . and d of the rudder. Assuming that the tiller lever. 36 has been so the tiller lever is oscillated on its fulcrum lit} to swing the rudder in one direction or the other, swung on its pivot by the bellows, cylinder and and the fulcrum 40 is also caused to move bodily piston or the like, and that the upper cable 59 in Figures 4 to 7 has been pulled, so that the bell . or ?oat, so as to prevent any sagging movement crank lever arms 51in Figure 4 are swung into of that cable which is not actuated by the ex panding bellows. Also, according to application the positions 51a shown in Figure 5, the parts of the assembly are so correspondingly moved Serial No. 448,506, as soon as the rudder is thus that the pivot point 56a is laterally moved to actuated, the tiller lever 39, by means of an arm ti, and a pair of bell crank levers connected by 60 one side of the centre axis 42, the links £55 are a plain link restores the interceptor valve to a swung by a somewhat parallel movement to stress position in which the flow of air between the the spiral spring 54 and the springs 48, and the triangular frame is rocked on its pivot 65 so that nozzles is cut off, i. e., it is restored to a stabilised . position. All of these parts are symmetrically bythe connections 65, 66a, to the double armed disposed around a central longitudinal axis 452, lever 57, the rudder 2| is moved from its centre and the arrangement constitutes a pneumatic or position 0:. Depending however upon the outside hydraulic relay to initiate the adjustment of the forces that tend to oppose this movement, such rudder. It will be hereinafter assumed that the as the speed of the vessel or the density of the relay is pneumatic. medium in which it is moving and which are usually concentrated upon the centre of pres According to the present invention, however, the means for actuating the rudder from the sure indicated at 2 la for example, the rudder will bellows are modi?ed, and a mechanical foliow move to such a position that the forces acting up train between the tiller lever and the inter upon it from within and from without will be ceptor shield is substituted for the plain link come balanced; thus it may assume any of the above referred to. positions- b, c and d, with-corresponding displace 2,412,486 5 6 ments of the ‘linkage connections, such as are transmission described, that the work on the bel shown in Figures 5, 6 and '7 and without a?ecting lows, pistons or equivalent devices is considerably the amplitude of movement of the bell crank lever reduced especially when the rudder has to move arms 5? and 59 which is constant. Such a vari through a large angle in comparison with the able yielding movement of the parts is provided GI travel of the cables or rods 66, tea, which may for by the helical springs 48 and the spiral spring occur when the vessel is travelling at low speed 54, which are designed to have a special in?uence and when the pressure of air in the bellows is at the one on the other. a minimum. If the pressure of ?uid or air on the Referring to the curves in Figures 8, 9 and 10, rudder is such that the angle required brings the the helical springs 43 at the respective ends of 10 links 55 and (SI into a straight line, no effort the tension rod 41, have a higher rate or stiffness other than that for overcoming inertia is re of spring force as shown by the curve 69, Figure quired on the pull rods or cables 69, but as the 8, than that of the spiral spring 54, which has pressure of the rudder is increased owing to an a lower rate or sti?‘ness, as shown by the curve increase in velocity or density of the surrounding 70 in Figure 9. By arranging these springs how medium, the pressure of air available for working ever in the manner shown in Figures 4 to 7, the the bellows is increased and consequently the pull effect of one spring is superimposed upon the on the cables or rods is increased, although the other to produce the characteristic effect of a moment imparted ‘to the vessel is the same in spring having a force curve ‘H, Figure 10. In both cases. It should also be noted that unless these ?gures, the horizontal component of each 20 the rudder goes over further than this point the graph may be travel in inches, and the vertical pull or push on all the rods or levers does not component may be spring force in pounds, so reverse sign, therefore any slackness in the that as seen in Figure 10, the ?rst portion of the joints does not make for inaccuracy in the func» curve ‘H has a quick rise corresponding to Figure tioning of this linkage, i. e., no high precision 8, while the latter part of the curve in Figure 10 machining is necessary. ' 7 partakes of the character of the curve in Fig Having thus far described the manner in which ure 9. In this way as the linkage parts are dis the rudder is actuated by an opening movement placed as shown in Figures 4 to '7, so this move of the interceptor valve relay through the air ment takes place against an increasing and nozzles and bellows, the means by which the in maintained force as shown in the curve ‘H. By terceptor valve is restored again to its closed the action of the combined springs 58, 54, the position, will be considered. pull on the link 6| due to that of the rod 55, Referring now to Figures 1, 12, 13 and 14 when exerts a moment on the double armed lever 65 one of the bellows 38 or 38a is expanded due to thereby causing a pull in opposite directions on a displacement of the interceptor valve shield the rods 65, 66a, by which a de?ecting moment 35 33, so as to give a considerable amount of rud is put upon the fulcrum of the rudder 2i, and der, the oscillating movement of the tiller lever so applying a load transversely of the longitudi 39 through the arm all actuates a rod 12, see Fig- ' nal centre axis 42 and thereby exerting a steerure 1, which by means of a bell crank lever 13, ing in?uence on the vessel. fulcrumed at 14, moves the rod ‘175 toward the By a suitable arrangement of the springs 40 right or to the left depending upon which of which in?uence the characteristic spring. curve the bellows is actuated. The movement to the ‘II, it is possible to make this moment for any right or left of the rod l5, after passing through predetermined de?ection of the bell crank 51, 59, a train of devices, as, x1, an to be described, acts constant for that de?ection and independent of upon the second bell crank '56 fulcrumed at T! the speed of the vessel, the density of the sur by which the rod 18 is adjusted to move the ful rounding medium or of the position of the pres crum 38 of the interceptor lever 2i! back to the sure centre Zia. The result of this is that the position where the shield 33 is stabilised. The period of swing of the vessel due to the action devices :0, ml, which are in the nature of resilient of the bellows as controlled by the tiller relay or yielding mechanism, with which is combined remains substantially a constant. As the ve dampening means, such as air beater fans, and/or locity or density of the medium surrounding the inertia means, are designed for the purpose of rudder is increased or decreased so the rods or arms 66, 66a will render due to the movement of the double armed lever 54 without any move ment taking place of the control cables or rods 5' 60, 68a. As stated, the moment on the vessel remains constant although the movement of the rudder may have been reduced or increased by the rendering of the rods 65, 65a, as the velocity making the movement of the rudder anticipate the restoration of the interceptor valve to its stabilised position, with the ?ow of air between the jets interrupted. The device or (which may be seen on an en larged scale at 1/ in Figure 14), comprises a seg mental shaped plate 19, pivoted at Bil at the narrower end, and is made with a curved toothed of the medium acting on the rudder increases or (EU rack 8!, at its wider end, the rack teeth engag decreases. ing with a toothed pinion 82 mounted on the Moreover it will be understood, in a case where ?xed shaft 83. Carried by the pinion is a cir the fuel is consumed in a self propelled vessel, i. e., an aerial torpedo as described in the speci cular casing 85, shown in detail in Figure 2 forming part of a ?uid damper of a well known ?cation of my prior United States application f kind comprising a number of intercommunicat Serial No. 448,505, that the moment of inertia ing segmental compartments into and out of of the vessel may be increased or decreased. which a ?uid such as oil is adapted to flow when This may be compensated by so arranging the the casing 84 is rotated by the pinion. The ex characteristic of the curve ‘H that with higher terior of the casing is ?tted with a series of radi~ air velocities the moment exerted by the rudder ; ating air impact vanes so that the whole device on the vessel is increased or decreased so as to _ forms a combined air beater fan and/or inertia control the period of the swing of the vessel as device. By such a combined device, the charac desired. > teristic resistance curve of the air beater fan and It is to be noted from the arrangement of the ?uid damper respectively, is modi?ed as shown toggle levers and the arms and links of the in Figure 3. In the graph shown in this ?gure, 2,412,486 7 8 the horizontal component is velocity in revolu tion of the incoming movement of rod 15 is im mediately transmitted to the outgoing rod, but tions per minute and the vertical indicates re sistance in inch pounds torque. The character istic curve of the usual ?uid damper is shown at 832) which has a quick start, whilst 930 shows the curve of an air beater fan and which has a slow start, and is approximately as the square of the velocity. By combining the two dampen ing devices however, a new combined curve 83d the segment 19 can only with a~time lag follow up this movement, such lag being determined by the period of the inertia and damping device, and which period is so determined and selected that it shall be appropriate for the period of swing se lected for the steering of the craft. It is to be understood that either the air fan or the ?uid is obtained which possesses the advantageous l0 damper may be used alone or they may be com bined, and that a dashpot device may be used features of both curves without their disadvan if preferred. tages, and resulting in a quickly and continuously From the foregoing description the actuation of rising resistance value. the incoming rod 15 results in two movements The segmental plate 79 carries on the pivot I01, a .L-shaped lever I96, to the end I95 of 15 being given to the outgoing rod. The ?rst is a direct and immediate reduced movement through which is pivoted the rod 75, which may be called the lever I96 on its pivot I91 and thence through the incoming rod, the lever H99 being restrained the connection I98 to the outgoing rod 99; and in a normal central position by springs I99 and the second movement in the same direction as the 19911, one on each side. One end of each spring is secured to the cross member of lever 195 20 ?rst which is given by the rendering action of the inertia damping device, and associated parts. whilst their remote ends are secured to the seg From the device is the movements of the rod 99 mental plate 19. Also pivoted at 198 to the lever are transmitted to the next device 001, and after I06 is a rod 90, the outgoing rod, which extends actuating a spring centralising device $2 they pass in a direction opposite to that of the incoming to the rod 18 where they act upon and restore rod 15. the interceptor valve 33, Figure 1, to its sta At the commencement of the curve 83d, Figure bilised position. The devices x1, x2 are shown on 3, springs I99 and “1911 are in balance and when an enlarged scale in Figure 12. In the device an, rod 15 is moved in relation to segment 19 the the incoming rod 99 is connected to a segmental tension of one spring is increased and the other reduced, and for small angular movements such 30 plate 9| pivoted on a ?xed point 92. Similarly to Figure 1, the wider end of the segment has a as is the case in the present speci?cation, the rack and pinion connection 8 I, 82 with a damping moment exerted on lever I99 willvbe practically device which may be similar to that already de proportional to the movement of ‘£5 with regard scribed consisting of an air beater fan and/or to 19 away from normal. ?uid damper. In this case the pinion 82 is Due to the action of one of the bellows 38 and mounted on the end of an arm 93 pivoted at 92, 38a the incoming rod 15 is pushed or pulled in one while to the arm 93, between its pivot 92 and direction or the other, and assuming that it has pinion B2, is connected the outgoing rod 94. The been pushed to the left, the lever 196 is also swung pinion 82 is thus adapted to roll around the rack towards the left round the pivot 19'! tensioning 81 with the moving arm 93. No springs are used the spring [9911. This movement, with a slight in this device and when a linear movement to the retardation due to the stretching of the spring, left is given to the rod 99 from the device :c, the is directly transmitted to the outgoing rod 99 with movement of the toothed pinion being retarded a reduced leverage moment represented by the by the action of the air beater fan, causes the distance between the fulcrum point 19‘! and the pivot 198 where the outgoing rod is connected. 45 whole device to swing bodily round the pivot 92, so that a direct movement is given to the out On the ?rst actuation of the incoming rod 15 a going rod 94. From the device an the movement proportionately less movement is immediately is transmitted to the spring centralising device transmitted to the outgoing rod 99. Due to the m which comprises a pair of arms 95, 95a, piv effect of the tensioned spring Ill9a, the segment oted together at 99 so that they form an open 19 by rotation on its pivot 89, endeavours to fol ended fork, between the jaws of which is a ?xed low the movement of the lever I96, but it can zero stop 91 and a ?nger 98 on the rod es. The only do so, when the inertia device, the damper arms 95, 95a are normally drawn towards one and the associated parts have begun to render. another and against the stop 97 by a lateral Thus before the segment 79 can commence to spring 99, the arrangement being such that the turn on its pivot 89, the toothed rack and pinion arm 93 will have a tendency to be always drawn gear have ?rst to overcome the moment of iner» or pushed back to a central position after it has tia and the damping effect of the combined air been moved in one or the other direction. fan and/or the ?uid damper, by the effect of The combined action of the train of devices which the movement of the segment 19 is at ?rst slow but which subsequently increases in speed 60 x, .101 and 0:2 is as follows: With the interceptor lever and valve in the as the inertia device gets into rotation, then slows central position shown in which there is an equal down and ?nally stops due to damping action. but retarded flow of air through the two sets of Means may be provided whereby the propor receiver and supply nozzles keeping the bellows tion of movement ‘due to the time lag can be varied by a predetermined setting adjustment, for 65 equally although not fully expanded, it will be which purpose the position of the pivot 193 on the lever I96 may be previously set, as by being moved in a slot or into one of a series of holes (shown in dotted lines) at I91, and thus vary its distance from the pivot MN. The greater the distance between the pivots I95 and I98, so the amount of lag in the movement of the outgoing rod due to the springs and the damping action will be proportionately increased. By such an arrangement therefore ‘a propor assumed that the vesselhas a drifting movement to starboard in the direction of the arrow I09, Figure 1. Such drifting movement by the action of the gyroscope will move the intercepting valve shield 33 in a clockwise direction and cause a full, supply of air to pass from nozzle 34a to 35a through the duct 31a and actuate the bellows 38a. The passage of air, however, between the other nozzles 34 and 35 is completely interrupted 75 by this movement of the intercepting valve, and 2,412,486 9 the bellows 38 is allowed to slowly collapse by a back-?ow of air through the duct 3'! which exhausts by the nozzle 35. When by the expand ing movement of the bellows 380. the tiller lever 10 of permanent rudder must be very slow in rela tion to the rudder called for by the gyroscope. Instead of using the devices a: and 331, two of the former may be used as shown in Figure 14 is rocked, a pull is exerted on cable 69a by which, 5 and indicated at y‘ and g1 respectively. They through the linkage mechanism already de scribed, the rudder will be moved to port. Simul taneously with this movement of the tiller lever, may have different periods and by thus using two, more e?ective control may be obtained. In the bell crank lever 73, will move the incoming place of the device as, Figure 1, or y, Figure 14, the modi?ed device shown in Figure ll'may be used. This consists of a segmental shaped plate 79, pivoted at 80 at the narrower end and is made rod 15 in the direction of the arrow I02 to actuate with a curved toothed rack 8| at its wider end, its centre arm 41 will exert a pull on the rod 72 in the direction of the arrow I01 and through the rack teeth engaging with a, toothed pinion 82 mounted on the ?xed shaft 83. Carried by restore the intercepting valve is transmitted to 15 the pinion is a circular casing 84, shown in de-' tail in Figure 2, forming part of a ?uid damper the device a: and by the lever I06 is immediately as already described. passed on to the second device an and through The segmental plate 19 carries on the pivot 80 a ‘ the rod 915 acted on by the centralising members lever 86, to the end of which is pivoted the incom rm, to the intercepting valve to stabilise the lever 26 and so check further action of the rudder. 20 ing rod 15, the lever 86 being restrained in 2. nor the ?rst delay action device at, see Figure 1. The movement of the arm 4! on the tiller lever 39 to This action is simultaneous with the rudder movement. Then by the rendering action of the inertia damping mechanism 84 and associated mal central position by springs 87 and 88 one on each side. The adjacent ends of the springs are secured to the lever 86 whilst their remote ends are secured to the segmental plate 19. Also piv parts on the device :12, a further increment of movement is passed on and subsequently moves 25 oted at 89 to the plate ‘Ill is a rod 90, the outgoing rod, which extends in a direction opposite to that the interceptor valve, and should the rate of de of the incoming rod 15. The use of the device ?ection of the craft be greater than the rate shown in this ?gure ensures that an increased of rendering, then more rudder will be put on movement will be imparted to the outgoing rod by increase of pressure on the bellows 38a; but should the rate of de?ection of the craft be less 30 90 as against the reduced movement given to S0 or 900. by the device y or 211. than the rate of rendering, the pressure on the Instead of using the device :51, Figure 1, the bellows 38a as well as the rudder movement, will gearing mechanism shown in Figure 13 may be be reduced. used. The toothed segment 9! and lever arm 93 These conditions will be repeated in conso nance with the periodic changes from side to side 35 are used as in Figure 1, and these are connected to the incoming rod 9!} and the outgoing rod of the sinuous curve of the track line, until the 94 respectively. The upper end of the lever 93, craft is steadied on its course. On each succes which is free to oscillate from side to side on sive swing the rudder will anticipate the further the pivotal support 92 at its other end, carries deflection of the craft and so reduce the ampli tude of swing, until the craft is once more on 40 on the spindle 83 a pinion 82 which is attached to alarge gear wheel 83c and the latter is in mesh its course. with a pinion 83]‘ on the spindle 92 which forms It may be explained that when the interceptor the pivotal support for the whole device. Such valve is centred between the two sets of nozzles, pinion 83]‘ is arranged to drive an air beater fan the opposite edges of the shield 33 will lie on a centre line between each set of nozzles, so that " and/or ?uid damper as before. By the train of gearing thus formed and the high speed which there will be a retarded flow of air from each ‘tends to be given to the gear wheel 83c and the supply nozzle to its associated receiver nozzle so pinion 83]‘, the damper movement is slow under that both bellows are equally and partly ex the in?uence of the spring ?nger 95 but is not panded. When therefore the rate of de?ection _ of the craft is less than the rate of rendering or 50 a?‘ected appreciably by the movements of 90 vice versa, the interceptor valve is not central ised exactly between the two sets of nozzles, the and 94. Instead of the devices x1, x2 above described, the device ya in the train of devices y, 111, yz, Fig bellows 38a in the example being described re ure 14, may be used. This constitutes a means ceives a greater or lesser charge of air as the case may be and regulates accordingly the 55 acting in conjunction with a secondary relay, whereby the movement it receives from the out amount of rudder. going rod 90a of the previous device (1/1 is trans Whilst such a control is however being exer mitted substantially without any lag to stabilise cised, another factor is introduced by the action the interceptor valve 33 this being followed by a of the one-way rendering device x1, and the cen tralising means an by the effect of which the 60 relatively slow reverse movement for the purpose hereinafter described. For this purpose the rod interceptor valve is stabilised short of its centre 90a. is pivoted at IN to a segmental lever H2 position so that air is still supplied to the par and the outgoing rod I 13, which actuates the in ticular bellows concerned to maintain the rud terceptor valve 33 of the tiller relay, is also piv der. Each time that port rudder, for example, oted at I Hi to the segmental lever H2 at a posi is demanded by the gyroscope the spring pres tion close below the pivot ill. Attached also by sure of the ?nger 95 causes a small amount of the pivot M4 to the segment H2 is a two armed rendering of the damped member 84 of the de lever H5, lying in front of the segment H2 and vice r1, thereby reducing the length of the trans being fulcrummed on a shaft H6, its lower end mission m, x1, x2, so that when the interceptor 70 being of arcuate form and bent laterally under valve is in the stabilised position a certain the drum to form a valve plate I H in a manner amount of port rudder will remain on perma similar to that of the interceptor valve shield 33 nently, i. e., during the particular swing of the of the tiller relay. On the shaft i it is mounted a rotary impeller drum H8 formed with a series craft. The converse will of course occur when starboard rudderis called for. The application 75 of radial vanes or blades H9. Freely mounted 2,412,486 on the shaft H5, and secured to the side of the drum H1, is a toothed pinion £26 engaging with 12 mounted on a shaft IEI, the other end of which carries the pinion I20 which is in mesh, as be an arcuate toothed rack 529 on one end of the fore, with the toothed segment H2 segmental lever H2, and arranged beneath the peller drum H8 which carries the vanes H9 is connected by means of a spring I33 to the disc impeller drum is a hollowcasing I22 to the in ternal space of which is led a supply of com pressed air or other pressure ?uid by an inlet duct I23 that may be branched off the pipe 36, Figure 1, which supplies the bellows. The pres sure ?uid supplied through the inlet E23, issues from the casing I22 through a pair of nozzles I24 and I24a which are symmetrically arranged re spectively on each side of and beneath the aXis of the impeller drum and impinges upon the blades H9 of the drum. The arcuate valve plate II'I whichis also symmetrically arranged in the nor mal position shown, has its ends equally overlap ping a part of each nozzle £24, I24a, so as to leave a space through which the pressure ?uid, prefer ably compressed air, can pass out and impinge with equal force on the blades I I9 at both sides of the axis of the impeller drum. The arrangement The im I34 which forms part of the annulus I29. On the back of the disc I34 are ?xed a number of vanes £35 to form an air fan beater device and/or a ?uid damper. The action of this epicyclic rendering device is similar to that of 1/2, so that by a linear movement of. the incoming rod 98a, the outgoing rod H3 connected to the segmental lever H2 is directly moved as before, and the lever I I5 is swung bod ily to actuate the arcuate' valve H1. The im peller drum is now rotated to carry round the planet pinions I28, and at the same time tension the spring 533. By this movement the pinion I33 is rotated to drive the pinion I20 so as to draw back the outgoing rod I33 as before, and the an nulus I 29 is rotated by the overspeed drive to ro tate the disc I34 against the resistance of the damping and/or inertia device I35. Owing to the thus forms a pneumatic or other pressure relay resistance offered by the latter the movement of which in the position of the parts shown in the the pinioni2€l is increased and by the segment figureis nonoperative, but it may be pointed out i i2 draws back the outgoing rod 99 and stabilises that the impeller drum forms also an air beater the interceptor valve 33, as before. Subsequent fan, due to the movement of those vanes or blades ly, the unwinding action of the spring tends to which are not being immediately acted upon by restore the normal alignment of H8 and I34. the compressed air. Moreover, if desired a ?uid In any of the anticipating devices hereinbefore damper may be used. 30 mentioned the degree of anticipation is governed It is to be understood that during a ?ight the by two factors: rods 36, 90a and H3 will be moving backward (a) The anticipation due to the velocity of the and forward periodically due to the sinuous incoming movement is governed by the degree of ~course line. Thus when the incoming rod 96a damping, whether by ?uid or air, or both, of the moves in a linear direction for example, to the rotary damper element. left, which resultslfrom the rudder having been (17) The degree of anticipation due to the rate adjusted to give port rudder, the movement is im of change of velocity of the incoming movement i-parted directly without appreciable lag, to the is governed by the moment of inertia of the ro Outgoing rod H3, and stabilises the interceptor tary damper element. valve. By the same movement of the rod 90a, 7 As previously stated, by the rendering device the lever H5 is swung bodily around the shaft .112, Figure '14, the vessel is steered back to its is I It and moves the curved valve plate II‘! to the right intercepting the ?ow of air through the course, although not on its original line, but a modi?cation shown in Figure 16 of the device yz nozzle i24a,-and opening the nozzle I24, so that the impeller drum i I8 is now set into rotation in _, will provide means by which the vessel is brought a clockwise direction. The rotation of the drum rocks the segmental lever I I2 about its pivot H4 ‘in an anticlockwise direction and owing to the ~pivot IH being above the pivot H4 a differential movement is obtained which is equivalent to shortening the attachment of 98a to the rod I is, thereby putting on permanent port rudder. The effect of this permanent rudder .Will tend to straighten out the craft on its original course, but vnot on the same line but on a line parallel back to its original course line. The modi?ed arrangement for this purpose comprises a pair of devices a, .21, constituting a compound relay which are both somewhat simi lar to 11/2 in Figure 14, and the parts of 2 which are similar to ya are lettered the same as in Fig ure 14, whilst to the similar parts of 21 the in~ ~dex “(1" is added. The incoming rod 30a is pivoted at IIIa to the segmental lever I In of the device ziand the lever “Ed at one end is pivoted at II4a to one thereto. The leverage ratio of the parts is pref erably such that this shortening movement is end of a link I36, the other end of the link be ing pivoted at III to the segmental lever H2 of slow in relation to the previous actuation of the the device 2. outgoing rod to the left. The shaft IIGa freely carries a secondarcuate 'In the modi?cation shown in Figure 15, which 60 valve II M similar to that of .2 but the valve is armodi?ed elevation at a right angle to the de member is provided with a lateral segmental vice yz, Figure 14, the said device is supplemented extension I31 having a toothed rack I38 which “by an epicyclic mechanism. The segmental le engages with the pinion I20 carried on the shaft -ver H2, connected at I I I to the incoming rod 900; (not shown), the two armed lever I I5 and pinion 05 HG of the device 2. The other end of the lever Him is loosely pivoted on the shaft IISa. I 20, remain as before and are positioned at one end-of the epicyclic device, but the impeller drum The second arcuate valve II'Ia is adapted to 1 I8 and the arcuate valve I El, and the associated co-act with nozzles I24a by which compressed pneumatic casing I22 are arranged at the other 7 air or other fluid from the casing I22a acts upon side, the lever arm H5 being extended laterally 70 the blades II9a of the impeller drum H8. at Him to carry the arcuate valve H1. The operation of the apparatus is as follows: The impeller drum is adapted to carry a set of Assuming that the incoming rod 90a, is moved planet pinions I23 which are each engaged on to the left, the segment H20, and the lever H511, one side with an internally toothed annulus I29 pivot‘idly round the pinion 120a and the shaft and on the other side with a centre pinion I30 75 -»I IBa respectivelypand has no appreciable effect 2,412,486 14 , , upon the device 21. The movement of the rod 90a is however transmitted by the link I36 to the device 2 and directly onward to the outgoing rod H3, and at the same time swings the lever H5 bodily in an anti-clockwise direction around the shaft I I6, opening the arcuate valve II‘! as before, by which the impeller drum I I8 is set into helm. its central position only when the total amount of starboard ‘rudder has equalled the total I05 to the incoming rod ‘I5, the .L-shaped lever is extended beyond the fulcrum Ill? and they outgoing rod 90 is secured at I08 to such extendedl The original deviation is now under con» trol and the vessel is beginning to swing on to a course which will be parallel to the proper‘ line A1. By the time the vessel reaches A51 the vessel is on its course but not on the original‘. line, and the ?rst relay 2 is closed, but the second relay 21 is still in operation, because perrotation in a clockwise direction and by the ro inanent helm from the ?rst relay‘ still‘ active" tation of the pinion I26, swings the toothed rack From the position A6 to A", the first relay per I38 downwards and the second arcuate valve 10 manent helm is being reduced and permanent,v I lid to the right, so that the impeller drum I IBa helm is increasing by the second relay, and when‘ is also set into rotation in a clockwise direction. A8 is reached opposite helm is applied through During these movements the segment H2 is the ?rst relay and the second relay is nearly swung to the right shortening the relative posi back in its zero position, and the vessel is now tion 'of I36 and H3 as already described, but 15 nearly back to its proper course line. At A9 the when the second impeller drum IIBa is set into ?rst relay is at zero and the second relay is cor rotation, the segment “2a by the pinion IZUa rect for the further progress of the vessel along and oscillating round the fulcrum IMa again its course line A1. shortens the relative length of the connection A modi?cation is illustrated in Figure 1'7, of 99a to I36. either of the devices y, 1111, Figure 14. The mech As long as port rudder is applied, the drum I I8 anism is very similar to that in y or g1, and will be rotated in a clockwise direction, but similar parts have the same reference letters, when starboard rudder is applied the reverse and it will be seen that instead of attaching the. takes place, and it rotates in an anti-clockwise outgoing rod 90 to the .L-shaped arm I06 between, direction, but the valve II'Ia will be restored to 25 the fulcrum I8‘! and the pivotal connection at. amount of port rudder. Permanent rudder has however been applied by both these devices and stability will be reached when the permanent rudder due to the device .2 has been removed, the permanent rudder due to a1 is applied and the total starboard rudder equals the total port rud der that has been applied. By this method the end. the lower end of the lever I06 is swung to the,v left around the fulcrum IIll so that a free and». extended movement towards the right is given; to the outgoing rod 90 and tensioning the corre- vessel is brought back not only to its own course, . but also to the original track line, as shown in Figure 19. It must be understood that this ?g ure shows the commencement and recti?cation of a complete deviation on the track line, the sinuous curve which the craft actually follows 40 being however omitted. It may be noted that both sets of nozzles I24 and IZGa are of elongated form following the curve of the impeller drum, and either made as a single slot, or a line of small apertures, and further that the nozzles I24 are longer than l2lia. The object of this is to ensure that there will be a free flow of compressed air through I24 whether the torpedo or other craft is moving fast or slow, i. e., they will respond efficiently to >~ changes in speed conditions. The amount of opening of I24 should be proportional to the movement of link I36, but the nozzles I24a should only be sufficient to impart a predetermined ' maximum speed to the associated impeller drum. The outgoing rod II3 has a very small move ment in moving the arcuate valve In and the resulting movement subsequently causes the, movement of the tiller which in turn gives the movement to the incoming rod 90a. In the case when the compound relay above described, Figure 16, is used in train with the l/Vhen therefore a linear movement of the: incoming rod ‘I5 occurs to the left for example: sponding spring IIl9a to cause the follow-up; movement of the segment ‘I9. As the segment; ‘is overcomes the moment of inertia of the damp-ening device 84, as well as the dampening effect;_ the rendering action causes a movement of the: fulcrum ID'I towards the left, the lever I96 turning about the pivot I05 so that the outgoing rod. 99 is moved in the reverse direction i. e. to the: left. In order that the interceptor valve shield 33,, Figure 1 and the similar arcuate valves II'I, “la. in Figures 14 and, 16 will, during normal opera tion, both assume their central non-operative positions accurately when the vessel is on its course and either simultaneously or one after the other, a ?ne adjustment may be used as shown in Figure 18. For this purpose, the rod I I33: leading to the interceptor valve shield 33, and the out going rod II3 from either of the devices yz, Figures 14 and 16, are pivoted at H!!! and NH to one end of a link I42, the other end of which is pivoted at I43 to one arm of a bell crank lever fulcrumed at 154. The other arm I45 is movable over a ?xed quadrant I 46 and ?tted with a clamping screw I4? which may be tightened in any position in a slot I48 to which the bell crank arm I445 may have been adjusted. The pivots I40 and MI act as alternative ?oating devices 3/, 1111, Figure 14, in the manner in which, fulcrum points depending upon the amount of after a vessel has been deviated off its course, adjustment required for either or both of the it is brought back to its proper course line, is 65 rods “3.2 or II 3 to centralise the valves asso illustrated in Figure 19. ._ ciated therewith. Assuming that the vessel A should“ be follow By the use of the variousydevices according to ing the course line A1—A1, but by reason of a : the invention, all deviations of the vessel off its displacing force at A2 it commences ‘to deviate, the tiller relay is brought into action. At about the position A3 the ?rst relay 2 is opened and the tiller relay is closing. At A4 the ?rst relay 2: commences to give permanent hehn, and the second relay 21 also applying permanent helm opens, and at A5 both are’ inducing‘ permanent course are under automatic control and the suc cessive swinging movements of the vessel whilst it is being brought back to its course are smoothed out without there being any appreciable “hunt” ing” if any, andvthe rudder movements are de . signed to anticipate further de?ection of the. craft. agrees-6» 16 The invention may also be applied to control ating means connected to‘ the other lever, and the fore'and aft pitching movement of a pro‘ jectile for example,‘ and in that case an addi an outgoing transmission‘rod connected‘at one tional set of bellows and mechanism ‘associated therewithv would be employed; Means may also posite end to said valve, said mechanism forming end to the ?rst mentioned lever and at its op a delay action ‘train. ‘ e. In automatic mechanism of the kind indi cated, and having a rudder, a tiller lever for jectile when it attains the peak of its trajectory operating the rudder, air-actuated means, for and guide it downward, or when as with a sub moving the tiller lever, an interceptor valve for marine the direction has to be changed after a certain distance has been followed. For this l0 controlling the admission of air to the air-actu be employed to control the movement of a pro ated means, the combination of a mechanical purpose either a slip stream device may be used or the clamping screw Ill‘! may be adjusted, Fig ure 18. delay action train between the rudder and in terceptor, valve, said' train including resiliently When the latter ‘is to be used on a connected inertia and damping devices, a one projectile, the clamping screw may be adjusted by radio transmission. I claim: ' 1. In an automatic mechanism for checking and rectifying any deviation off-course of air borne craft or other vessels or projectiles such as way rendering device, a spring pressed centraliz ‘ing device, and pull and push rods, the several devices and rods being arranged and connected in series between the valve and tiller lever, where by the interceptor valve is ?rst closed after a for example aerial torpedoes, the combination 20 delayed action, after which by the rendering action of the resiliently connected devices in the of a pivoted rudder, a pivoted tiller lever for train, a further movement is given to the valve operating the rudder, a pair of servo-motors to to re-open it. swing the tiller lever on its pivot one way or 5. In automatic mechanism of the kind indi the other and thus actuate the rudder, means for supplying pressure ?uid to the servo-motors, a 25 cated, and having a rudder, a tiller lever for oper ating' the rudder, air actuated means for mov gyroscope controlled interceptor valve normally ing the tiller lever, an interceptor valve for con occupying a stabilized position and operable to trolling the admission of air to the air-actuated interrupt the air supply to one of the servo— means, the combination of a delay action trans-' motors and admit air supply to the other when a deviation occurs, and a mechanical follow-up 30 mission between the tiller lever and the inter ceptor valve, said transmission including a one mechanism forming a delay action train extended way rendering device, a spring pressed centraliz between the tiller lever and the interceptor valve ing device, and pull and push rods, said devices to stabilize the valve after it has been initially and rods being connected in series to form part operated to pass air to one of the servo-motors by a commencing deviation to adjust the helm 35 of mechanical delay action transmission, and -means whereby the centralizing and one-way and correct such deviation, said follow-up mecha rendering devices so mutually interact that the nism including a movement damping element, length of the mechanical train is varied depend an inertia element operatively connected and ing upon the swing of the vcraft steered by said combined with the damping element, incoming ' and outgoing transmission members connected to 40 rudder. 6. Automatic mechanism for rectifying any the tiller lever and interceptor valve respectively, deviation off-course of air-borne craft or other and means connecting the transmission members vessels comprising the combination of a rudder, to the combined inertia and damping elements so atiller lever for operating the rudder, a pair of that they resiliently cooperate. 2. Automatic mechanism for rectifying any 45 servo-motors for actuating, the tiller lever, an air pressure'duct for each servo-motor, a gyroscope deviation o?-course of air-borne craft or other operated interceptor valve normally occupying vessels, comprising the combination of a rudder, a tiller lever for operating the rudder, a, pair of servo-motors for actuating the tiller lever, an air pressure duct for each servo-motor, a gyro~ scope-operated interceptor valve normally oc 50 a stabilized position and operable to selectively control passage of air to the servo-motors, and a mechanical follow-up train between the tiller lever and interceptor valve, said train including two sets of series connected yielding means, a relay, an incoming rod from the tiller, lever con nected to one set of yielding means, an outgoing servo-motors, a mechanical, retarding follow-up train between the interceptor valve and the tiller 55 rod from the other set of yielding means con nected to the relay, and a link connecting the lever to stabilize the valve after‘ it has been ini relay to the interceptor valve, whereby the move tially actuated to pass air pressure to’ one of ment of the tiller lever by one of the servo the servo-motors, and yielding operating means motors is first ‘transmitted directly through the between the tiller lever and the rudder whereby the rudder is actuated to such an extent as will 60 yielding means, rods, relay and link to the in terceptor valve, to stabilize it, after which by the ailford an automatic balance between the forces rendering action of the two sets of yielding means imparted to the rudder from the tiller lever and a further movement is imparted to the intercep those which exist externally of the rudder. tor valve by the relay to vary the length of the 3. In automatic mechanism of the kind indi cated, and having a rudder, air actuated means 65 mechanical train‘and give a degree of perma nent rudder to bring the craft on to its course for moving the rudder, and an interceptor valve but not on the original course line;' for controlling the admission of air to said air 7; In automatic mechanism of the kind indi actuated means, the combination of a mechanical cated and having a rudder, a tiller lever for oper follow-up mechanism between the rudder moving means and the interceptor valve, said mechanism 70 ating the rudder, an‘ actuated means for mov > cupying a stabilized position and operable to se— lectively control passage of air pressure to the ing the tiller'lever, an interceptor valve for con trolling the admission of air to the air actuated means, the combination of a delay action trans including a pair of pivoted levers, ‘springs'oper atively connecting together said, levers,'a rotary damper and inertia device, gearing‘connecting the rotary device with one of the levers, an in _,coming transmission rod from the rudder actu 1,6 mission between the tiller lever‘and the inter ceptor valve,‘ said transmission including two sets 2,412,486~ 17 18 of yielding means, an’ incoming rod from the tiller lever connected to one set of yielding means, the retarding mechanism, an outgoing, rod ex-; tending from the one-way device to theinter means for series connecting the two sets of yield ceptor valve, a ?nger on said outgoing rod, a' pair of arms engaging the ?nger and pivotedto able means, a pair of relays, means for connect ing and gearing together both relays, a link con gether at a ?xed point, a ?xed zero center stopi necting one relay to one set of the yielding between the arms and spring means normallyv means, and an outgoing rod connecting the other drawing the arms towards each other and against the stop, whereby after the outgoing rod has vrelay to the interceptor valve, said transmission been moved in one direction or the other against; forming a mechanical train, by which the rudder is so controlled that the craft is brought back 10 the action of the spring drawn arms, said arms, , tending to return to the zero position, will cause to its original course line after a deviation there from. the one-way device to render. ‘ _ 8. In automatic mechanism of the kind indi 11. In an automatic mechanism of the kind cated and having a rudder, a tiller lever for oper indicated and having a rudder, a tiller lever for ating the rudder, air-actuated means for mov 15 operating the rudder, air-actuated means for ing the tiller lever, an interceptor valve for con moving the tiller lever, an interceptor valve for controlling the admission of air to the air-actu trolling the admission of air to the air-actuated ated means, the combination of a delay action means, the combination of a delay actiontrans mission between the tiller lever and the inter transmission between the tiller lever and the ceptor valve, said transmission including a seg 20 interceptor valve, said transmission including 'a ment-shaped lever having teeth on its larger segmental lever having teeth on its larger end end and pivoted on a ?xed point at its smaller and pivoted on a ?xed point at its smaller end, a shaft adjacent the toothed larger end, a pinion end, a lever arm also pivoted on said ?xed point, springs each connected at one end to the lever on said shaft in mesh with the teeth on the seg arm and connected at their other ends tov the 25 mental lever, a ?uid damper device on said shaft, segment shaped lever, an ingoing actuating an air beater fan mounted on the shaft, a T shaped lever fulcrumed at its lower end on the rod connecting the tiller lever to the free end segmental lever, a spring extending in opposite of the lever arm. an outgoing rod extending to the interceptor valve and connected'to the seg directions from each side of the T-shaped lever ment-shaped lever, an air beater fan, a ?uid 30 to the segmental lever, an incoming actuating rod connecting the free end of the T-shaped le-' damper, a ?xed shaft on which the fan and ?uid damper are respectively mounted, and a pinion ver with the tiller lever and an outgoing rod con necting said T-shaped lever at a point between on the shaft in mesh with the teeth of the seg ment-shaped lever so that the movement of the its fulcrum and its free end with said valve, said ingoing rod is transmitted to the outgoing rod 35 outgoing rod receiving a direct transmitting only after the resistance of the air fan, ?uid movement and, when the device renders by the damper and springs is overcome. action of the air fan, the outgoing rod receiving 9. In automatic mechanism of the kind indi a further increment of movement after a time lag interval. ‘I cated and having a rudder, a tiller lever for oper ating the rudder, air-actuated means for moving 40 12. In automatic means of the kind indicated the tiller lever, an interceptor valve for control and having a rudder, a tiller lever for operat ling the admission of air to the air-actuated ing the rudder, air-actuated means for moving means, the combination of a movement-retard the tiller lever and rudder, an interceptor valve ing mechanism, an incoming rod connecting said for controlling the admission of air to the air mechanism to the tiller lever, a one-way render 45 actuated means, the combination of resiliently ing device consisting of a segmental lever hav mounted means constituting delay action train ing teeth on its larger end and pivoted on a between the tiller lever and the interceptor valve, fixed point at its smaller end, a lever arm also said train including a segmental lever having pivoted at one end on said ?xed point, a shaft teeth on its larger end and pivoted on a ?xed on the opposite extremity of the lever arm, a 50 point at its smaller end, a shaft adjacent the toothed pinion On the said shaft in mesh with toothed larger end, a pinion on said shaft in the teeth on the segmental lever, a, rotary air mesh with the teeth on the segmental lever, a beating fan carried on ‘said shaft, a ?uid damper ?uid damper device mounted on said shaft, an carried on the shaft, a link connecting the seg air beater fan mounted on the shaft, a T-shaped mental lever to the retarding. mechanism, and lever fulcrumed at its lower end on the seg an outgoing rod from the lever arm to the in mental lever, a spring extending in opposite di terceptor valve, said retarding mechanism and rections from each side of the T-shapecl lever to rendering device forming a, mechanical train such the segmental lever, an incoming actuating rod that whether the incoming rod is pulled or connecting the free end of the T-shaped lever‘ pushed, both the segmental lever and the arm 60 with the tiller lever, an outgoing rod connected will ?rst be moved substantially in unison with with the valve, and means for connecting the the incoming rod driving the outgoing rod in outgoing rod at any one of a number of positions the same direction after which the device renders between the free end and the fulcrumed .end of said T-shaped lever. 7 by means of the damper and fan to shortenor lengthen the mechanical train. 10. In automatic mechanism of the kind'in 65 13. In automatic means of the kind indicate - and having a rudder, a tiller lever for operating dicated and having a rudder, a tiller lever for' the rudder, air-actuated means for moving the operating the rudder, air-actuated means for tiller lever, an interceptor valve for controlling moving the tiller lever, an interceptor valve for the admission of air to the air-actuated means, controlling the admission of air to the air-actu 70 a movement retarding mechanism, an incoming rod connecting said mechanism with they tiller ated means, the combination of a delay action transmission, said transmission including a move lever, and a relay connecting said mechanism‘ to the interceptor valve, said relay including a seg ment retarding mechanism and an incoming rod mental lever, a link connecting one end of the from the tiller lever to said mechanism, a one way rendering device connected in series with 75 segmental lever with said mechanism, a toothed ' 2,412,486 19 20 rack at the other end of the segmental lever, an impeller drum, a shaft carrying said drum, a pinion on the shaft in mesh with the toothed rack, vanes on the impeller drum, a pair of ?uid pressure supply nozzles by which air may be the tiller lever, and a relay device operatively ) caused to impinge on said vanes to rotate the drum in one direction or the other, a valve lever fulcrumed centrally on the drum shaft, an ar cuate valve on one end of the valve lever and connecting said mechanism to the interceptor valve, said relay device including an impeller drum, vanes on said drum, an air beater fan, a helical spring connecting the drum and the fan, an internally toothed annulus on the fan, planet Wheels carried by the drum and meshing ‘with the annulus, a sun pinion in mesh with the planet wheels, a shaft carrying the sun wheel, a pinion mounted between the nozzles and the drum, and 10 on the sun shaft, a segmental lever, a toothed rack on the larger end of the segmental lever, an outgoing rod pivoted to the other end of the an incoming rod pivoted to the smaller end of valve lever and also to the segmental lever and the segmental lever, an outgoing rod extend connected with the interceptor valve, the ar , ing to the interceptor valve also pivoted to the rangement being such that a linear movement of smaller end of the segmental lever, a valve lever the link actuates the outgoing rod to close the of right angled form mounted on the sun wheel interceptor valve and at the same time swings shaft and pivoted at one end to the segmental the arcuate valve to one side to interrupt the lever, an arcuate valve at the other end of the passage of pressure fluid from one of the nozzles valve lever covering a part of the periphery of and open the other nozzle to rotate the drum the impeller drum, and a pair of pressure ?uid which through said pinion moves the outgoing supply nozzles for driving the impeller drum in rod in the reverse direction to again open the one direction or the other depending upon the interceptor valve and cause a degree of perma position of the arcuate valve which is interposed nent helm to be imparted to the rudder. between the nozzles and the impeller drum, the 14. In automatic mechanism of the kind indi arrangement being such that the speed for clos cated and having a rudder, a tiller lever for ing the interceptor Valve will be fast as compared operating the rudder, air-actuated means for with that for closing such valve when giving moving the tiller lever, an interceptor valve for permanent rudder. controlling the admission of air to the air-actu 16. In automatic means of the kind indicated ated means, a movement retarding mechanism, an incoming rod connecting said mechanism with 30 and having a rudder, a tiller lever for operating the rudder, air-actuated means for moving the the tiller lever, and a double relay device con rudder tiller lever, an interceptor valve for con~ necting said mechanism to the interceptor valve, trolling the admission of air to the air-actuated said double relay device including a primaiy and means, and resiliently connected means between secondary bladed impeller drums, a shaft sup porting each drum, a pair of pressure ?uid sup 35 the tiller lever and the interceptor valve, said re siliently connected means including a segmental ply nozzles for each drum, a valve lever ful-, lever having teeth on its larger end and pivoted crumed on the primary drum shaft, an arcuate on a ?xed point at its smaller end, a shaft adja valve on one end of said valve lever interposed cent the larger end of the lever, a pinion on said between the primary drum and the related ?uid pressure nozzles, a toothed pinion on each drum 40 shaft in mesh with the teeth on the segmental lever, a fluid damper device on said shaft, an shaft, a segmental lever having teeth at its larger air-beater fan mounted on the shaft, a T-shaped end meshing with each associated pinion, an in lever fulcrumed on the segmental lever, a spring coming rod pivoted to the smaller end of the extending in opposite directions from each side segmental lever of the secondary drum, a link freely connected at one end of the secondary 45 of the lever, to the segmental lever, an incoming actuating rod connected to the T-shaped lever drum shaft, and pivoted at its other end to the at a point on one side of its fulcrum, and an out smaller end of the segmental lever of the sec going rod connected to the free end of the T ondary drum, a connecting link between the shaped lever on the other side of the fulcrum, smaller ends of both segmental levers, an out, going rod connected to the other end of the valve 50 whereby the incoming rod may transmit a free lever of the primary drum, and to the associ ated segmental lever and to the interceptor valve, a bell crank lever fulcrumed on the secondary drum shaft, an arcuate valve at one end of the movement to the outgoing rod, but when the two levers render owing to the movement of the fulcrum of the T-shaped lever, the outgoing rod receives a slow and retarded reverse movement. 17. In automatic means of the kind indicated bell crank lever arranged between the secondary 55 and having a rudder, a tiller lever for operating drum and the associated nozzles, and a toothed the rudder, air-actuated means for moving the rack on the other end of the bell crank lever in tiller lever, an interceptor valve for controlling mesh with the pinion on the shaft of the primary the admission of air to the air-actuated means, a drum, the arrangement being such that when the arcuate valve of the primary drum is opened 60 mechanical delay action train between, and in operative connection with, both the tiller lever and the related drum is rotated the movement and the interceptor valve, said train including transmitted through the bell crank lever causes yielding devices and a zero stop, means for ?nely opening of the valve of the secondary drum, the adjusting the interceptor valve in relation to the rotation of the secondary drum closing the valve said yielding devices, said adjusting means in of the primary drum and then re~opening it to 65 cluding an adjustable link connected in said train, reverse the rotation of the primary drum to a pivoted lever connected at one end to said link, thereby close the valve associated with the sec and an adjustable clamping device at the other ondary drum for the purpose described. end of the lever whereby upon the movement of 15. In an automatic mechanism of the kind in— the pivoted lever and link positions of the inter dicated and having a rudder, a tiller lever for 70 ceptor valve and‘ the zero stop in the mechan operating the rudder, air-actuated means for ical train may be mutually and accurately ad~ moving the tiller-lever, an interceptor valve for justed. . ' controlling the admission of air to the air-actu 18. In automatic means of the kind indicated ated means, a movement retarding mechanism, and having a rudder, a double ended tiller lever an incoming rod connecting said mechanism with 75 for operating the rudder, a yielding transmission 21 2,412,486 between each end of the tiller lever and the rud der, said yielding transmission including a pair of two-armed levers, an operating connection from one arm of each two-armed lever to the 22 crank levers, one arm of each bell crank being actuated from the related end of the tiller lever, a linkage mechanism between the pair of levers and the rudder, said linkage mechanism includ ing a longitudinal rod, a sprial spring connected with one end of the longitudinal rod, a ?xed base for said spring centered on a longitudinal axis respective end of the tiller lever, a center rod, a link extending from the other arm of each lever and connected to the center rod, a spring bear ing for one end of the center rod, a triangular passing through the rudder axis, links extending linked frame having a base part mounted cen in opposite directions from the longitudinal rod trally upon a ?xed point in line with an axis 10 and pivoted to the respective other arms of the passing through the center of the rudder and the bell crank levers, a pair of toggle links connected spring bearing, a link pivoted at one end to the at one end to, and extending in opposite direc end of the center rod and at the other to the tions from the longitudinal rod, a Pair of lever apex of the triangular frame, an actuating double arms centered at one end on the ?xed base and armed lever for said rudder, and a transmission 15 connected to the other ends of the toggle links, member from each end of the base part of the helical springs arranged on opposite sides of the triangular frame to the respective ends of the longitudinal rod, adapted to act upon the toggle rudder double armed lever, whereby for a con links, a tension rod carrying said helical springs, stant amplitude of movement from the tiller and a self-adjusting link mechanism arranged lever, the rudder is actuated but is allowed to 20 between the longitudinal rod and the rudder. independently adjust itself to the forces acting 21. Automatic mechanism for steering air externally thereupon. ' borne craft and other vessels comprising in com 19. In automatic means of the kind indicated bination a rudder, a two armed tiller lever for and having a pivoted rudder, a double-ended operating said rudder, a pair of servo-motors for tiller lever for operating the rudder, a yielding 25 operating the tiller lever, selective gyroscope con transmission between each end of the tiller lever trolled fluid pressure means for actuating one or and the rudder, said yielding transmission in the other of the servo-motors, a pair of bell cluding a pair of tWo armed levers, an opera* crank levers, one arm of each bell crank lever ing connection from one arm of each two armed being actuated from the related end of the tiller lever to the respective ends of the tiller lever, a 30 lever, a linkage mechanism between the pair of spring bearing, a ?xed base supporting said bear levers and the rudder, said linkage mechanism ing and disposed central to an axis passing including a longitudinal rod, a spiral spring con» through the spring bearing and the rudder pivot, nected with one end of the longitudinal rod, 2. a longitudinal rod mounted at one ‘end in the ?xed base for said spring centered on a longi spring bearing, links at the opposite end of the 35 tudinal axis passing through the rudder axis, lat longitudinal rod extending in opposite directions eral links extending in opposite directions from therefrom and connected to the other arm of the longitudinal rod and pivoted to the other each of the two-armed levers, a pair of toggle arms of the bell crank levers, a pair of toggle links each pivoted at one end to the longitudinal links connected at one end to and extending in rod, means whereby the other ends of the links 40 opposite directions from the longitudinal rod, a are under pressure, a triangular linked frame pair of lever arms centered at one end on the having a base part mounted centrally upon a ?xed ?xed base and connected to the other ends of the point in line with an axis passing through the toggle links, helical springs arranged on opposite pivotal axis of the rudder and the spring bear sides of the longitudinal rod adapted to act upon ing, a link pivoted at one end to the second men 45 the toggle links, a tension rod carrying the helical tioned end of the longitudinal rod and at the springs, parallel levers, one of said parallel levers‘ other to the apex of the triangular frame, a dou being movable about the rudder axis and the ble armed lever on said rudder, and a transmis other being movable about a second axis, links sion member from each end of the base part connecting said parallel levers and forming a of the triangular frame to the respective ends parallelogram therewith, a rod connecting the of the double armed rudder lever, whereby for a parallelogram to the lateral links and the longi constant amplitude of movement from the tiller tudinal rod to swing the parallelogram and also lever, the rudder is actuated but is allowed to stress the helical and spiral springs, the arrange independently adjust itself to the forces acting ment being such that for the constant amplitude externally thereupon. of movement imparted to the swinging rod, such 20. Automatic mechanism for steering air movement will be transmitted to the rudder borne’craft and other vessels comprising in com through the parallelogram as will alloy the rud bination a rudder, a two armed tiller lever for der to automatically assume a position that will operating said rudder, a pair of servo-motors for balance the spring force against the external operating the tiller lever, selective gyroscope con forces acting on the rudder. trolled ?uid pressure means for actuating one or the other of the servo-motors, a pair of bell WALTER GORDON WILSON.