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Dec. 17, 1946.
'
A. D. SWENSEN
2,412,638
RUBBER SEALAGING TESTINQAPPARATUS AND METHOD
Filed Jan. 8,, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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ALBERT D4 SWENSEN
_
Dec. 17, 1946.
2,412,638
A. o. SWENSEN
RUBBER SEALAGING TESTING APPARATUS AND METHOD
Filed Jan. 8, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR.
ALBERT D. SWENSEN
BY
E ‘M
3 ATTORNEY
2,412,638
Patented Dec. 17,1946
umrso STATES'VP'ATENT oral-ca ‘
Albert D. Swensen, Washington, D. 0.
Application January a, 1945, Serial No. 571,893
2 Claims.
(01. 13-731)
_
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(Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as
amended April 30, 1928; 370 0. G. 757)
1
.
,
My invention relates to testing apparatus and
a method for testing sealing or gasket material
' under service-simulating conditions.
In many naval and marine applications a
variety of materials such as various natural and
synthetic rubbers, are used as gasket materials
to line hatches, doors and other openings into
compartments, which it is necessary to keep in
an air tight or water tight condition.
To insure
2
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and the scope of the invention will be indicated
\in the claims.-
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For a better understanding of the nature, ob
jects and scope of my invention, reference should
be had to the drawings accompanying this speci?
cation and the following specification in which
the structure and method of using the apparatus
are set forth in detail.
Referring to the drawings,
Figure -1 is a5 perspective view, partially in
greatest safety the performance characteristics 10 section, of one embodiment of the gasket ma
terial testing apparatus of my invention;
of the gasket materials should be known, for it
Figure 2 is a perspective view of a second .em
~is Just as inconvenient to test the gaskets after
, bodiment of my invention;
they have, been put in place as it is to replace
Figure 3 is a sectional view of the embodiment I
them frequently in order to insure maintenance of
the water tight or‘ air tight integrity of the com 15 of the apparatus shown ‘in Figure 2 and taken
vertically through the apparatus shown in~Fig
partment. Common plasticity and stability tests
ure 2;
,
are unsatisfactory either because they are too
Figure 4 is a drawing showing the method of
time consuming or because they fail to test for
using my apparatus to test gasket materials for
the essential properties required of good gasket
20 their sealing properties.
materials.
Referring to Figure 1, l0 represents a base
A good gasket material is critically sensitive
held to a‘support II by means of a screw l2.
essentially to. at least two factors, namely, its
Thirteen (I3) is a calibrated scale, the exact
hardness or resistance to deformation and its
nature and function of which will be explained
sensitivity to aging. A good gasket material
should possess moderate hardness or should yield 25 hereinafter, held to support I l by means of screws
ll‘; base In is recessed to receive therein a speci
underpressure in order to permit some compres- .
men holder comprising cylindrical wall is and
sion of the material by the faces between which
base it.
it is to act as a seal. It should be very resistant
The wall i5 of the specimen holder has near
to oxidation or deterioration with age, particu
30 its upper edge an inwardly projecting lip ll.
larly in view of the applications intended;
Centrally over the specimen holder there is a‘ _
It is the primary object of my invention to
threaded hole in the top member it, which hole
provide apparatus and a service simulating vtest
ing method by means of which the sealing quality
ber i8 is tubular in form and at its lower end is
of a good gasket material andv its susceptibility
to deterioration with age can be quickly and 35 rounded off‘ to form a ball indentor i5. Mem
accurately determined.
.
It is a secondobject of my invention to pl‘0=
vide simple, inexpensive apparatus so that the
test or tests can be carried out quickly on a num
ber is also carries an indicator 2b and a lock
nut ii. ‘The upper end of the tubular member
pressed air or fluid supply. Since such connec
40 tions can be of a variety of forms no speci?c one '
ber of the specimens.
has been shown in this figure.
It is a third object of my invention to provide
In Figure 2 I have shown a second embodiment
apparatus which will test gasket materials ac
.of my invention, which possesses elements of the .
curately and specifically for the essential prop
embodiment shown in Figure ‘1. In Figure 2
erties required of good gasket material.
Further objects and advantages of my inven 45 twenty-two (22) represents a base member hav
ing thereon a male threaded member 23, and also
tion will in part be obvious and in part appear
carrying, at any convenient point on the cir
cumference of said member 23, an index line
Accordingly my invention comprises the gasket
245. A canopy 25 is internally threaded. and
material testing apparatus and method which
apparatus involves the features of construction, 50 adapted to fit onto the threaded member 23.
Around the lower circumference of canopy 25
combinations of elements, and arrangement of
there is a scale 28, which is the equivalent of the
parts, which will be exempli?ed in the construc
hereinafter.
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~ tion hereinafter set forth, and the method il
scale carried by member 53, shown in Figure 1,
The canopy member 25 is adapted to fit overla
said steps to one another as will be described, 55 specimen holder 21, in substantially the ,same
vclving the separate steps and relationship of
2,412,888
-
manner in which the support l-l ?tted over the
specimen holder in Figure 1. The specimen
holder it is contemplated to use in both embodi
ments is the same. The upper end of the canopy
is adapted to pass a tubular member 28, which
has provisions for being connected to a ?uid
or compressed air‘supply, as is indicated roughly.
4
inch. Accordingly, in Figure 1 each scale divi
sion therefore represents 0.001 inch. This thread
pitch is an arbitrary matter and can be varied
to suit the convenience of the operator. Having
indented the specimen the desired amount, tubu
lar member is is locked in place by means of the
lock nut 2!. Connection is then made to a
compressed air supply by coupling member l8 to a
in the figure. The member 28 can be locked
line through a reducing valve arrangement as
in any position by lock screw 29.
Figure 3 is a longitudinal sectional view of the 10 indicated in Figure 3. For the purpose of de
tecting leakage when it starts following the ap
embodiment of the apparatus shown in Figure 2
and includes a showing of a sample 21a in place
plication of air pressure thereto, enough water
or other liquid is added to the specimen container
for test.
.
The apparatus of Figures 1 and 2 can be modi
. i5—-l 6 to submerge the specimen surface and the
' ?ed in various details as the two modi?cations 15 nozzle is indenting it in order that leakage of
the seal formed by the indentation of the nozzle
_shown indicate. Essentially it is necessary to
will be revealed by escape of air through the
provide for causing member l8 to indent a ma
liquid. The pressure at which airbubbles are
terial a given amount. ‘In a third form of the
apparatus member 18 was keyed to prevent its
seen to escape through the surface of the water
rotation and its vertical movement accomplished 20 in the specimen holder is the point at which
by. means of a drive nut like lock nut ,2l of
the sealing material will begin to leak and is
Figure l.
_
designated the unaged sealing pressure.
'
In Figure 4, I have shown the apparatus in
Determination of the aged sealing pressure is
place as it is used in testing the sealing quality
of a gasket material. In this figure the parts of 25 the unit from the compressed air supply, placing
the apparatus shown in detail in Figure 1 have
it in an oven and maintaining it in the oven at
an elevated temperature for a period Of about 48
A
compressed air line 80 is attached to the open end
hours and then removing and repeating the test.
of member [8, which was shown in Figure 1,
A different value of the pressure at which leakand in the line there is pressure gage 3i, petcock 30 age occur will be found after aging the material.
32, and reducing valve 33. Connections to an
The diiIerence between the unaged and the aged
oxygen or air supply are made through line 38,
sealing pressure is a good quantitative indication
- been indicated and are readily identifiable.
and are not shown inasmuch as they are conven
tional.
Having now described in some detail the struc
of the sealing quality of the material tested.
The method of performing the sealing tests on
35 gasket materials using the apparatus described
ture of my testing unit and also having shown
in Figure 2 is substantially identical with that
described in conjunction with the apparatus
‘ scribe the exact method of carrying out an aging
shown in Figure l. The-only material difference
test according to the principles elaborated above.
lies in the fact that the scale by which the amount
‘The test specimen, cylindrical in form, is cut 40 of indentation by the tubular member is deter
mined is mounted on the canopy in Figure 2.
from the material to be tested and is made of a
The specimen is held in place and the indenta
size which will fit closely in to the specimen hold
tion is actually measured by turning the base 22
er‘of the apparatus described in either Figure 1
of the apparatus upward a given amount. That
‘or 2. In practice, I have found that it is con
venient to use a cylindrical specimen having an 45 is, in performing the test, the specimen is put in
area of one square inch, which means its diam
place, tubular member 28 is lowered to contact
the upper surface of the test specimen, it is
eter should be 1.129 inches. It have found it
locked in place, and then the required amount
convenient, also, to cut the specimen with a die
made for the purpose. Any desired lubricating
of indentation is made by turning the base up
fluid which will not attack the material being 50 the given amount. Theamount by which the
tested, such as a soapy solution can be used dur
base is turned up is gaged by means of the scale
ing the cutting. It is desirable that the speci
26 and index mark 26.. The remainder of the
procedure in carrying out the test is identical
men have relatively smooth edges so that it will
fit the specimen holder closely, and also so that
with that described in conjunction with Figure 1.
it can be locked securely in the holder without
Since certain changes may be made in the
deformation. After preparation of the sample
above construction and different embodiments of
it is inserted into the sample holder so that its
the invention couldlbe made without departing
upper face contacts the lip ll shown in Figure 1,
from the scope thereof, it is intended that all
and it is then locked in place by assembling the
matter contained in the above description or
how it is ‘used in a test assembly, I shall now de
specimen holder.
60 shown in the accompanying drawings shall be
Having prepared and mounted a specimen in
interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting
the holder the assembly is placed in the appara
sense. It is also to be understood that the fol
tus and the tubular member is is lowered until
lowing claims are intended to cover all or the
the ball point l9 just makes contact with the
generic and speci?c features of the invention
upper surface of the specimen, as is shown in 65 herein described and all statements of the scope
Figure 4. When the surface of the specimen
of the invention which, as a matter of language,
has been found, the plunger is carried or forced
might be said to fall therebetween.
into the specimen for a desired amount _of in
The invention described herein may be manu
dentation, for example about 31, of _an inch.
factured and used by or for the Government of
Since the threads on tubular member 18 can 70 the United States of America for governmental
be calibrated with relation to the scale on plate
purposes without payment of any royalty thereon
IS the indicator 20 can be used to determine just
or therefor.
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exactly how far the ball point is forcedinto the
Having described my invention what I claim
specimen. I have found it convenient to use a
as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of
pitch of thread on tubular member [8 of 0.025 75 the United States is:
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- 2,412,0885
terial to be tested, a canopy cooperatively thread
1. The method of testing gasket materials for
their sealing quality;'comprising, pressing a n02,
. ed to engage said cylindrical member, a tubular
zle against a specimen to indent the material a
‘ penetrator member guided in longitudinal move
given amount thereby to form a chamber sealed
by said material, covering the exterior portion
of the material outside of said chamber witha
liquid, applying gas pressure to the inside of
said chamber until leakage occurs, and measur
ing the pressure at which the leakage occurs as an
index of the sealing quality of the material.
2. A compressible gasket material testing unit
comprising, a base having therein a cylindrical
threaded member to hold a specimen of the ma
ment‘ and supported ~ by said canopy, locking
means’ to hold said‘ tubular member in ?xed posi
tion while the specimen is brought into contact
therewith and indented thereby, a ?uid supply I‘
for application of fluid pressure to said specimen
through said tubular member, said tubular mem
10 ber and its point of contact with said‘ specimen
forming a ?uid escape revealing structure.
ALBERT D. SWENSEN.

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