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Patented Dec. 17, 1946
Harold M. Barnett, Long Beach, Calif.
No Drawing. Application June 7, 1943,
Serial No. 489,990
8 Claims.
This invention relates to the preparation of
carotene in oil in concentrated form from vege
table materials.
(01. 260-666) ,
remaining on the belt using a roller for this
purpose. The amount of water to be used varies
with different vegetables and with different lots
having varying qualities and textures. I have
The object of the invention is to provide a
actually used up to 25 gallons of water to 100
process for recovering a concentrated solution of
pounds of carrot pulp. The carotene in the
carotene in oil from vegetable sources. Another
water emulsion from this elutrlation or extrac
object is to provide a process for making crystal
tion process is then coagulated by heating the
line carotene.
liquid with or without a coagulant, or by means
I have discovered that the carotene content of
thoroughly pulped fresh vegetable such as car 10 of added coagulant such as hydrochloric‘ acid.
When the carotene is to be subsequently trans
rots may be almost completely removed by a
formed from the water-base coagulum to an oil
suitable water elutrlation process, and, when the
solution, I prefer to add an inert ?lter-aid ma
process is carried out with a minimum amount
terial such as diatomaceous silica powder either
of water, followed by subsequent coagulation of
the carotene to form a water-dispersed coagulum 15 before or after the water-base coagulum is
formed, or it ‘may be added at both stages.
having as much as 50 to 200 or more times the
The coagulum containing a small amount of
original concentration in the carrots, the
diatomaceous silica ?lter aid is separated from
carotene may be obtained in oil solution by direct
much of the water by decantation. The re
extraction of the moist coagulum with hot vege
table 011.
20 mainder of the liquid may be removed by ?ltra
tion. Because of the slimy character of the
My process will be illustrated by the prepara
coagulum, even when ?lter-aid powder has been 6
tion of carotene from ‘carrots, although the proc
added, the wet mass may be transferred to ?lter
ess is applicable to other vegetable materials
bags, allowed to drain, and then pressed to re
having carotene content such as tomatoes, al
as much of the water as desired. The
i’alia, sweet potatoes, etc.
amount of ?lter-aid is chosen to produce a ?lter
The fresh carrots are reduced to a pulp by
able mixture without unnecessarily diluting the
any suitable mechanical means, such as by pass
carotene content of the cake.
ing them through a hammer-mill preferably
The moist coagulum containing?lter-aid as
without added water or other liquid. It is im
portant that the structure be well broken down 30 previously described, containing a high concen
tration of carotene and a small amount of water,
so that the carotene particles are released from
may also be treated or extracted with a hot edible
the ?ber and other materials. The semi-liquid
oil such as cottonseed oil, to produce an oil solu
mass or pulp is distributed in a thin layer on a
tion of carotene. The temperature is main
moving foraminous belt such as a screen belt,
and jets of water are forced against the pulp on 35 tained at 100 to 150° C. Excess temperature and
too long a time are to be avoided because of the
the belt. The carotene and carotene-containing
production of a scorched ?avor which is unde
particles are insoluble in water, and are small
sirable for uses in food. The oil is removed
enough-some being of colloidal dimensions—to
from the extracted dry solids by ?ltration or
water. The action of the jets is to physically 40 centrifuging. If the residue contains much
carotene, it may be again extracted with fresh
disentangle the carotene particles from the ?ber
oil, or the residue containing some carotene may
and carry them through the screen, with avoid
used for the forti?cation of feeds.
ance of formation of a mat of ?bers on the
The carotene’ extraction from the moist ?lter
' screen which would act as a ?lter and hold back
or entrap the carotene particles. I have found 45 cake is facilitated by forming the cake into rib
bons or small rods (% to V4 inch in diameter) or
that a screen of about 40 mesh is satisfactory
pellets, by extrusion of the somewhat plastic mass
for carrots, but the screen opening may be varied
_ through a suitable die. By using counter-current
for di?erent pulps. The minimum amount of
extraction by the hot oil, I have been able to get
water is used which will separate out substan
tially all of the carotene particles. A moving 0 a high carotene concentration, for example, in
belt has been found advantageous to keep the 5 one case as high as 1.5 percent carotene, equiva
lent to 11,325,000 units of vitamin A per pound.
amount of water to a minimum, but obviously
When the oil solution of this concentration is
other means may be used than those described
cooled, as much as one-fourth of the carotene is
here for illustration. When a belt is used, I ?nd
be carried through the screen openings by the
it desirable to press out the water from the pulp 55 deposited in crystal form, which can be separated
out by decanting or ?ltration, washed free from
oil, thus recovering the carotene as a crystalline
By avoiding the drying of the carrots in the
initial step of the concentration, or of drying the
concentrate, and using the method of extracting
directly into the oil, I greatly decrease the cost
simultaneously dissolve out the carotene, and
separating the oil from the solid residue.
4. The process of recovering carotene compris
ing pulping a carotene-containing fresh vegeta
ble. elutriating with water to separate the caro
tene particles from the ?brous material, forming
a moist solid coagulum containing the carotene,
and extracting the carotene from the coagulum
of getting the carotene from vegetable sources.
The carotene oil concentrate is suitable for en
richment of various foods and pharmaceuticals, 10 by means of hot edible oil.
or it may be used directly as a source of vitamin
mixture with edible oil to vaporize the water and
5. The process of recovering carotene compris
ing pulping a carotene-containing fresh vegeta
- ‘I claim:
ble, elutriating with water to separate the caro
1. The process of extracting carotene from
tene-containing particles from the ?brous mate
solid moist fresh vegetable carotene concentrate 15 rial, adding a, ?lter-aid powder to the water sus
comprising heating the concentrate with edible
pension, forming a moist solidcoagulum contain
oil to vaporize water and simultaneously extract
ing the carotene and ?lter aid powder, forming
the carotene in the oil, and removing the undis
said coagulum ‘with ?lter-aid powder into small
solved residue.
rods or pellets, and extracting said rods or pel
2. The process of recovering carotene compris»
lets with hot edible oil to remove the carotene and
ing pulping a, carotene-containing fresh vegeta
vaporize the water.
ble, elutriating with water to separate the caro
6. ‘The process of claim 5, in which the extrac
tene particles from the ?brous material, forming
tion step consists. of moving said pellets or rods
Y a solid coagulum of the carotene-containing par
counter-currently against a stream 01' hot oil.
ticles, separating the coagulum from excess wa
7. The process of making pure crystalline car
ter, heating the coagulum with edible oil to va
otene comprising treating a moist solid carotene
porize the water and simultaneously dissolve out
concentrate with hot edible oil by counter-current
the carotene, and separating the oil from the solid
?ow until said oil is, saturated with carotene, al
lowing the oil solution to cool, and- collecting the
3. The process of recovering carotene compris
separated crystals ofv carotene.
ing pulping a ‘carotene-containing fresh vegeta 30 8. The process of extracting carotene from a
ble, elutriating with water to separate the caro
moist fresh vegetable carotene concentrate com
tene particles from the fibrous material, adding
prising drying the concentrate to a solid, and ex.
a ?lter-aid powder, forming a, solid- coagulum of
tracting the solid concentrate with hot edible
the carotene particles mixed with ?lter-aid, sep
arating the coagulum and ?lter-aid from the ex 35
cess water, heating the coagulum and ?lter-aid
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