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Dec. 17, 1946.
H. JENKINS
,
2,412,617
SYSTEM OF COMPASS COMPENSATION
Filed Aug. 24, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
5444
INVENTOR
HOWARD JENKINS
Dec, 17, 1946.
H_ JENKINS
2,412,617
SYSTEM 01;‘ COMPASS COMPENSATION
Fliled Aug. 24, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet‘2
FIG‘. 4
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INVENTOR
BY‘ HOWARD JEN/(IN
//A "Mi
TT
NEY
Patented Dec. 17, 1946
2,412,617
‘UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,412,617
SYSTEM OF COMPASS COMPENSATION
Howard Jenkins, Arlington, Va.
Application August 24, 1942, Serial No. 455,910
10 Claims.
(01. 33-225)
(Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as
amended April 30, 1928; 370 0. G. ‘757)
i.
This invention relates to magnetic compasses
and in particular to a system of compensating
magnetic compasses for errors induced by the
degausslng circuits utilized for protection against
magnetic mines.
it is the present general practice to install large
tion produced by the subpermanent magnetism
of the vessel.
Since different degausslng coils are installed in
different locations on the ship and are operated
separately for di?'erent conditions for heading
and latitude, the resultant magnetic ?eld at the
coils of wire on the forward and after portions
binnacle which is produced by this degausslng
of a vessel passing through enemy waters and
flux may be considered separately for each coil.
to provide means for passing electric current
The ?eld from any individual degausslng coil will
through the coils for the purpose of neutraliz 10 vary proportionally with the excitation of the
ing the magnetic ?eld set up by said vessel as a.
degausslng coil and its direction will completely
protection against magnetic submerged mines.
reverse with changes in the coil polarity. Thus,
tSuch procedure is referred to as degausslng and
by utilizing compensating or corrector coils lo
the coils employed by this process are called. de
cated at the binnacle and connecting each com
gaussing coils, the ‘forward coil being referred 15 pensating coil in circuit with its respective de~
to as the F coil and the after coil being referred
gaussing coil, the current in the compensating
to as the Q coil. In addition to .the F and Q
coils may be maintained at a, ?xed ratio Wtih
coils, a third coil referred to as the M coil is also
the current in the degaussing coil.
employed to neutralize the magnetic ?eld of said
It is, therefore, an object of this invention to
vessel. Other coils or combinations of coils, in 20 automatically compensate for the degaussing field
cluding an S and A coil, are also used. In some
by establishing at the binnacle, a separate mag
instances lack of material has necessitated the
netic ?eld for each separate degausslng circuit,
installation of a single M coil.
and to cause the ?eld to vary in direction and
As is well known, a steel vessel has a magnetic
intensity in a ?xed ratio with changes in direc
character of its own which includes the subper 25 tion and magnitude of the current in said de
manent magnetism created in building the ves
gaussing circuit so that the said separate field
sel and the transient magnetism induced in the
will at all times equal the ?eld intensity of its
vessel by the earth’s magnetic ?eld. To render
respective degaussing circuit at the center of the
such a steel vessel magnetically neutral at all
binnacle and will oppose its direction.
times, as is desirable in the degaussing operation, 30
It is a further object of this invention to ar
it is necessary to adjust the current through the
range about the binnacle three compensating
degaussihg coils to a particular predetermined
windings for each effective degaussing circuit
value which varies with changes in the vessel's
with the axes of the windings mutually disposed
head and with changes in latitude.
at 90” so that the ?eld produced by each wind
The degausslng circuits of the vessels induce 35 ing may-be vectorially combined to produce a
a magnetic ?eld at the binnacles, similar to the
resultant ?eld equal in magnitude but opposite
?eld produced by the vessel’s subpermanent mag
in sense to the magnetic ?eld through the cen
netism in that the compass deviation caused by
ter of the binnacle produced by the respective
the presence of this ?eld would be essentially
degausslng circuits from which the said wind
semicircular if the ?eld were not varied in in~ 40 ings are energized.
tensity and direction. The effect of the degauss
Other objects and many of the attendant ad
ing ?eld upon the magnetic compass is in other
vantages of this invention will be appreciated as
respects dissimilar to the compass deviation
the same become better understood by referring
caused by the subpermanent magnetic ?eld of the
to the following detailed description when con
vessel. For example, large heeling errors are pro~ 4:5 sidered in connection with the accompanying
duced by the degausslng ?elds. Furthermore,
sheets of drawings wherein:
the total effect of the degausslng ?eld is electro
Fig. 1 illustrates diagrammatically an arrange
magnetic in nature; that is, the magnitude and
ment of the degaussing coils and the circuit con
direction of this ?eld change as the current mag
nection leading therefrom to their respective
nitude and'direction through the separate coils 50 compensation coils;
_ is adjusted or changed for different headings and.
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the degausslng
for di?erent latitudes. Compensation for the
coils and the resultant ?eld at the center of the
degaussing field cannot therefore be easily ac
compass produced by the degausslng circuit to
' complished by the utilization of permanent mag
gether with its three vector components;
nets as is the case with the semicircular devia 65 Fig. 3 is a plan view of the Navy standard bin
‘ 2,412,617
4
nacle showing the prefered position of the hori
zontal compensating coils;
-
Fig. 4 an elevational view of the binnacle of
Fig. 3 showing also a preferred arrangement of
the vertical compensating coils; and
Fla-5 is an elevational view of ‘the binnacle
provided with a dip needle utilized in compensat
ing for the vertical component of the degaussing
?eld.
.
>
‘
Referring now to the drawings on which like
numerals of reference are employed to designate
like parts through the several views and in par
.
produced by the M coil will have a magnitude
and direction at the center of the- compass 20
equal to the vector D6 of Fig. 2. To compensate
for this ?eld there is established along each of
the three components V, H. and Hp, a ?eld of
an intensity equal to the vectors V, H; and Hp,
respectively, but of a direction opposite thereto.
The three coils 30, 40 and 50 of Fig. 1 are each
placed so that their axes coincide with a differ
l0 ent vector component. More speci?cally. the
axis of the coil 50 is vertically arranged relative
to the vessel and is positioned relative to the bin
ticular to Fig. 2 thereof, there is shown thereon . nacle so that it passes through its center. The
axes of coils 30 and 40 are each coplanarzwith
a vessel, such as a freighter or transport, indi
cated generally by reference numeral ill and pro-v 15 the axis 01‘ the magnetic members of the com
pass and are arranged relative to the binnacle
vided with a degaussing coil F within the for
with the axis of each on adjacent intercardinal
ward part of the vessel and a degaussing coil
compass points when the ship’s heading is mag
Q within the after part of the vessel. A degauss
netic north or south. Each coil is provided with
ing coil M is also provided which, as illustrated,
completely .follows the general outline of the 20 a plurality of separate individual and coaxial
windings one for each effective degaussing cir
vessel. The vector DG is drawn from the cen
cuit, to provide a means for establishing for each
ter of the compass 20 to illustrate that the mag
separate degaussing circuit three separate vector
netic ?eld produced by any one or all of the coils
component windings positioned along each ordi
M, F, or Q, has a magnitude and direction at
_ this point equal to the vector DG. It is this ?eld 25 nate so that the magnitude of each vector com
ponent can be ‘made to follow directly the vari
which produces the compass deviations referred
ations in the current magnitude of its respective
to above.
degaussing circuit. To establish these individual
In order to effectively neutralize the in?uence
vector components necessary to neutralize the
of this ?eld upon the magnetized elements of a
compass, another ?eld is established through the 30 vector DG produced by the coil M, the individual
windings 3|, M and Bi of the compensating coils
center of the compass which is equal and op
S0, 40 and 50 are energized from the source II
posite to the ?eld illustrated by the vector DG.
in order that the vector sum of the component
This is preferably accomplished in my invention
?elds produced by these compensating windings
by establishing component ?elds along three axes
which are mutually arranged at 90° so that the 35 may at all times equally oppose the vector DG,
the currentv for supplying these windings being
resultant will be equal and opposite .to the vector
preferably obtained from the resistor i4 con
DG.
nected in series with the M coil. This resistor
In Fig. 2, I have illustrated the vector DG as
l s is designed to supply a voltage di?erence across
resolved into its three components, the vertical
component V and two horizontal components 40 its terminals of about six volts when the maxi
mum rated current flows in the M coil. The
HS and Hp. As illustrated, the axes of the three
current magnitude in each compensating wind
components are mutually arranged at 90° with
ing 3 I, ti and 5! may be separately regulated by
the two horizontal components H5 and Hp falling
the potentiometers 34, at and 55, respectively,
along the line drawn at an angle of 45° forward
the starboard and port beam respectively of the 45 'so that no change in magnetic ?eld will occur
at the center of the binnacle when the degaussing
vessel Ill. The axes of the starboard and port
M coil is turned on or the current through it
horizontal components thus contains the inter
is varied. When the resistors 34, M and 54 have
cardinal compass points when the ship head is
once been set, their settings need not be altered
north or south magnetic. I have resolved the
vector DG into components along these lines ar 5.0 with changes in degaussing current.
For the purposes of illustration, the degaussing
ranged at 45° relative to the beam primarily for
coils F and Q are shown energized from a separate
convenience since from an inspection of Fig. 3 it
motor-generator set l5 through the reversing
will be apparent that the corrector coils 3&3 and
40 may be conveniently located with their axes on
switches 86 and H and the addustable resistances
these .45" lines without impairing the vision of 55 l8 and i9, respectively. Three separate wind
ings 32, t2 and 52 are provided on the compen
'the compass card and without interfering with
the compensating spheres and/or compensating
sating coils 30, t0 and 50 respectively for the
magnets.
degaussing F coil. The current for these wind
ings is obtained from the resistance 2! placed
If the magnetic ?eld is set up along each of the '
vector components equal in magnitude but op on in series with the F coil and regulation of the
current delivered to' each of the windings is ac
posite in direction from the ?eld represented by
the vectors V, H; and Hp, the effect of the vector
complished by adjusting the resistors 34, 44 and ‘
‘5d,.respectively, so that no change in the fore
DG would be neutralized. In this manner, the
and aft, athwartships, or vertical, magnetic force
effect of the degaussing ?eld on the compass
would be compensated for by simply properly pro 65 occurs across the center of the binnacle with the
portioning the magnitude of each of the said
degaussing coil F turned on or o?‘ or the current
component ?elds.
through it varied. When the resistors 34, it and
In Fig. 1, there is illustrated in plan view the
541 have once been adjusted, their settings need
general outline of the degaussing coils M, F and - notbe altered with changes in degaussing cur‘
Q. The M coil of the vessel i0 is energized from
rent. Three windings 33, 43 and 53 are also pro
a suitable generator ll through the reversing
vided on the compensating coils 30, 4!! and 50
switch l2 and the series resistors l3 and H.
respectively for the degaussing Q coil. _, The cur
The resistor 13 is adjustable to vary the current
rent for these windings is obtained from a resist=
magnitude to the M coil. Let it be assumed that.
ance 22 placed in series with the Q coil. The
the resistor I3 is set to a value whereby the ?eld 76 proper ratio of current magnitude in each of
5
these cells to the current magnitude in the Q
coil is established by the variable resistors 35,
t5 and 55. Once the current ratios have been '
properly adjusted for this, the last effective de
gaussing coil, the operation of all compensat
ing coils or windings will be entirely automatic
and the magnetic compass will continue to point
in the direction of the magnetic north at all times
for other degaussing coils (F, G. A or S), the
heeling eflects of which are sufficient to war
rant provision of compensating windings.
In adjusting the current ratio in the hori
zontal correcting coils, the dip needle is replaced
by the compass and all of the degaussing coils
are deenergized. The vessel is then placed on a
steady northeast or southwest heading by the
and on all headings.
magnetic compass. The M coil is now energized
I have purposely limited the several views to 10 and the deviation of the compass noted. Since
three degaussing coils, namely M, F and Q, and
the north and south line of the compass or the
also to three separate windings ‘on each of the
axis of the compass needle 24 is at an angle
compensating coils. However, it should be ob
vious from the foregoing that other coils known
of 45° to the left of the ship’s center line‘, the
axis of the magnetic needle 24 coincides with
to the art as A and S coils may also be used, and 15 the component Hp, thus the deviation of the
if these coils appreciably affect the compass, a
compass upon this intercardinal heading can be
compensating winding may be provided therefor.
It has been my observation, however, that in
caused only by the degaussing ilelds horizontal
component He which is 90° from the axis of the
most ships the compass is/aifected only by two -
component Hp. The compensating component
degaussing coils depending upon the location 20 may, therefore, be created by energizing the wind
or" the binnacle relative to the coils. The for
ward compasses are usually a?ected only by the
M and F coils, whereas, the aft compass will be
aifected only by the M and Q coils.
I
ing 4! of the port coil to and adjusting the re
sistance 44 until the compass needle returns to
the original northeast or southwest heading.
Without changing the heading, . the procedure
For a better understanding of the speci?c struc
outlined above is repeated for adjusting the vwind
tures involved in the arrangement of these coils
ings 42 and 43 of the coil 40 for the horizontal
on the binnacle, reference may be had to Figs.
component H5 01’ the degaussing coils F and Q.
3 and 4 of the drawings wherein reference nu
Adjustment of the current in the individual
meral 20 is used to indicate the compass. For
winding of the starboard coil 30 is accomplished
the purpose of illustration, a compass bowl 23 is 30 by a procedure similar to that set out above uti
illustrated as containing a pivoted compass needle
lizing a single degaussing coil at a time with the
24 and is supported in the binnacle 25 by knife
ship won a steady northwest or southeast head
edge pivots on gimbal rings (not shown). The
1118.
binnacle also supports the soft iron hollow spheres
If desired, the'compass needle may be de?ected
26 which are mounted on each side of the binnacle
relative to the ship rather than swinging the ship
- so that their distance from the compass may be
to maintain the respective headings. This can
varied and a holder 21 for the Fiinders bar. The
be accomplished by carefully placing permanent
coils 30 and 40 are shown mounted on the star
magnets about the binnacle so as to create a de
board and port sides, respectively, of the fore
?ecting ?eld perpendicular to the bisector of the
and aft center line of the ship with the axis of 40 angle between the original and the desired de
each at an angle of 45° relative thereto and on a
?ected position of the compass needle.
level with the axis of the-compass needle 24. As
Although I have shown and described certain
may be seen from Fig. 4, the heeling coil 50 con
and specific embodiments of the present inven
sists of a number of turns of a multiconductor
tion, I am fully aware of the ‘many possible modi
cable wrapped about the binnacle. This type of
coil is preferable since it is adaptable to binnacles
of various sizes and shapesvbut preformed coils
may also be used. Access to the terminals of
each conductor is had through the Junction box
28 so that the number of turns or‘ number of 50
separate windings maybe varied.
'
The heeling coil 50 compensates for the ver
tical component of the resultant degaussing ?eld
?cations. Therefore, this invention is not to be
restricted except insofar as is necessitated by
prior art and the spirit of the subioined claims.
The invention described and claimed herein
may be manufactured and used by and for the
Government of the United States of America for
governmental purposes without the payment of
any royalties thereon or therefor.
I claim:
- ,
in the center of the binnacle- The current‘
1. In a system for automatically compensating
through the heeling coil is adjusted by replacing
a magnetic compass for errors produced by the
the compass with a conventional dip needle 11degaussing ?eld of a vessel upon which the com
lustrated in Fig. 5. . The procedure for adjusting
pass is mounted comprising the combination of
the current in the heeling coil is as follows:
a pair of degaussing coils disposed in a predeter
With all of the degaussing coils deenergized and
mined spaced relation on said vessel, a pair of
with all of the compensating coil control circuits 60 compensating coils each having at least two
set at zero, the dip needle BI is brought into
separate coaxial windings, a binnacle for support
balance by adjusting the weight 6] provided
ing the compass, means securing the compensat
thereon. The M coil is now energized to the
ing coils to said binnacle with the axis of each
maximum rated current and the dip or unbal
coplanar with the horizontal and vertical axes of
ance of the needle is noted. This unbalance 65 the rotatable element of said compass and dis
is due to the vertical component V of the M
posed on opposite sides of the fore and aft cen
coil and may be compensated for by adjusting
ter line of said vessel at an angle of 45° relative
the resistor 54 to increase. the current in the
thereto, so as to contain the intercardinal com
winding ll of the heeling coil 50 until the dip
pass points when the axis of said vessel coin
needle '80 is again brought to a. balanced position. 70 cides with the magnetic meridian, and means
when properly compensated, the 'dip needle
energizing said degaussing and compensating
should remain balanced for any setting of the
coils with a direct current _so that the current
resistor l3.'
'
.
1
magnitude in each degaussing coil and its re
Procedure similar to that set forth above is
spective winding of each compensating coil may
followed for adjusting the heeling components 76
beseparately adiustedtomcintslns?xedrstio.
7
.
2. In a system for automatically compensating
5. In a system for automatically compensating
a magnetic compass for errors produced by the
a magnetic compass for errors produced by the
degaussing ?eld of a vessel upon which the com
degaussing ?eld of the vessel upon which the
pass is mounted comprising in combination at
compass is mounted, comprising the combination
least a pair of degaussing coils, said coils being :1 of a pair of degaussing coils disposed in a prede
disposed in a predetermined spaced relation on
termined spaced relation on said vessel, a source
said vessel, a source of direct current electrical
of direct current potential, means energizing said
potential, means energizing said coils from said
coils from said direct current source to neutralize
source to produce a resultant magnetic ?eld for
the magnetic ?eld of said vessel, at least a pair
neutralizing the magnetic ?eld of said vessel,
of compensating coils arranged on said vessel in
three compensating coils each having at least
predetermined space relation closely adjacent
two separate and coaxial windings, the axes of'
to said compass, means energizing each of said
each of said coils being mutually disposed at right
coils from the said source so that the current
angles, means securing said coils to said vessel
magnitude in each compensating coil will main
in a predetermined ?xed space relation to said 15 tain a ?xed ratio with the current magnitude
compass with the axis of one vertically disposed
in a separate one of said degaussing coils.
relative to said vessel, and with the axes of the
6. In a system for automatically compensating
remaining coils substantially coplanar whereby
a magnetic compass for errors produced by the
the said axes establish the direction of the hori
magnetic ?eld of the degaussing circuit of a ves
zontal and vertical components of a space vector
sel upon which the compass is mounted compris
extending from the center of said compass, means
ving the combination of at least a single degaus
connecting a separate winding of each of said
sing coil disposed in predetermined spaced rela
compensating coils in circuit with a separate de
tion on said vessel, means energizing said coil to
gaussing coil so -that the current magnitude in
produce a resultant degaussing ?eld variable in
each of said windings may be separately adjusted
magnitude and direction with changes in head
in suitable proportion to the current magnitude
ing and latitude, respectively, of said vessel, to
in its respective degaussing coil whereby to pro
at all times at least partially neutralize the ship’s
duce a magnetic ?eld equal in magnitude but op
magnetic ?eld, and means disposed closely adja
posite in sense and direction to the component
cent said compass for continuously producing a
of the resultant degaussing ?eld at the center of 30, resultant compensating ?eld of a magnitude equal
said compass, as produced by said separate de
to the magnitude of said resultant degaussing
gaussing coil having a direction along the axis
?eld at the center of said compass but of an op
of said winding.
posite sense.
3. In a system for automatically compensating
'7. In a system for automatically compensat
' a magnetic compass for errors produced by the
ing a magnetic compass for errors produced by
degaussing ?eld of a vessel upon which the com
the magnetic ?eld of the degaussing circuit of‘
pass is mounted, the combination including at
a vessel upon which the compass is mounted,
least a pair of degaussing coils disposed in a pre
comprising the combination of at least a pair of
determined space relation on said vessel, a pair
degaussing coils disposed in predetermined spaced
of compensating coils each having at least a pair 40 relation on said vessel, means energizing said
of separate and coaxial windings, the axes of said
coils to produce a resultant degaussing ?eld var
coils being substantially coplanar and horizon
iable in magnitude and direction toyneutralize on
tally disposed relative to said vessel, means se
varying heading and in varying latitudes the
curing each of said compensating coils to said
magnetic ?eld of said ship, means for producing
vessel in a ?xed predetermined space relation
closely adjacent said compass a compensating
closely adjacent to said compass, a source of di
?eld along a vertical axis through the center of
rect current electrical potential, means connect
said compass, means for producing closely adja
ing each degaussing coil to said source, and
cent said compass a compensating ?eld having an
means connecting a separate winding of each of
axis in a horizontal plane containing the axes
said compensating coils in circuit with a sepa 50
of the rotatable element of said compass, means
rate degaussing coil so that the current magni
automatically varying the strength and direction
tude in each of said windings may be separately
of said compensating ?elds in accordance with
adjusted in suitable proportion to the current
variations in the strength and direction of said
magnitude in their respective degaussing coils to
degaussing ?eld whereby the resultant of said
automatically compensate for the horizontal com
horizontal and vertical component ?elds will be
ponent of said degaussing ?eld.
equal in magnitude but opposite in sense to the
4. In a system for automatically compensat
magnitude and direction of said resultant de
ing a magnetic compass for errors produced by
gaussing ?eld at the center of said compass.
the degaussing ?eld of the vessel upon which the
8. In a system for automatically compensat
compass is mounted, comprising in combination 00
ing a magnetic compass for errors produced by
at least a pair of degaussing coils disposed in a
the degaussing ?eld of a vessel upon which the
compass is mounted comprising the combination
of a degaussing coil disposed in a predetermined
predetermined space relation on said vessel, a
compensating coil vertically disposed relative to
said vessel and having at least two separate
coaxial windings, said compensating coil being
closely adjacent to said compass, a source of di~
rect current potential, and means connecting
each degaussing coil and a respective winding of
said compensating coil to said source so that
the current magnitude in each degaussing coil 70
and the current magnitude in its respective wind
ing will bear a ?xed ratio whereby no change in
the vertical magnetic force at the center of said
compass will result from variations in the cur- _
rent magnitude in said degaussing coils.
spaced relation to said compass, a source of di
rect current electrical potential, means ener
gizing said coil from said source to produce a
magnetic ?eld to at least partially neutralize the
magnetic ?eld of said vessel, a compensating
coil, means securing said compensating coil to
said vessel in a predetermined spaced relation
closely adjacent to said compass, and means con
necting said compensating coil in circuit with
said degaussing coil so that the current mag
75 nitude in said compensating coil may be ad»
9
2,412,617
10
Justed to maintain a ?xed ratio with the current
magnitude in said degausslng coil.
9. In a system for automatically compensating
a magnetic compass for errors produced by the
10. In a system for automatically compensat
ing a magnetic compass for errors produced by
the magnetic ?eld of the degaussing circuit of
degaussing ?eld of a vessel upon which the com
prising the combination of at least one degauss
a vessel upon which the compass is mounted com
pass is mounted comprising the combination of
ing coil disposed in predetermined spaced rela
a degaussing coil disposed in a predetermined
tion on said vessel, means energizing said coil to
spaced relation on said vessel, three compensat
produce a resultant 'degaussing ?eld, variable in
ing coils secured in predetermined spaced rela
magnitude and direction with changes in head
tion closely adjacent to said compass with the 10 ing and latitude, respectively, of said vessel, to
axis of each mutually disposed at right angles,
at all times at least partially neutralize the ship’s
and means connecting each of said compensating
magnetic ?eld, and means for producing a mag- coils in circuit with said degaussing coil so that
netic ?eld at the compass which has a magnitude
the current magnitude in each of said windings
variable with said degaussing ?eld to maintain a
may be separately adjusted in suitable proportion 15 ?xed ratio therebetween, and a direction oppo
to the current magnitude in the degaussing coil
site the direction of said degaussing ?eld at the
when the said degaussing coil is connected to a
center of said compass.
direct current source of electrical potential.
HOWARD JENKINS.
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