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' Patented Dec.-17, 1946
‘2,412,811
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
CARBON PILE ELECTRI'C REGULATOR.
James H. Johnston, Rldge?eld ‘Park, N. J., as»
slgnor to Bendix Aviation Corporation, Teter
box-o, N. J ., a corporation of Delaware
Application April 4, 1944, Serial No. 529,494
8 Claims. . (Cl. 201':—51)
1
The present invention deals with electrical reg
ulators and is concerned primarily with regulators
of the so-called “carbon pile” type.
At the present time carbon pile regulators have
come into widespread use for such purposes as
controlling the voltage of the output of generators
and also in the governing of current. All of
these carbon pile regulators operate on the prin»
cip-le of varying the pressure applied to the car
.
2
ing through this bore and freely movable there
in, is a rod, one extremity of which is anchored
to the armature, while the other extremity car
ries some adjustable form of stop, such as a nut,
which engages the core. It is evident that with
such an arrangement, movement of the arma
ture towards the pile is de?nitely limited and
the limit may be adjusted by adjusting the nut.
In conditionsof actual use, it has been found
bon pile, the range of effective pressure on the 10 desirable to make the stop which limits the move
ment of the armature of a yieldable nature, as
'Ihere has now come into fairly widespread use
such an arrangement ‘tends particularly to pro
a regulator which is characterized as including
long the life of the carbon pile. Accordingly, a
the usual carbon pile, one end of which is rela
further object is the provision, in a carbon pile
tively ?xed. Operatively associated with the 15 regulator of the character above set forth, of
other end to apply pressure on the pile, is an
yieldable means for limiting movement of the
armature and this armature is carried by a spring
armature towards the pile.
pile being the regulating range of the regulator.
of the leaf type, and the extremities of which
This end is achieved by incorporating in the
mechanism above described an expansion spring.
20 which is disposed about the rod and interposed
The force of the electromagnet is rendered‘
between the end of the core and the nut. The
effective on the armature. It is evident that the
force of this spring opposes the force of the leaf
spring above referred to tends to urge the arma
spring carrying the armature and its effect is to
ture towards the pile, while the magnetic force
provide a yielding stop for the armature.
tends to withdraw the armature from the pile. 25 ‘ Various other more detailed objects of the in- I
The difference between these two forces is the
vention such as arise in carrying out the above
regulating force or working force on the pile.
noted thoughts in a practical embodiment will in
With carbon pile regulators of this type some
part become apparent and in part be hereinafter
di?iculty has been experienced in obtaining de
stated as the description of the invention pro-v
sired regulating effects in that under many con 30 seeds.
ditions the pile is compressed to such an extent
The invention, therefore, comprises a carbon
engage an abutment or top surfacev of an electro
magnet.
as to cause its resistance to fall beneath a de
pile electric regulator, including an electromag
sired minimum. Thus, if the regulator is em
net having a core with which is operatively asso
ployed as a voltage regulator, this undue decrease
ciated an armature. The armature is carried by
in the resistance of the pile causes the voltage -_ a leaf spring, the extremities of which engage
to rise beyond a safe limit. Moreover, with no
the top of the electromagnet. The position of
?xed limit on the extent to which the pile may
this armature determines the pressure on the car
be compressed, chattering and vibration occurs,
bon pile. The core is formed with a bore through
which is a highly undesirable factor.
which extends a rod, one end of which is anchored
With these conditions in mind, this invention
to the armature, and the other end of which car
has in view as an important object, the provision,
ries a stop in the form of a nut which engages
in an electric regulator of the character afore
the end of the core. In a modi?ed form a coiled
said, of means for limiting movement of the
expansion spring may be interposed between the
armature towards the pile whereby de?nite assur
ance is had that the pile will not be compressed
beyond a predetermined safe limit.
core and the nut.
'
For a full and more complete understanding of
_
the invention, reference may be had to the fol
More in detail, the invention has as an object
lowing description and accompanying drawing,
the provision, in a carbon pile regulator of the
wherein:
,
‘ type above noted, 01' limiting means for the arma
Fig. 1 is asection through those parts of a car
ture which is adjustable in nature, so that the ex 50 bon pile regulator with which this invention is
tent to which the pile may be compressed may
immediately concerned; and
be varied as desired.
Fig. 2 is a. similar sectional view of a modi
In carrying out this idea in a practical embodi
i'lcation.
ment, the core 01' the electromagnet is provided
Referring now to the drawing, wherein like
with a bore extending axially thereof. Extend 55 reference
characters denote-corresponding parts,
aei'aeii
and ?rst more particularly to Fig. 1, an electro
With this arrangement all of the desired regu
magnet is referred to in its entirety by the refer- ' , lating effects of the carbon pile regulator are
' ence character E.
This electromagnet comprises
the usual pot made up of a cylindrical wall to,
bottom it, top 92 and upper peripheral ?ange
83. The top i2 is provided with the usual cen
‘ tral opening which is preferably conical in shape,
as illustrated, and which is designated l6.
- maintained, but at the same time these regulat
ing e?ects are rendered more stable and all
chattering is substantially eliminated. It is evie‘ ,
dent that by properly adjusting the nuts 2? and
28, any desired operating range oi’ regulation
may be established.
_
T1 the form of the invention disclosed in Fig. 2,
coaxial therewith, the bottom it is formed with 10 all of the parts described above in connection
with Fig. 1 are repeated. However, in order to
a threaded opening 95. Screwed into the thread
render the stop or limit of movement for the
ed opening i5 is a core it, the upper extremity
armature 2B of a yielding nature, an expansion
of which extends into the opening ill. The core
. coil spring 29 is disposed about the rod 25 and . '
i6 is provided with a bore H! which extends there
throughout. Assembled within the cylindrical 15 interposed between the nut 21 and the core H6.
The force of this spring 29' opposes that of
wall It and between the bottom and top walls '
the spring assembly 2!. It is evident that the
ti and i2 is the usual solenoid winding which is
armature 26 may move towardsthe pile C, but
identi?ed by the reference character S.
this movement is resisted by the spring 29 in addi
Carried on the upper face of the top wall l2,
and preferably in engagement with the periph 20 tion to the magnetic force. As the armature
moves further awayfrom the core, the magnetic
eral ?ange I3 is an abutment ring IS, the ex
force decreases in strength but the resistance
posed surface of which has a slight taper to
of the spring 29 becomes progressively greater.
provide the conical formation depicted at it.
It is evident that the movement of the arma
An armature is indicated at 20 and is carried
by a leaf spring assembly 2!. It will be noted 25 ture is limited, although not in so positive a
that the springs M are of slightly arched or ' nature. Moreover, the presence of the spring
29 exhibits a de?nite tendency to dampen vibra
bowed shape and the free ends of this spring
tions on the part of the armature.
rest against‘ the upper surface ill of the abut
While two preferred embodiments of the in
ment I8. They also ?t within the peripheral
?ange 13 with a reasonably snug ?t, so that in 30 vention are hereinbefore set forth, it is to be
clearly understood that the invention is not to
the assembled relation the armature 20 is prop
be limited to the exact construction illustrated erly centered with respect to the core HE.
and described, because various modi?cations of
A boss 22 is carried by backing plate 23 which
these details may be provided in putting‘the in
bears against the upper face of the spring as
sembly 2i. Any appropriate fastening element, 35 vention into practice within the purview of the
appended claims.’
'
.
such as the screws shown at 24, may be employed
What is claimed is:
to assemble the plate 23, springs 2| and armature
1. In an electric regulator including a carbon
20, as a unit. The boss 22 engages the lower
pile, an armature, a spring carried by said arma
end of a carbon pile which is designated C.
The carbon pile C and solenoid 8' may be con 40 ture for compressing said pile, and an electro
magnet, the‘ improvement consisting of stop
nected into an electrical circuit in any way to
means for limiting movement of said armature
provide the desired regulating e?ects. When
towards said pile, said stop means being so ar
used as a voltage regulator for a generator, the
' ranged as to limit the compression of said pile to ‘
pile C will be placed‘ in series with the shunt
a permissible value substantially less than its
?eld of the generator, while the solenoid S will
maximum value and a permissible value such as
be connected in across the generator. Thus, as
to prevent a decrease in the resistance of the pile
the voltage across the generator varies, so will be
to below a predetermined safe value.
voltage in the solenoid S.
Y
_
2. In an electric regulator including a carbon
The intensity of the magnetic ?eld of the elec
tromagnet E is thereby caused to vary with the 50 pile, an armature having means engaging one end
of said pile to apply pressure thereon, a spring
voltage, and will be effective to in turn vary the
carrying said armature, said spring being ar
_ position of the armature 20. It is evident that
Substantially oppositeto the opening lél'and
as the armature 20 applies more pressure to the _
ranged so as to compress said pile, an electromag
net supporting said spring, and a core ?xedly
mounted as a part of said electromagnet; the im
provement comprising stop means carried by said
armature and arranged so as to be engageable by
from exceeding a safe limit, the stop now to be '
said ?xedly mounted core to limit movement of
described is provided.
7
said armature towards said pile and the maxi
h A rod 25 is threaded at each end. One end
mum extent of compression of the pile by said
60
of this rod is screwed into a complemcntal thread
spring to a value su?icient to prevent a decrease
ed socket in the armature 20, as indicated at 28. _ r in the resistance of the pile below a predeter
This anchors this end of the rod to the arma
mined safe value.
ture. The’ other end of the rod '25 carries a
, 3. In an electric regulator including a carbon .
nut 2'! which engages the end of the core I6.
pile, an armature having means engaging one end
.This nut 21 may be accompanied by a lock nut
of said pile to apply pressure thereon, a spring
28, so that when an adjusted position is once set,
carrying said armature, said spring being ar
ranged so-as to compress said pile, an electro
it will be maintained.
magnet supporting said spring, and a core in
With this arrangement it is evident that the
armature 20 can move towards the pile C only up 70 cluded as a part of said electromagnet, said core
being provided with a bore, a rod freely movable
to the point where the nut 21 engages the core,
in said bore and having one end anchored to said
any further movement being positively inhibited
armature, and a stop carried by the other end of ‘
' by the stop- arrangement. Thus, the voltage may
said rod for engaging said core so” as to limit the
be prevented from rising beyond a predetermined
75 maximum extent of_ compression of the pile by
safe limit.
carbon pile C, its resistance decreases, which in
turn makes the ?eld stronger and thus causes
the voltage'to rise. To prevent this voltage rise
I 2,412,011
5
said spring to a value su?icient to prevent a de
crease in the resistance of the pile to below a pre
determined safe value.
4. In an electric regulator including a carbon
pile, an armature having means engaging one end
of said pile to apply pressure thereon, a spring
carrying said armature and applying pressure to
said pile through said armature for compressing
the pile, an electromagnet supporting said spring,
, and a core included as a part of said electromag
net, said core being formed with/a bore, a rod
freely movable in said bore and having one'end
a part of said electromagnet, and spring means
operably connected to said armature and bearing
upon said core for yieldably opposing movement
of said armature towards said pile and limiting
the maximum compression of said pile to within
a-predetermined safe operating range.
'7. In an electric regulator including a carbon
pile, an armature having means engaging one end
of said pile to apply pressure thereon, a spring
carrying said armature, an electromagnet sup
porting said spring, and a core included as a part
of said electromagnet, said core being formed
anchored to said armature, the otherend of said
with a bore, a rod freely movable in said bore and
having one end anchored to said armature, a stop
threaded end and forming a stop adapted to en-,
carried by the other end of said rod, an expan
gage said core to determine the limit of movement
sion spring associated with said rod and posi
of said armature towards said pile, said nut being
tioned between said stop and said core so as to
arranged so as to be adjustable exteriorly of said
bias said armature in a direction tending to with
regulator for increasing and decreasing the ini
draw said armature from said pile, and the stop
tial pressure applied to said pile by said spring so 20 and expansion spring on the other end of said rod
as to vary the maximum permissible compres
for limiting the maximum compression of said
rod being threaded and a nut carried on said
sion'of said pile.
5. In an electric regulator including a carbon
pile to within a predetermined safe operating.
range.
_
pile, an armature, a spring carried by said arma
8. In an electric regulator including a carbon
ture for biasing the armature so as to compress 25 pile, an armature having meansengaging one end
said pile, and an electromagnet, said ?rst men
of said pile to apply pressure thereon, a spring tioned spring opposing movement of said ‘arma
carrying said armature, an electromagnet sup
ture toward said electromagnet; the improve
porting said spring, and a ctre included as a part
ment comprising an additional yieldable spring
of said electromagnet, said core being formed
means operably connected intermediate said elec 30 with a bore, a rod freely movable in said bore and
tromagnet and armature so as to oppose move
ment of said armature towards said pile and ar
ranged so as to limit the compression of said pile
by said ?rst mentioned spring to a value substan
tially less than its maximum and a limited value 35
sufiicient to prevent a decrease in the resistance
of the pile below a predetermined safe value.
6. In an electric regulator including a carbon
pile, an armature having means engaging one end
of said pile to apply pressure thereon, a spring
carrying said armature,_ an electromagnet sup
porting said spring, and a core ?xedly mounted as
having one end anchored to said armature, a nut .
threaded on the other end of said rod and form
ing a stop for limiting movement of said armature
in a pile compressing direction, and a coil expan
sion spring disposed about said rod and inter
posed between said ‘core and nut and tending to
oppose movement of said armature in a pile com
pressing direction so as to limit the maximum
compression of said pile to within a predeter
mined safe operating range.
JAMES H. JOHNSTON.
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