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POWER svsijéiv'l'é ' ' '
Dec- 1'0, 1946.
Filed Oct. 14, 1943
Mal/nae [Jo/re: 00a’ 7
lee A. ,‘f/(9ore.
GEM-ii bll l‘lUUl H
Patented Dec. 10, 1946
Maurice F. Jones, Wilkinsburg, and Lee A.
Kilgore, Forest Hills, Pa., assignors to West
inghouse Electric Corporation, East Pittsburgh,
Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application October 14, 1943, Serial No. 506,198
7 Claims.
Our invention relates to the polyphase feeder
arrangement for the squirrel-cage track-member
of a linear motor, and particularly a linear motor
(Cl. 172-290)
metallurgical arts, the track-rails and the third
rails would all be made of steel or other magnetiz
able material which has a considerable impedance
to the flow of alternating currents at 60 or 80
in which the movable element is the polyphase
motored towing-car of an electric catapult for Cl cycles, which is the frequency-range at present
launching aircraft, in the launching-arrange
preferred. This impedance takes the form, not
only of a high reactance because of the high mag
netic ?uxes which traverse the magnetizable
'1 '1 plication of Frank B. Powers, Serial No. 473,843,
members, but particularly a very high resistance
?led January 28, 1943, and assigned to the West
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company.
10 loss in the form of hysteresis and eddy-current
The general arrangement consists of a long
Even aside from the use of magnetizable mate
track-member having two track-rails, a lami
rials for the track-rails and the third-rails, even
nated squirrel-cage core between the two track
though these rails were of low-impedance non
rails, and a third-rail structure on each side of
magnetizable material, the reactance of a three
the two track-rails, and a polyphase-motored
phase supply-system in which the phases were
towing-car having wheels which run on the
as widely separated as the two outside third-rail
track-rails, a laminated polyphase-wound core
structures, with the track-rails constituting the
which cooperates with the squirrel-cage core of
;lment which is described and claimed in an ap
intermediate phase, would be fairly high, and
the track, and a current-collecting means for
cooperating with the third-rail structure on each 20 the reactance between the two outside phases
would not be the same as the reactance between
side of the car, whereby two of the phases are ob
the middle phase and either one of the two out
side phase, so that there would be a problem of
an undesirably high reactance and an unbal
Preferably, the track-sections are made in sub
stantialy completely prefabricated sections which 25 anced reactance.
An object of our present invention, therefore, is
are mounted on skids for easy installation, and
to provide a three-phase feeder-system for an
which are complete, with the third-rail structures
electri?ed track of the type described, in which a
carried by the track-structure, so that the track
set of three three-phase feeder-conductors of
sections are ready to be hauled into place, in a
hollow trench dug in a ?ying-?eld, and ready for 30 non-magnetizable material is disposed along each
side of the track. Phase-A of the feeder-group on
service as soon as the track-sections are joined
one side of the track is connected, at frequent
together. The general structural design-fea
intervals, to the third-rail structure at that side;
tures of the linear-motor catapult, as just de
another phase, such as phase-C of the other set of
scribed, are described and claimed in an, applica
tion of Maurice F. Jones, Serial No. 506,197, ?led 35 feeders, on other side of the track, is connected,
tained from the two third-rail structures, while
a third phase is obtained from the track-rails.
October 14, 1943.
Our present invention has to do particularly
with the means for getting the three-phase power
at frequent intervals, to the third-rail structure
on that side of the track; and a plurality of sets
of three three-phase non-magnetizable cross
connectors are provided to extend under the
track-rails and to join the corresponding phases
of the two sets of feeder-conductors at a plural
ity of spaced points along the track, with connec
into the track-member, including the third-rail
structures, and thence into the towing-car. It is
quite desiralble that all three phases of the three~
phase power should be fairly well balanced, and
tions from a third phase, such as phase-B of each
that the impedance-losses in the feeder-system
of the sets of cross-connectors to the track-rails
should be reasonably low, because it is desirable,
for safety reasons, to use a fairly low voltage of 45 of the track.
A further object of our invention is to utilize,
several hundred volts, which means the use of
for each set of three three-phase feeder-conduc
rather high currents which are necessary to ener
tors, and for each set of three three-phase
gize a towing-car of su?‘icient power to be of any
cross-connectors, ?at strips of non-magnetizable
practical use in aiding in the launching of air
craft. In fact, the currents utilized are so high 50 material, with their ?at sides closely spaced from
that they are very much higher than the highest
each other, The close spacing of the strips con
current ever heretofore collected for feeding into
siderably reduces their reactance, while the use
a moving car in any railway system.
of conductors in the form of ?at strips, as dis
In any practical construction, such as would
tinguished from round-cross-sectioned cables, is
ordinarily be built, in the present state of the 55 advantageous in making a compast three-phase
feeder-arrangement having a general overall
cross-section approximating that of a circle, while
maintaining broad-areaed, short, air-gaps be
tween the several phases. While this ?at-strip
construction is not essential, it is a desirable fea Cl
ture of our invention, in its more speci?c aspects.
Further objects of our invention relate to the
various details of construction, such as utilizing
laminated or ?exible non-magnetizable strip
conductors for the feeder-phases which are con
-As shown in Figs. 3 and 4, each of the core
supporting cross-members I08 has a dovetailed
groove I I0 cut in its upper surface, for making a
dovetail joint with a plurality of vertical, longi
tudinally extending magnetizable laminations
which constitute a laminated core-member H2.
The core-laminations H2 are clamped together,
at each end of the stack of laminations, that is,
along each side of the core, by means of one of
10 two angle-iron clamping-pieces I I3 which are se
nected to the respective third-rail structures,
cured to the top ?anges of the several cross-ties
while utilizing solid-bar strips for the other
feeder-phases, the ?exible construction ‘being ad
clamping angle-pieces II3 thus constitute longi
I04 which make up that track-section. The core
tudinally extending members, extending longi
vantageous in permitting the ?exible strip to
readily buckle, as a result of thermal expansions 15 tudinally of the track, and rigidly joining to
gether the various cross-ties I04 of each prefab
and contractions, without buckling the third-rail
ricated track-section. The laminated core II2
structure to which the ?exible strip is connected
of each track-section has a plurality of trans
at two 01' more points. As a practical detail, the
versely extending slots I I4 therein, which receive
various sets of three-phase cross-connectors
which are disposed underneath the track-rails are 20 squirrel-cage bars II5, the ends of which are
joined, on each side of the core, by suitable end
made of three flat strip-conductors disposed one
connections I23.
above the other, with the top and bottom con
At each end of each of the track-sections, as
ductors transposed, at some point intermediate
shown on the right-hand side of Fig, 3, a ?exible
between the track-rails, and with the central con
ductor connected to the two track-rails.
25 electrical connector I36 is provided, for continu
ing the end-connections of the squirrel-cage
With the foregoing and other objects in view,
winding from one track-section to the next. The
our invention consists in the combinations, sys
flexible end-connections I36 are provided with
tems, methods, apparatus and parts, hereinafter
holes I3‘I for bolting on to the corresponding end
described and claimed, and illustrated in the ac
companying drawing, wherein
30 connector of the next track-section.
Each track-section TI, T2, etc., also carries, as
Figure l is a longitudinal plan-view of a por
tion of a landing or launching ?eld, with our
linear-motor catapult installed,
a prefabricated part thereof, a plurality of in~
sulatedly mounted third-rail structures, one on
each side of the track, outside of the respective
Fig. 2 is a side view thereof, showing the track
element of the linear motor, installed in a trench 35 track-rails I06. In the illustrated form of the
invention, each third-rail structure is in the form
or shallow ditch dug in the ?ying-?eld,
of two angle-iron rails I4 I, having vertical ?anges
Fig. 3 is an end View of the linear-motor, in
I42 which are spaced from each other, and hav
cluding both the car-element and the track ele
ing top~?anges I43 which extend out away from
ment in a trough in the ?ying-?eld, with half
of the equipment shown in transverse section, as 40 the space between the two vertical ?anges I 42.
The pair of third-rails I4I, on each side of the
indicated by the section-line III-III in Fig. 1,
track-structure, is mounted on a plurality of U
Fig. 4 is a plan view of a part of a track-section,
shaped supporting-brackets I44, which are sup
with parts broken away to show the construc
ported on insulators I45 which are, in turn, sup
tion, and
Fig_ 5 is a detail of one of the sets of three 45 ported from the cross-ties I04 of the track
three-phase feeders, showing the laminated
feeder-phase which is connected to the adjacent
third-rail structure.
As shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the track-element is
laid in a shallow ditch or trough IOI, in a land
the ends of which are turned up, as indicated at
ing-?eld or launching-?eld, so that the top of
the track will come approximately flush with the
surface of the landing-?eld. The track-element,
as illustrated, is made up in the form of a plu
I48, to facilitate hauling the various track~sec
tions into place on the landing-?eld. The chan
In the illustrated form of embodiment of the
invention, the cross-ties I04 of each track-sec
tion are mounted on channel-sectioned skids I41,
nel-member ‘skids I 41 also constitute a conven
ient abutment for the lower ends of the third
rality of at least partially prefabricated track 55 rail insulators I45, which are shown, in Fig. 3,
as being mounted on plates I49 secured within
sections TI, T2, T3, etc., said track-sections hav
the channel-member skids I41, thus being sup
ing squared-off abutting ends which are joined
ported from the bottoms of the cross-ties I04,
together in a straight, line. The movable element
to which the skids are connected.
of the linear motor is a low, ?at, elongated, poly
phase-motored towing-car I03, which rides on 60 In accordance with our invention, each track
section has two sets of three three-phase feeder
the track-element.
conductors FA, FE and FC, extending the entire
As shown in Figs. 2 and 3, each track-section
length of the track-section, a complete set of
TI, T2, etc., comprises a plurality of cross-ties
three feeders being disposed along each side of
I04, which are shown in the form of steel H
beams. The top ?ange of each cross-tie I04 has 65 the track-section, outside of the respective third
rail structures I4I. Preferably, the feeder-con
two track-rail seats I05, for receiving the two
ductors FA, FE and PC are ?at, vertically dis
track-rails I06, respectively. Preferably, the
posed strips of copper or other non-magnetizable
track-rail seats I05 are bordered, on the outside,
conductors, having their ?at sides closely spaced
by abutments I01 which are carried by the cross
ties for determining the alignment or spacing of
from each other, in order to reduce the reactance.
the track-rails I06. Between the two track-rail
The extreme ends of the feeders FA, FE and FC
seats I05, each cross-tie I04 carries a core-sup
of each track-section may be bent out a little
porting cross-member I08, which is mounted on
further apart from each other, in order to facili
the top of the cross-tie, as by means of support
tate the making of electrical end-connections
ing-blocks I09.
75 from one track-section to the next.
“ ?owan was '
seat I05 and the abutment I01 at the top of the
cross-tie I04. This provides a simple and effec
tive fastening-means whereby the track-rails I 06
The phase-conductor FA of the three-phase
feeder-assembly FA, FE and FC on one side of the
track-section is disposed adjacent to the outer
rail I4I of the third-rail assembly on that side
of the track-section, and is electrically and me
chanically secured thereto, at a plurality of
points, as by being bolted by the same bolts or
screws I50 which secure the U-shaped support
ing-brackets I44 to the third-rails I4I. On the
may be quickly fastened into place, with a mini
mum of lost motion, when the track-sections are
assembled in the ?eld.
As shown in Fig. 3, each track-section is also
provided with lateral guard-members I6I which
are carried by the track-section supporting
other side of the track-section, another phase, 10 structure, as, for example, by the two skid-mem
bers 141, for guarding the track-section while it
indicated by the phase-conductor PC of the
is being put into place within its trough IOI in
feeder-assembly FA, FE and FC, is disposed ad
the ?ying-?eld, and also to prevent dirt and
jacent to its corresponding outer third-rail I 4|,
rubble from falling into the track-section from
and similarly secured thereto at a, plurality of
the sides of the trough. The two guard-mem
bers I6I have inwarly turned top-flanges I62
At a plurality of points along the entire track,
which are substantially ?ush with the top of the
preferably once for each of the track-sections TI,
T2, T3, etc., a set of three three-phase cross-con
The top surfaces of all of the parts of the en
nectors I5I, I52 and I53 are disposed underneath
tire track-structure are preferably substantially
the track-rails I 06 and the track-core II2 for
flush with the level of the ?ying-?eld. The tops
connecting the corresponding phases of the two
horizontal, and lying one above the other in
of the two third-rails I4I of each of the third
rail assemblies, four rails in all, are preferably
covered and protected by wooden or other insu
lating cap-strips I63, the tops of which are ap
proximately ?ush with the landing-?eld. The
tops of the track-rails I06 are also preferably
closely spaced relation, except that the top and
approximately flush with the landing-?eld. The
feeder-assemblies FA, FE and F0 on the two
sides of the track. Preferably, each set of three
three-phase cross-connectors I5I, I52 and I53
consists of ?at strips of non-magnetizable con
ducting material, disposed with their ?at sides
top of the squirrel-cage core “.2 is also approxi
bottom conductors I5I and I53 are transposed,
somewhere in the center of the track-section, so 30 mately ?ush or level with the flying-?eld, but
preferably very slightly higher than the ?ying
that they may be conveniently connected to the
inner and outer phase-conductors of the two sets
?eld, as indicated in Fig. 3.
Preferably, also, two wooden beams or other
of feeders FA, FE and F0 on the two sides of the
insulating ?llers I64 are utilized, to partially
track-section. The intermediate cross-connector
fill the space between the end of the squirrel
I52, which is connected to the two intermediate
cage winding and the inner sides of the rail-heads
phase-conductors FB of the two sets of feeders,
of the two track-rails I06, in each track-section.
is centrally connected, by means of a strip-con
Since the track-core H2 is very slightly higher
ductor I54, to the bottom ?ange of one of the
than the level of the rail I06, the top surface
cross-ties I04, and thence to the two track-rails
of the wooden block I64 may be slightly inclined,
I06 which are supported by the top ?ange of said
as indicated at I65.
As shown in Fig. 5, we prefer to utilize a spe
The ends of the track-sections TI, T2, etc., are
squared off, as shown at 166 in Figs. 1 and 4, and
cial construction for the feeder-conductor which aligned by means of dowel-pin joints I61, as
is disposed adjacent, and connected at frequent
points, to the outer third-rail I4l on that side of 45 shown in Fig. 3, the successive sections being
tightly drawn together by means of turnbuckles
the track-section. We refer to the feeder-phase
I68 which engage notches not shown which are
FA on one side of the track, and the feeder phase
cut in the‘bottom ?anges of the core-clamping
F0 on the other side. As shown in Fig. 5, the
feeder-phase which is connected to the third-rail
angle-irons II3 of the frame-structures of the
is made of a laminated strip-construction, as 50 several track-sections.
The towing-car I03, which rides on the track
shown at I55 in Fig. 5, or otherwise composed of
a plurality of pieces of thin conductors, whereby
element of the linear motor, as shown in Figs.
said strips are relatively ?exible, so as to prevent
1, 2 and 3, comprises a long ?at top-plate I1I
‘bending the associated third-rail when said ?ex
which is provided with a large number of lateral
ible feeder-strip expands and contracts as a re
notches I12 for receiving a large number of
sult of heating because of the electric current
wheels I13. It is also provided with a number
?owing therein. The remaining phases of the
of pairs of holes I14, between which is machined,
feeder-strips FA, FE and FC, on both sides of the
on the underside, a number of transversely ex
track, are of solid-bar construction, of a good
tending dovetail grooves I15 for making a clove
conducting, non-magnetic material such as 60 tail joint with a large number of vertical, 1on
gitudinally extending laminations or magnetiz
A special rail-fastening means is shown, in Fig.
able core-punchings I11 which make up the pri
3, for securing the two track-rails or running_
mary-winding core I11 of the linear motor. The
rails I06 to the several cross-ties I04, with the
stack of laminations I11 of the primary-winding
outer edges of the bottom ?anges of the rails in 65 core are clamped in place by means of two, lon
contact with the rail-aligning abutments I01.
gitudinally extending angle-irons I18 which are
This special rail-fastening means includes a.
plate-like member I38 having one edge which is
secured to the underside of the top-plate I1I.
engageable at the junction between the rail-web
and the base~?ange of the rail, at the side of each
track-rail opposite to the side which is engaged
by said abutment I01. The plate-like member
of the top-plate I1I, on the underside of said
plate, are two side-pieces I80 carrying inwardly
Extending longitudinally along the lateral edges
extending stub-shafts
I84 on which the car
wheels I13 are journalled.
The car wheels I13 are disposed, at frequent
I38 is'drawn down tightly toward the cross-tie
intervals, along the length of the car I03, and
I04 by means of a bolt or screw I 39, which forces
the rail into tight engagement with both the rail 75 are provided with broad rims which roll on the
comprising a pair of track-rails, a set of three
tops of the track-rails I06. Most of the wheels
are un?anged, but the four wheels at the front
three-phase feeder-conductors disposed along
and rear of the car are provided with ?anges I85,
each side of the track, a plurality of sets of three
which, contrary to usual railway practice, are
three-phase cross-connectors extending under
the track-rails and joining the corresponding
on the outside of these guide-wheels, so as to en.
gage the outer edges of the rail-heads of the
track-rails I 06.
The primary core I" which is carried by the
phases of the two sets of feeder-conductors at a
plurality of spaced points along the track, con
nections between a ?rst phase of each of said
sets of cross-connectors and the track-rails of
10 the track, a three-phase motored car operative
ing I90, which is shown in Fig. 3,
on said track-rails and deriving one phase of its
The towing-car I03 is also provided with two
electrical energy from said track-rails, a current
current-collecting mechanisms, enclosed in hous
collecting means on one side of the car for deriv
ings I9I disposed one on each side of the car.
ing a second phase of its electrical energy from
Each of the current-collecting mechanisms com
the corresponding phase of the set of feeder-con
prises a plurality of third-rail shoes I92 which
ductors on that side of the track, and a second
are carried ‘by the downwardly extending plows
current-collecting means on the other side of
or support-members I93 which extend through
the car for deriving a third phase of the set of
slots between the pair of cap-strips I03 at each
feeder-conductors on that side of the track.
side of the track, so that the two sets of third
2. The invention as de?ned in claim 1, char
rail shoes I92, on the two sides of I the car I03, 20
acterized by each set of feeder-conductors com
engage the two pairs of third-rails MI, one pair
prising three ?at strips of non-magnetizable con
on each side of the track. In this manner, two
car is provided with a three-phase primary wind
of the phases of the three-phase supply are led
into the primary windings I90 of the car, the
third phase being obtained from the track-rails _,
I06 in a manner which is common railway prac
tice. The special collector-shoe design, which
Was developed for the purpose of handling the
ducting-material with the ?at sides of successive
strips closely spaced from each other.
3. The invention as de?ned in claim 1, char
acterized by each set of feeder-conductors and
each set of cross-connectors comprising three ?at
strips of non-magnetizable conducting-material
with the ?at sides of successive strips closely
unprecedently high currents which had to be col
lected, constitutes the subject-matter of an ap 30 spaced from each other.
4. The invention as de?ned in claim 1, char
plication of Maurice F. Jones, Serial No. 506,199,
acterized by each set of feeder-conductors and
?led October 14, 1943.
each set of cross-connectors comprising three ?at
The precise arrangement of the three-phase
strips of non-magnetizable conducting-material
cross-connectors I5I, I52 and I53, under the
track-rails I05 and the track-core H2, is shown 35 with the ?at sides of successive strips closely
spaced from each other, the three strips of each
more clearly in Fig. 4, wherein it is seen that
set of cross-connectors being disposed one above
these cross-connectors are made in subdivided
another, the upper and lower cross-connectors
parts, joined together under the middle of the
being transposed at some intermediate point, the
track-section. Thus, the phase-A cross-connec
tor I5I appears at the top, as it comes from one 40 phase which is connected to the track-rails being
the middle strip of both of the sets of feeder
side of the track, and at the bottom of the group
conductors and all of the sets of cross-connec
of cross-connectors coming from the other side
of the track, the two phase-A track-connectors
5. A three-phase system comprising a track
I 5| being joined together, at the longitudinal
center-line of the track-section, as indicated at 45 comprising a pair of relatively high-impedance
track-rails, a relatively high-impedance third
200. A similar joint 202 is made at the longi
rail structure on each side of the track, a three
tudinal center of the track-section between the
phase~motored car operative on said track-rails
two phase-C cross-connectors I 53, which come
and having current-collecting means engaging
from the bottom of the stack of cross-connectors,
on one side of the stack, and the top of the stack 50 said third-rail structures, a set of three three
phase feeder-conductors of non-magnetizable
of cross-connectors, on the other side of the
conducting-material disposed alongside of each
track, as plainly shown in plan view in Fig. 4.
third~rai1 structure, one set of feeder-conductors
At the center where the joints 200 and 202 are
having one phase thereof connected to its associ
made, the two phases A and C of the cross-con
ated third-rail structure, the other set of feeder
nectors I5I and I53 are displaced out of vertical
conductors having a second phase thereof con
alignment with each other. The two interme
nected to its associated third-rail structure on
diate, or phase-B, cross-connectors I52 are bent
the other side of the track, a plurality of sets of
out of the vertical plane of the stack of cross
three three-phase cross-connectors extending
connectors, near the center of the track-section,
as indicated at 203 and 204, and these two ends 60 under the track-rails and joining the correspond
ing phases of the two sets of feeder-conductors
are joined by a short conductor 205 which is, in
at a plurality of spaced points along the track,
turn, joined, by the previously mentioned con
and connections between the third phase of each
ductor I54, to the bottom ?ange of one of the
of said sets of cross-connectors and the track
cross-ties I04.
rails of the track.
While we have illustrated our invention in but
6. A track-element of a polyphase linear motor,
a single form of embodiment, we desire it to be
understood that this embodiment is only by way
comprising a. plurality of at least partially prefab
of illustration, and that our invention, in its
ricated track-sections, each track-section com
prising a supporting-structure squared at the
ends for abutting with the next track-section,
broader aspects, is susceptible of many changes
by way of addition, simpli?cation, and substi
tution of equivalents. We desire, therefore, that
our appended claims shall be accorded the broad
est construction consistent with their language.
We claim as our invention:
means for aligning and drawing together the
abutting track-sections, said supporting-struc
ture of each track-section comprising a plurality
of cross-ties, said cross-ties having means for
1. A three-phase system comprising a track 75 seating and aligning two track-rails, a third-rail
searcn mom‘
v1 3.5L.
section having a laminated squirrel-cage core
structure at each side of each track-section, out
side of the track-rails, insulators for supporting
structure connected to said cross-ties between
said third-rail structures from said supporting
the track-rails, a relatively high-impedance
structure, a plurality of other phase-conductors
third-rail structure at each side of each track
alongside of each third-rail structure at each 5 section, outside of the track-rails, insulators for
side of each track-section,po1yphase electric consupporting said third-rail structures from said
nection-means between successive track-sections
supporting-structure, a set of polyphase non
for the third-rail structure and the other phasemagnetizable feeder-conductors alongside of each
conductors on each side of the track-element,
third-rail structure at each side of each track
each of a plurality of said track-sections having 10 section, one set of feeder-conductors having one
polyphase cross-connectors extending under the
phase thereof connected to its associated third
track-rails and joining corresponding phases of
rail structure, the other set of feeder-conductors
the third-rail structures and the other phasehaving a second phase thereof connected to its
conductors on opposite sides of the track, the
associated third-rail structure on the other side
third-rail structures being of two different phases, 15 0f the track-section, polyphase electric connec
and connecting-means between a third phase of
tion-means between successive track-sections for
said cross-connectors and a track-rail.
7; A linear motor comprising a squirrel-cage
track-element and a polyphase-motored car 00-
the feeder conductors on each side of the track
element, each of a plurality of said track-sections
having polyphase non-magnetizable cross-con
operating therewith; said track-element compris- 20 nectors extending under the track-rails and join
ing a plurality of at least partially prefabricated
ing corresponding phases of the feeder-conductors
' track-sections, a pair of relatively high-imped-
on opposite sides of the track-section, and con
ance track-rails therefor, each track-section
necting-means between a third phase of said
comprising a supporting-structure squared at the
cross-connectors and a track-rail; said car hav
ends for abutting with the next track-section, 25 ing a laminated polyphase-wound core-structure
means for aligning and drawing together the
in cooperative relation to said squirrel-cage core
abutting track-sections, said supporting-struc-
structure, and current-collecting means engaging
ture of each track-section comprising a plurality
said third-rail structures.
of cross-ties, said cross-ties having means for
seating and aligning two track—rails, each track- 30
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