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Dec. 17, 1946. '
2,412,552
D. c. AFFLECK
HEAT EXCHANCER
Filed June 6, 1945
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INVENTORI
Patented Dec. 17, 1946
2,412,552
srAraE ‘PATENT OFFICE
2,412,552
HEAT EXCHANGER
_
David C. A?leck, Hammond, Ind, assignor to Car- ,
negle-Illinois Steel Corporation,
of New Jersey
a corporation
Application June 6, 1945, Serial No. 597,907
'
(01. 263-51)
This invention relates generally to heat ex
changers, and more particularly to an improved
construction and arrangement of the bricks
forming the checkerwork thereof.
weave, the brick being laid up in such a way
that all vertical Joints are broken and a multi
plicity of similar square ?ue openings extend
.
from the bottom of the stove to the top thereof. '
While not limited thereto, the herein claimed 5 structurally, such an arrangement is believed to
invention has its greatest utility in the checker
be the best type of checkerwork known, but the
work used in hot blast stoves'of the type used
ratio of volume of brick to heating surface is too
for preheating air supplied to support combus
high for maximum e?iciency. In a, properly de
tion and bring about reducing reactions in a
signed
hot blast stove there must be not only
blast furnace.
a suitable volume of brick‘ to retain heat, but
As is known to those skilled in the art, such
there must be adequate surface for moving gases
v
hot blast stoves are in the nature of a huge brick
lined steel shell approximately 20 feet in diame
ter and 80 feet or more in height. Within the
lining it is customary to provide a division wall
de?ning the combustion chamber, and the bal
or air to transmit heat either to or from the
brick.
The ?ues formed by the conventional
basket weave. checkerwork are solid walls with
out any by-paths from one ?ue to another. Thus
any obstruction in the due such as a brickbat
will render that ?ue useless for its entire length.
There is a known type of hot blast stove which
of upright ?ues.
_
employs brick of rectangular prismatic form with
In normal operations, blast furnace gas is 20 the upper corners cut oil and with a hole through
burned in the combustion chamber of the stove,
the center of each brick. This known form
and the hot burned gases passing through the
makes a free opening between each flue and
multiplicity of ?ues formed by the checkerwork
allows for cross movement ‘of gas and air from
gives up heat which is absorbed by the checker
?ue to another, decreasing the‘ volume of
brick. At appropriate intervals the supply of 25 one
brick in the regular checker chamber and ex
combustion gas is cut 0d and the‘ blast main is
posing more surface. This known type'of check
- opened. Thus cold air under pressure is supplied
erbrick is in the form of a rectangular prism,
to the stove. This air passes through the many
with upper opposite corners cut off on the di
?ues formed by the checkerwork and absorbs heat
from the hot bricks and then ?ows to the hot 89 agonal. The surface exposed by the diagonal
out, however, is only a theoretical heating sur~
blast main leading to the bustle pipe of the blast
face,
since the valley formed by the contact of
furnace in a mannerwell known to those skilled
two such checkerbrick in ashort time becomes
in the art.
filled with ?ue dust carried in suspension by
Practice has demonstrated that although blast _
the
blast furnace gas. .When this valley becomes
furnace gas passes through primary washes be
?lled with dust the effective heating surface is
fore being introduced into the hot blast stove,
materially reduced and of course will no longer be
there is still considerable dust entrained in the
ance of the space within the shell is ?lled with
refractory brick checkerwork forming a system
gas which has the tendency to precipitate on vari- '
ous ledges formed by conventional arrangements
of checkerbrick. The checkerbrick heretofore
used are open to various objections, the chief of
which ‘is that they are of such form that they
promote the accumulation of objectionable dust
exposed to air and gas passage.
The cross hole
of this prior art brick provides for cross-?ow of
gas ‘or air between ?ues, but it soon becomes
?lled‘with ?ue dust and its intended function
‘is thus defeated. ‘The prior art brick referred
to is known to those skilled in the art as the
Seaver cross-vent checkerbrick. My present in
Many diiferent forms and shapes of refrac-. 45 vention, as hereinafter more fully described and
tories have heretofore been devised for use as
claimed, relates to speci?c features of improve
checkerbrick in‘ hot blast stoves for preheating
ment over said Seaver checkerbrick.
the‘air supplied to a blast furnace. In designing
The herein claimed improvements are illus
the shapes of checkerbrick to be used in order‘
trated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
to promote the maximum e?ciency, several fac 50 Figure 1, is a horizontal section through a hot
tors must be kept in mind, such as stability, size
blast stove embodying the present invention. .
of ?ue opening, brick volume, and heating sur
Figure 2 is an enlarged fragmentary plan of
face. One of the most common types of checker
the improved checkerwork.
‘I .
brick used is a rectangular prismatic brick laid
Figure 3 is a vertical sectional elevation on
in horizontal layers commonly called basket 5.5 line Ill-III of Figure 2.
~
deposits.
2,412,552
.
4
faces 30, and they converge to the point 32 ‘and
are bounded by triangular faces 34 which thus are
obliquely so disposed as to prevent the accumu
Figure 4 is a similar sectional elevation on line
IV—IV of Figure 2.
Figure 5 is a detail perspective view of two ad
lation of dust thereon.
jacent perpendicularly disposed bricks forming
'
The lower end faces 86‘ of all the bricks shown
part of the checkerwork shown in Figures 1 to 3
. are bounded by a horizontal bottom edge 88 and .
two vertical parallel end edges 40 and two con
verging end edges ?which meet-at a common
three-point bearing which each individual
peak point as shown. The lower and faces 36 are
checkerbrick makes with underlying bricks.
all perpendicular to the bottom faces of the bricks.
Figure "I is a perspective view illustrating a 10 Thus said end faces in the assembled checker
slightly modi?ed form of checkerbrick.
work are adapted to lie ?ush against the lower
Figure 8 is a perspective view of a checkerbrick
portions of the side faces of bricks laid up per
somewhat similar to Figure 5, showing a further
pendicular thereto, as‘ clearly shown in Figures 3
modi?cation.
to 6. As shown in Figures 4 and 6, it is apparent
Figure 9 is an exploded isometric view illus
that the bricks are so shaped and proportioned
inclusive.
-
'
Figure 6 is an isometric view illustrating the
trative of the method of assembling checkerbrick
of the modi?ed form shown in Figure 8, the view
, that each one has a three-point bearing on
three underlying bricks, one of said underlying
showing the relative positions of individual bricks .
and the arrows suggesting the operations neces
sary to lay up the checkerwork.
Referring particularly to the
20
drawings, refer- '
ence numeral ii] represents the shell of a con
bricks being perpendicular to each supported
brick and the two other underlying bricks extend
ing in the same direction as each supported brick.
Having thus described my invention, what I de
sire to secure by Letters Patent is outlined in the
ventional hot blast stove, and i2 the lining
appended claims.
thereof. Spaced from the lining i2 is an arcuate
I claim:
'
wall is de?ning a conventional form of combus
l. A heat exchanger including checkerwork
tion chamber IS. The remainder of the struc
comprising a multiplicity of substantially iden
ture is substantially ?lled with checkerwork, indi
tical bricks‘ laid up in vertically spaced courses,
cated generally at i8, the design and construc
each course including adjacent bricks perpen
tion and arrangement of the particular checker~
dicular to each other and forming a multiplicity
bricks making up this checkerwork constituting 30' of ?ues, each brick having parallel top and bot
‘ the herein claimed features of- the invention. My
tom horizontal rectangular faces and' parallel
invention is an improvement over the above
vertical side faces, each bottom face being mate—
mentioned Seaver cross-vent checkerbrick. the
rially greater in area that. each top face, each
said Seaver checkerbrick consisting essentially of ' end of each brick comprising a lower upright por
a rectangular prism with the upper corners bev-'
tion perpendicular to the bottom and a, peaked
eled off square and with a hole extending trans
top, portion and two oppositely inclined faces
versely through the brick.
starting at said peaked top portion and extending
In my improved checkerbrick the plane of the
toward
the top face of the-brick.
'
sloping surface is not perpendicular to the sides
2. A checkerbrick of the character shown and
of the checker, but on the contrary, each sloping 40 described, having substantially parallel horizontal
portion includes at least two oblique or warped
top and bottom rectangular faces, the bottom face
planes, each sloping downwardly and outwardly,
being of materially greater area than the top_
as viewed in plan.
'
,
face and having substantially parallel vertical
As shown in Figures 1 to 6, the sloping planes
of my improved brick may be flat oblique faces 45 side faces,‘ the upright edges of the lower portion
of each side face being parallel and the upper
20-20 with the dividing ridge line a-—.b extend
edge portions of each side face converging up
ing to about the top of the slope, as shown in
wardly, each end of each brick having a lower
Figure 5, or as shown in Figure 7, the two faces
portion
perpendicular to the bottom face and a
20*1-40a may be warped surfaces bounded by» the
peaked top portion, and a pair of upwardly con
* curved side edge lines 0-11, the top edge line
verging inclined oblique portions extending from
b'—d, the diagonal straight ridge line a'-—b',
and the oblique end edge lines a’-—c.
As shown in Figures 1 to 6, the bricks constitut
ing the checkerwork are laid up in basket’weave .
pattern, by which I vmean that any given hori-‘ >
zontal course of bricks, as viewed in plan, com
said peaked portion to the top of the brick.
3. A checkerbrick of the character described,
having top and bottom faces which are substan-.
tially parallel, vertical side faces substantially
~- perpendicular
thereto, each end of the brick com
prises several parallel longitudinal rows 1-! and
several parallel transverse rows t-t; thus the
bricks of such longitudinal and transverse rows
prising a lower face in a plane perpendicular ‘to ~
are perpendicular to one another as clearly sug
and a pair of oppositely sloping end faces at each
gested by relative positions thereof shown in the
isometric views of Figures 5 and 6.
A feature common to all embodiments 'of the I
invention is that the oblique ends of the bricks
are ‘entirely devoid of horizontal surfaces on
which dust can collect. The oblique edge planes,
as shown, thus tend to shed dust. The triangular
spaces 24 (best shown in Figures 3 and 4) be
tween the bricks extending in one direction and
said bottom face and having a pointed upper por
tion whose converging upper edges intersect at a
peak intermediate said top and bottom faces,
end of the brick extending upwardly from said
converging upper edges.
4. A checkerbrick of the character described,
' having top and bottomfaces which are substan
tially para1le1,.vertica1 side faces substantially
perpendicular thereto, each end of .the brick com- '
- prising a lower face having a pointed upper por
tion whose upper edges converge to a peak in
those arranged perpendicular thereto provide for 70 termediate said top and bottom faces, and a pair
of oppositely‘ sloping endfaces at each end of
cross-?ow between the several upright ?ues 26
the brick extending from said converging upper
de?ned by the basket weave arrangement of
edges to the top face of the brick.
checkerwork illustrated.
'
In the modi?cation of Figures 8 and 9, the
DAVID C. AFFIECK.
bevel end faces 28 are perpendicular to the side 75
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