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2,412,652‘
F'atented Dec. 17, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,412,652
PROCESSES RELATING TO THE PRODUC
TION OF BOARD AND THE PRODUCT RE
SULTING THEREFEOM ‘
‘
Fritz Rosenthal, Indianapolis, Ind., asslgnor to
The University of Tennessee Research Corpora
tion, Knoxville, Tenn, a corporation of Ten
nessee
No Drawing. Application May 14, 1943,
Serial No. 487,068
9 Claims.
((31. 260-9)
2
_.
the production of such low pressure products th
1
This invention relates to the production of a
?ber component must be separated ‘and elimi
board in which comminuted vegetable products of
lignin and cellulose, and particularly cottonseed
nated from the ?ber-containing cottonseed hulls
prior to impregnating the comminuted bran with
hulls comminuted to a speci?c particle size, are
impregnated with a resinous binder and treated 5 the resin.
The lack of uniformity was partly due to the
under the in?uence of heat and pressure.
difference in bulk or apparent density between
Heretofore excellent board has been made using
the bran and ?ber constituents, and partly due
comminuted cottonseed bran and comminuted
to differences in absorbing power for resin of the
cottonseed ?bers with preliminary impregnation
with a speci?c amount of phenolic resin and un 10 bran and ?ber. When a low pressure of from
600-1000 pounds per square inch was applied to a
der pressures ranging from 2000-4000 pounds per
composition comprising resin-impregnated com
square inch; and indeed excellent board has been
minuted hulls containing bran and ?ber, as con
made using these ingredients without added
trasted to the action when a high pressure of
phenolic resin under the same pressures of from
15 from 2000-4000 pounds. per square inch is ap
2000-4000 pounds per square inch.
plied, the diiference in bulk between bran and
Efforts to reduce the cost of production of
?ber manifested itself in an unequal distribution
board composed of these constituents by reducing
of pressure and hence in a pressed board which _
the pressures to from 600-1000 pounds per square
was
notvuniform. The reduction in pressure also
inch failed because, with the board having the
added phenolic resin, the impregnation was not 20 caused a reduction of the force with which the
phenolic binder was driven into the filler, and
uniform; and further the board warped or
hence the hull ?ber which is the component of
cracked within two or three weeks. With respect
higher absorbing power received comparatively
to the board having no added resin the product
less coating under low pressure than under high
resulting from pressures of from 600-1000 pounds
per square inch was de?cient in ?ow and prac
tically useless.
25
*
Pressures ranging between 2000-4000 pounds
per square inch are too high to produce boards
pressure.
.
While the substitution of ?berless hull bran for
the ?ber-containing hulls overcame the lack of
uniformity it did not eliminate the tendency of
the board produced under pressures of from
of large surface since the pressed surface is de
600-1000 pounds per square inch to warp or crack.
This tendency to warp or crack is presumed to.
pendent on the pressing equipment that is com
mercially available; and irrespective of the avail
ability of such equipment the cost per square inch
be due to conditions or" interior ‘stress within the
board; and while these conditions are not present
when high pressures of from 2000-4000 pounds
of pressed surface increases in proportion to the
pressure that is required to produce the board.
square inch are used with the above indicated
The objects of the present invention‘ are to se 35 per
constituents
they‘ are present when low pressures
cure cheaply and simply from cottonseed hulls as
of from 600-1000 pounds per square inch are ap
a ?ller board made with resinous materials, in
plied to the same constituents.
_
which warping or cracking will be minimized, and
I have discovered that low pressures of from
which will have the desired strength and uni
600-1000 pounds per square inch can be used-in
formity; and the essence of the present invention
the production of satisfactory board charac
is the production of such a board under reduced
terized by a minimum oi‘warping or cracking
pressures of from ‘600-1000 pounds per square
if the proper binder is used, and that it is‘ the
inch, thus materially lowering the pressure and
nature of the binder that governs the tendency
other costs. 7
of board produced under such low pressures to
Cottonseed bran and cottonseed ?bers are the 45
warp or crack. I have further discovered that if
two constituents of cottonseed hulls; and while
the phenolic resin binder which I use in the-pro
the presence of cottonseed ?ber is highly desirable
duction of board with high pressures of from
when pressures of from 2000-4000 pounds per
2000-4000 pounds per square inch is replaced by
square inch are employed, and is an important
element in the strength of products so formed, it 50 a resinous composition containing oxidized abietic
acid there will be secured a board characterized
is the presence of such fibers with the com
by a minimum of warping and cracking under
minuted bran that is responsible for the lack of
uniformity in products formed under low pres
sures of from 600-1000 pounds per square inch.
I have discovered that to secure uniformity in
e.
lowpressures of from 600-1000 pounds per square
inch. I have produced a satisfactory board so
characterized by the use of an oxidized abietic
2,412,652
3
acid composition derived from long leaf yellow
pine and sold in emulsion form, under the trade
name of “Vinsol,” the emulsion containing ap
proximately 40% resin solids and 60% water and
an emulsifyingagent. This pine resin is substan
tially insoluble in petroleum hydrocarbons and
has a methoxy content of 3 to 7% (Condensed
4
of the appended claims; and it is to be understood
that the pressure, ingredients and proportions
thereof may be varied to secure the desired char
acteristics with respect to strength, uniformity,
warping and cracking.
‘
What is claimed is:
1. The method of forming a board which com
Chemical Dictionary, 3rd edition, p. 662).
prises comminuting cottonseed hull bran, mix
prepared in the manner described in the patent
ing therewith a resinous composition derived
to Hall 2,193,026, namely by extraction from pine 10 from pine wood by extraction with a coal tar
wood by a coal tar hydrocarbon followed by re
hydrocarbon which composition is substantially
moval of the material soluble in light petroleum
hydrocarbons. A substantial component of this
insoluble in petroleum hydrocarbons, has a
methoxy content of 3 to 7%, and contains oxi
resin and from which the novel process is believed
dized abietic acid, and subjecting the resulting
to bene?t has been identi?ed as oxidized abietic 15 mass to heat and pressure unti1 a homogeneous
acid. There will be involved in the production
of this ‘board not only the economies derived from
board is produced.
the use of lower pressures and the lower cost
prises comminuting cottonseed ?berless bran,
'2. The method of forming a board which com
of “Vinsol” which is much cheaper than the
mixing therewith a resinous composition derived
phenolic resin binders, This board so constituted 20 from pine wood by extraction with a coal tar hy
and produced will, however, lack strength which
requires the presence, among other things, of
the phenolic resin; but if strength is unimpor
tant and the characteristics of uniformity, sub
drocarbon which composition is substantially in
soluble in petroleum hydrocarbons, has a meth
oxy content of 3 to 7%, and contains oxidized
abietic acid, and subjecting the resulting mass
stantial reduction of warping and cracking are 25 to approximately 300° F. heat and pressure up
the desired ones they will be secured by the use
to 1000 pounds per square inch until a homo
as a binder with ?berless cottonseed bran of the
geneous board is produced.
“Vinsol” resinous composition consisting essen
3. The method of forming a board which com
tially of oxidized abietic acid. In this connection
prises comminuting cottonseed hull bran, mix
I have secured satisfactory results by the pro 30 ing therewith a resinous composition in which
cedure of Example 1 as follows:
the ratio of resin solids to the bran is approxi
56 pounds of comminuted ?ber-free cottonseed
mately one to fourteen, said composition being
hull bran are mixed with ten pounds of “Vinsol
derived from pine wood by extraction with a coal
Emulsion Type 48” (this quantity of emulsion
tar hydrocarbon and being substantially insol
contains four pounds of oxidized abietic acid)
uble in petroleum hydrocarbon-s, has a methoxy
in a steam-jacketed vacuum mixer. A vacuum
content of 3 to 7%, and contains an oxidized
of 23" is applied and low pressure steam passed
abietic acid resin, and a phenol-formaldehyde
through the jacket. Dehydration is complete
resin in the proportions of not more than three
when the temperature of the compound reaches
parts of the phenol-formaldehyde resin to one
140° F., as measured by means of a thermocouple
part of the oxidized abietic acid resin, and sub
inside the mixer. The composition is then placed
jecting the resulting mass to approximately
in a tray in a depth proportionate to the desired
300° F. heat and pressure up to 1000 pounds per
thickness of the board. The tray is placed be
square inch until a homogeneous board is pro
tween the platens of a press which are'heated to
duced.
approximately 300°
and a pressure ranging '
from 600 to 1000 pounds per square inch is ap
plied.
The platens are chilled with water as
4. The'method of forming a board which com
prises comminuting cottonseed hull bran, mix
ing therewith a resinous composition derived
from pine wood by extraction with a coal tar
square inch is reached, and the pressure is re
hydrocarbon which composition is substantially
leased when the temperature of the platen is 50 insoluble in petroleum hydrocarbons, has a meth
reduced to 120° F.
oxy content of 3 to 7 %, and contains oxidized
I have further discovered that the strength of
abietic acid, in which the ratio of resin solids
the board decreases as the proportion of the
to the bran is approximately one to fourteen, and
oxidized abietic acid composition to the phenolic
subjecting the resulting mass to heat and pres
resin increases, and increases as the proportion
sure until a homogeneous board is formed. .
of the oxidized abietic acid composition to the
5. The method of forming a board which com
soon as the full pressure of 1000 pounds'per
phenolic resin decreases; and that strong board
is secured characterized by a, minimum of warp
prises comminuting cottonseed hull bran, mix
ing therewith a mixture of phenol-formaldehyde
ing and cracking when the proportions are used
resin and a resinous composition derived from
of one part “Vinsol” to three parts phenolic resin. 60 pine wood by extraction with a coal tar hydro
In this connection I have secured satisfactory
carbon which composition is substantially in
results by the procedure of Example 2 as follows:
soluble in petroleum hydrocarbons, has a meth
56 ‘pounds/of comminuted ?ber-free cottonseed
oxy content of 3 to I7%, and contains ‘oxidized
hull ‘bran are mixed with 2.5 pounds of “Vinsol
abietic acid, in the proportions of not more than
Emulsion Type 48” (this quantity of emulsion
three parts of phenol-formaldehyde resin to one
contains one pound of oxidized abietic acid) and
part of the oxidized abietic acid resin, and sub
six pounds of a phenolic resin varnish, contain
jecting the resulting mass to heat and pressure
ing 50% (i. e. 3. pounds) phenol-formaldehyde
until a-homogeneous board is formed.
resin in a steam-jacketed vacuum mixer. The
6. A board characterized by a minimum of
dehydration in the vacuum mixer as well as the -70
‘warping and cracking composed of comminuted
pressing between heated platens at 600 to 1000
cottonseed hull bran and a resinous composition
pounds per square inch is carried out in exactly
the same fashion as outlined in Example 1.
The present'invention is'susceptible to differ
ent variations and embodiments within'the limits '
derived from pine wood by extraction vwith a coal
‘tar hydrocarbon which composition is substan
tially insoluble in petroleum hydrocarbons. has
2,412,652
5
a methoxy content of 3 to 7%, and contains ox
idized abietic acid.
'7. A uniform board characterized by a mini
mum of warping and cracking composed of com
minuted cottonseed ?berless bran and a resinous
composition derived from pine Wood by extrac
6
formaldehyde resin in the proportions of not
more than three parts of the phenol-formalde
hyde resin to one part of the oxidized abietic
acid resin.
9. A uniform, strong board characterized by a
minimum of Warping and cracking composed of
comminuted cottonseed fiberless bran, a resi
nous composition derived from pine wood by eX
sition is substantially insoluble in petroleum hy
traction with a coal tar hydrocarbon which com
drocarbons, has a methoxy content of 3 to 7%,
and contains oxidized abietic acid, in which the 10 position is substantially insoluble in petroleum
hydrocarbons, has a methoxy content of 3 to 7%,
ratio of resin solids to the vbran is approximately
and contains oxidized abietic acid, and phenol
one to fourteen.
formaldehyde resin, the ratio of resin solids in
8. A uniform, strong board characterized by a
the composition to the bran being approximately
minimum of warping and cracking composed of
comminuted cottonseed ?berless bran and a res 15 one to fourteen, and the phenol-formaldehyde
resin being in the proportion of not more than
inous composition derived from pine wood by ex
three parts to one part of the oxidized abietic acid
traction with a coal tar hydrocarbon which com
resin.
'
position is substantially insoluble in petroleum
FRITZ ROSENTHAL.
hydrocarbons, has a methoxy content of 3 to 7%,
and contains oxidized abietic acid, and phenol 20
tion with a coal tar hydrocarbon which compo
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