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Dec. 24, 1946.
‘ _
Filed-June. 27, 1942
4 Sheets-Sheet l I
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60 007 7'0 Max. P4065
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MHRMS' May 55 M005
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VOL 7:465 ‘ I c,
Dec. '24, 1946.
Filed. June 27, v1942.
4 Sheets-‘Sheet, 4
1 numbi
’ JmcHnou/z/Ma
W050 RIM. 051
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Patented ‘ Dec. 24-, 1946
‘ 2,413.0639
William ‘A. Miller, Port Jefferson; Station, N'.‘Y.,
' assignor‘to Radio Corporation of1 America, ‘a j
corporation of Delaware
‘Application June 27‘, islizgsenai No. 448,304
‘ 11 Claims. ‘
(01. 315-24)‘
' The present inventionlrelat‘es to improvents in ‘
high frequency systems.
Oneof the objects of the present invention is
‘ to provide a cathode ray oscilloscope system which
enables the signal to be ‘measured to appear‘on
ti'ming‘mark to appear on the return trace of the
sweep, Without the need of switching devices.
Another‘obje'ct is to provide a generatorof .
triangular-waves or ietriangular‘pu‘lses, in which‘
a‘ desired degree of control can be given to either
' ‘_
Still another'object is to provide an‘ improved
generator of triangular pulses which repeat
themselves at, speci?ed and controlled ‘intervals 15
oftime, but which pulses occupy a time inter
Val less than or small compared‘ to the repetition '
or timing‘ marks‘toilthesa‘me‘ signal plates dur- »
ing return trace ‘of the sweep.
‘Heretofore, infusing cathode ray oscilloscopes
‘as measuring or indicating instruments, it has
been customary to impress ‘timing or index marks
or other signals on the trace of the cathode ray
the forward trace ofthe sweep, and the index or
slope of the triangular wave.
the‘lforwardl'trace of‘ the sweep and the index‘
A further object is‘to provide a generator of
-‘ triangular waves or pulses,‘utilizing constant cur
rent devices both for charging and “discharging
beam. "According to‘ known practice, this has
been accomplished by applying a"s'awt‘ooth'w'a've
to the" horizontal de?ecting plates“ of theoscillo-l
scope, and then alternately impressing‘the ‘sigé
nal to be measured and the index orvtimin‘g mark
on ‘the ‘forward; trace‘of the cathode ray‘ beam,
To achieve the alternate application of the sig
nal and the index mark to the forward trace
‘of the cathode ray oscilloscope, there have‘ been
employed mechanical or electronic switching ‘de
vices. ‘ Fig. 1 illustrates graphically known pracg
‘ti‘ce‘wherein‘a sawtooth wave of the type shown
in'this‘ ?gureis ‘applied to the horizontal de?ect-l.
ingplates of the cathode ray oscilloscope, while
the signal tube‘ measured or under observation,
a charge storing 1element. ,
A'still‘furth‘er object is to‘ provide a generator ,
herein‘ indicated‘as a pulse I0‘, is applied to the
‘signal deflection plates for‘ observation on the
t of triangular waves or pulses,‘ in‘ which the re‘
turn'slope of the wave or ‘pulse‘isldel‘ayed over a 25 forward trace of the beam, while ‘the index‘or‘
timing marks; herein 1repr'esented‘as II, are ap- -'
desired interval of time.‘
Other objects and the means for achievingthe
same will appear from a reading‘ of the follow
ing description, in ‘conjunction with drawings,
“Fig. 1 graphically illustrates knownpracticeiné
volving the use‘ of a sawtooth wave form applied
to a cathode ray ‘oscilloscope ‘for measuring pur
‘ 1
" Fig. 2 graphically illustrates certain‘ principles
of the present invention,- involving the ‘use of a
triangular wave with a delayed return slope‘ for
application to a. cathode ray oscilloscope;
Fig. 2a graphically illustrates ‘a series of trii
angular pulses which are produced by ‘several .
generators of the present‘invention, which pulses
can be made to repeat ‘themselves at‘spejci?edpand
controlled intervals of time;
’- _;
Figs. 3, 4, ‘5, 5a, ,6 and 6a show several embodi
ments of generator circuits in‘ accordance with
the invention, for producing triangularwaves of
the kind illustrated in‘Fig. 2; I
‘ ‘
t ‘Figs. '7 and 8 show. generator‘ circuits in ac
cordance with two ‘other embodiments of the
present invention, for producing triangular pulses
plied‘to the samesignal deflection plates for ob
servation ‘on thenext ‘forward trace of the oath;
ode ‘ray beam. ‘The sawtooth wave,‘ as‘ is well
known, allows the cathode‘ ray beam to be de
?ected at a uniform rate over the surface of the
screen of the oscilloscope, duringthe'time To and
Ti,v'after which‘ the spot ‘is rapidly returned’to
. its‘ original position during the time T1, man.
This latter time is ordinarily‘made to be as short
as possible consistent with stability. Actually,
the sawtooth wave of Fig. 1 represents the volt- ‘
age usually on ‘the horizontal sweep plates, the
cathode ray trace being only a horizontal‘line
on the oscilloscope.“ The two voltages, i. e., the
signal to be ‘measured and the index or timing
‘marks, both of. which are to be‘o'bserved, are im
pressedfaccording to known, practice alternately
‘ on'the same signal de?ection plates of ,theytupbe
by‘ ‘_ means “ of some ‘mechanical or electronic
switchingdevice. ‘ one; di?iculty with this known
practice ilsth'at the‘switche‘s, both fmechanical
and electrical, are complicated, and the mechani4
cal switch ‘requires‘synchronization to” prevent
accidental chopping. ‘ The electronic switch, fur
therm'ore,‘ ‘requires a‘ great number ‘of tubes and
several ‘channels, in addition to' also requiring
Fig. 9 illustrates, schematically,‘ a simple ci‘ré
cuit arrangement useful in“ radio locating sys
The present invention overcomes the foregoing ‘
tems for applying the signal pulse to‘ belmeas
uredtoithe signal plates of ‘an oscilloscope during 55 di?iculty by eliminating the need for. switching ‘
of the kind illustrated in Fig. 2a; and“
arrangements in applying the signal to be meas
ured and the timing marks on the oscilloscope.
According to one feature of the present inven
tion, it is proposed to delay the return time or
is obtained an indication of the range or dis
tance to the object detected. The dial for lining
up the index mark with any of the pulse marks
to be identi?ed may control a rheostat or a po
slope of the sawtooth wave, in order to form a
tentiometer applying potential to a tube, and may
triangular wave of the type shOWn in Fig. 2, for
be suitably calibrated to read the distance. For
applying. a voltage on the horizontal sweep'plates
a more detailed understanding ofthe‘ general
of the oscilloscope, as a result of-which the sig
principles of the‘ radio locating system referred
nal to be observed can be applied to the vertical
to above, to which the invention may be applied,
signal plates, while the cathode ray beam is mov 10 reference is made to copending Hansell applica
ing in one direction (the forward trace, for ex
tion Serial No. 427,266, ?led January 19, 1942,
ample), and the index or timing marks applied
and a copending Lindenblad application Serial
to the same vertical signal plates, while the
No. 441,311, ?led May 1, 1942.
cathode ray spot is moving in the opposite di
Fig. 2a illustrates another type of triangular
rection (return trace). Thus, if the triangular 15 wave herein shown as triangular pulses sepa
wave of Fig. 2 represents the voltage which ap
rated from one another, which, it is contem
plicant applies to the sweep plates of the oscillo
plated, can be produced in accordance with the
scope, the signal pulse to be observediherein la
present invention. The triangular pulses of Fig.
beled 10) will appear on the surface of the oscil
2a repeat themselves at speci?ed and controlled
loscope screen during the time To and T1, while
intervals of time, and the pulses occupy a time
the index or marking pulses l I will appear on
the surface of the oscilloscope screen during the
time T1 and T2. As mentioned above, in prac
tice the trace appears only as a horizontal line
interval less than or small compared to the repe
tition rate. When using the triangular pulses of
the type shown in Fig. 2a, the time interval To
to T1 should correspond to‘ the time it takes for
on the oscilloscope, although the triangular shape 25 a signal of a radio locatingsystem, when such
of the; sweep voltage curve represents the voltage
pulses are applied to such a system, to go out to
curve of the wave app-lied to the sweep plates. It
the maximum distance range to be observed and
then return as an echo. This presupposes, of
plates only have been mentioned, presupposing
course, that there is an object in this distance
the use of an electrostatic de?ection type of oscil 30 range to be detected, in order to re?ect a wave
loscope, it should be understood that the meth
to produce a re?ection or echo pulse. The time
ods mentioned above are applicable to magnetic
T1 to T2 is a variable time, which can be con
deflection oscilloscope tubes using de?ecting coils
trolled in accordance with the invention, in which
instead of plates. A simple circuit for achieving
the index or timing marks may be made by suit
the results graphicallyshown in Fig. 2 is sche
able circuits. The time between the beginning
will be understood, of course, that although sweep
matically illustrated in Fig. 9, described later.
of any two adjacent triangular pulses represents
From the foregoing, it will be apparent that by
the time between the initiating pulses. The sev
means of the invention. which involves applying
eral embodiments for producing waves or pulses
both the signal under observation and the timing
of the type shown in Fig. 2a, will be described
or index marks in the proper phase relation to 40 later in connection with the generator circuits ,
eachother to the same signal plates, both the
of Figs. 7 and 8.
signal to be observed and the timing or index
The different generator circuits of the present
marks will be impressed on the oscilloscope with
invention for producing triangular waves of the
out interference and without any need for
type shown in Fig. 2 will now be described: Such
switching arrangements.
generator circuits are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 5a, 6
"One particular application involving that fea
and 6a.
ture of the present invention employing a tri
Fig. 3 shows a simple circuit for producing the
angular'wave impressed upon the sweep plates
triangular wave of Fig. 2. In this system the cir
of a cathode ray oscilloscope measuring or indi
cuits L1, C2 and L2, C3 comprise constant current
cating instrument is in the radio locating ?eld.
networks. The condenser 01 and the series cir
In the radio locators now commonly employed for
cuit R2, 03 are charged by current ?owing through
military purposes, the pulse is sent out by the
L1 and R1 from a source of positive high direct
transmitter and re?ected from the object to be
current voltage HT. .The values of C2 and L1 are
detected, which might be an airplane or a ship.
so chosen that for the particular frequency de
This re?ected pulse will appear on the forward
sired, a constant current ?ows in the condenser
trace of the oscilloscope sweep, while the index
C1, so that the voltage across the terminals of
markingswill appear on the returning trace of
C1 increases linearly with time, Putting it in
the oscilloscope sweep. The time of the trace of
other words, the magnitude of current which ?ows
the sweep wave from the beginning of the trace
in C1, R2 and C3 is determined by the values of
(started by an outgoing pulse) to the peak of 60 L1, C2 and L2,‘ C3. The resistors R1 and R2 serve
the sweep voltage, corresponding to the furthest
to prevent reaction between the two constant cur
distance of the trace on the oscilloscope before
rent networks L1, C2 and Cs, L2. These constant
the trace returns, is made to be slightly greater
current networks are resonant to the particular
than the time for a pulse to reach an object in
frequency of the sweep desired on the de?ection
the greatest distance range to be observed and
plates of. the oscilloscope, to which the output of
then return as an echo or re?ected pulse. Due
the system may be applied. 1A gaseous discharge
to: the persistence of vision, the re?ected pulses
tube I is shown having itsanode connected to one
and index marks will both appear to the eye on
the oscilloscope screen at the same time. By
lining up one of the index marks, by means of a
dial, for example, with any one echo or pulse
mark to be identi?ed, and then observing the
distance on the trace between the point of origin
10fv the ray spotand the position of the index
,mark under the echo mark to be identi?ed, there
terminal of the coil L2 of one of the constant cur
rent networks. The grid of this gas triode is suit
ably biased by a tap 2 adjustable over a potenti
ometer 3, to a suitable negative potential. The
grid of the gas triode is also connected, if de
sired, to a synchronizing pulse circuit comprising
a condenser C4 and resistor R3. Although syn-'
" chronization is not essential inthe practice of
'ionan'ce for the fundamental frequency means
1‘that ‘the ‘currents for‘the harmonics are not con
stant, as a result of which. there is‘ a departure‘
.the ‘present invention,it is sometimes desired due
to “the ‘fact i that the heating of the elements .‘of
, ‘the system may change the time constants and
the tuning} of the. constant current networks L1,
C2 andfLz, C3. ‘The resistor R3 of thessynchroniza
ction ‘circuit is madereasonably high to prevent
theLsynchronizationcircuit from interacting with
‘ ‘thegridcontrol of the gas'triode. :The condenser
. ‘C4 is anisolating (blocking) condenser to‘prevent
the voltage on the grid of‘the triode-from enter
from linearitylin the output voltage wave. The‘
foregoing di?iculties mentioneduabove .‘in‘ connec
tion with Figs. ‘3i. and 4 are overcome ‘by the gen
erator circuits of the invention- of Figs. 5,:‘5a,\6
"and 6a. 1These=last four ?guresillustrate circuits
which avoid the use of passive networks to control
10 'the “current, and, instead of passive. networks,
employ electronic deviceskfor producing constant
inglthe ‘synchronization rcircuit,‘ .andv-vice versa. .
‘Returning ‘now to the operation of thesystemof
“Fig. *3, the gasitriode i will iionize and cause cur
rent to show therethrou-gh when ‘the i1 ungrounded
‘current ‘?ow in both the lchargeland discharge
terminal of the storing ‘condenser Cr‘reaches 1a
‘particular'potential, at iwhichatime the ‘condenser
perature ‘limited diode ‘4, which replaces the ‘con;
stant current network IL2,“C3 oflFig. 4. It should
be noted ‘that ‘Fig. 5 employs substantially the
same constant current pentode charging circuit
shown and described in connection with Fig. 4.
The temperature‘limited‘diode 4 is designed ‘to
1C1 'Will discharge :throug‘h tube‘
parts of the cycle.
. The circuit
. constantsLz and C3 aresochosen that a constant
currentflows out :of the condenser vCl, ‘thus re- .
sulting in‘ a voltage at its terminals which 'de
creases linearly in time. The resulting voltage
wave at the output terminals of-the‘system labeled
i i
work on the‘ saturated portion of thefplate “volt; '
age-plate ‘current curve for a particular Value ‘of
‘cathode temperature.‘ Preferably, a curve is se
“sweep voltage” ‘has the 1form‘of TIFig, ‘ 2. ‘ The
lectedi‘in which the ‘plate voltage, range‘ ‘forieonk
repetition rate of the triangular-voltage*wavesor
irequency‘inay-be kept constant ‘despite tempera
‘Fig. 5‘ di?ers from Fig. 4' in ‘the useof a tem
stant current is ‘rather large. The system of Fig.
ture changes bythe application ofthe synchroniz
5 can ‘be employed to produce a triangular wave
ing ‘pulse applied to the grid of the igastriode {It
as mentioned above. The voutputiof the system'rof
Fig. 3 is available at .the terminals ‘marked “sweep
voltage” and can be applied tosuita‘ble de?ection
‘plates on the oscilloscope. This repetition rate of
‘ the triangular wave-should ‘b‘e‘a multiple ‘of the
‘frequency of ‘the ‘signal to. be observed. Inci
‘ dentally, it. should here‘be :noted that the coililn
of isosceles ‘configuration; ‘that is,‘ one in "which
ithe‘iperce‘ntage of ‘the period requiredmforfthe
chargeand discharge is ‘the same.‘ Thecharging '
time of the triangular wave generator Fig.5 (and
thisialso applies to‘the?system of Fig. 4) can be H t 1
controlled ‘Within desired limits‘by variation of
the values Ofwthe resistors Brand Re. ‘
‘:Fig. v5ayis"a ‘modi?cation of‘Fig. 5, and differs
of Fig. ‘3 may or may not have an iron core, de
from Fig. 5 ‘mainly in the use of a con'stantcur
pending upon the “frequency of‘the sweep desired. ‘ ‘
rent pentode tube? to replace‘ the temperature
limited ‘diode. 4. This pentode P'igdesigned to
Although a gaseous tubehas been :shown used
in Fig. 3, it should be understood ‘that, if desired,‘
other types of electron discharge ,devices may be‘
employed, such'as a high vacuum discharge deg
function in. a manner similar to the operation of
constant =current<pentode ‘P, and has associated
:vice which might‘be axdynatron oscillator or a
‘blocking oscillator or even a .multivibrator osc‘il- A
therewith resistor R6", condenser C’, and ‘Re
sistor R1’, which correspond to resistor Racon
"denser C,nand resistor ‘R1 of pentode circuit P.‘
The‘ useof‘the pent‘ode P’ enables ‘a control in
vention which is a‘ modi?cation of Fig; ‘3, ‘di?er
percentage‘ of the‘iperiod required for the dis-’
‘charge; Thug-by‘means of the system of Fig. ‘5a,
ing from Fig. 3 primarily in the 'usewof a con
I amnable to obtain any desired wave shape for
Fig. 4 shows ‘another embodiment of ‘thexiin
stant current pentode tube P,in place. of the .con
. stant current ‘network L1, Ca-of‘Fi‘g. ‘:3; The high
vacuum‘ electron discharge device ‘:pent‘ode. P is
biased; in such a ‘way by variable resistors R1 and '
Be, that its cathode ‘current is essentially inde
pendent of the voltage applied from HT. ‘This
cathode ‘current is used for ‘charging the ‘con
denser C1. The condenser C5 in Fig. 4181a :byp‘ass
the‘ ‘triangular output wave, with anyrdesired
‘control of ‘the charge ‘and discharge time of the
pulse available at the‘sweep voltage terminals.
Fig. ‘621$ ‘a generator of triangular waves, and
is substantially similar to‘ the circuit ‘of Fig. 5,
except that: the positions ‘of the temperature‘ lim
ite‘ddiode and the ‘gas triode ‘are‘reversed. In
Fig. '6 the condenser C1 is charged through the
‘ condenser, ‘and serves to keep thesignal :off the 55 ‘temperature 1limited diode 4’, while the constant
current pentode P” ‘prevents a more rapid dis
screen grid of tube .P. Theconstant current ‘net
charge of the condenser C1 through the gas triode
work Lace and the gas triode circuit] are simi
I than the timeof charge of this condenser. ‘The -.
lar to the same numbered circuit elements of Fig.
rates of ‘discharge in the ‘system of Fig. 6 can be
3, and operate in substantially the ‘same .way.
Although the systems of Figs. 3 and 4wshow ways 60 controlledby the adjustment of the resistors Re"
and R1". In this way again we can obtain an
of producing a‘triangular Wave of the type shown
‘unsymmetrical triangular wave...
. t
in. Fig. ,2, these generator circuits are: not :pre
Fig. :6a‘ shows a ‘triangular wave‘ ‘generator
ferred ‘because .;of the a ‘following dif?cuities ‘which
which differs fromiFig.‘ 6 ‘primarily ‘in the use of ‘
they experience.‘ These difficulties ‘are ‘caused
a constant current .pentode‘ ‘P ‘for the tempera
‘ by the use of passive networkstocontroljthe cure
ture limited diode ‘.4’ of Fig.“ 6. “Thus, Fig. '6a ‘
rent, and are brie?y (1.) .theconstancyof ‘the .‘cur
employs two constant current pentodes, like Fig.
rent depends upon the ability of ‘the coil toxproa
5a, but with the positions of the constant current
.duce extremely high voltages at resonancepand
‘pent/odes in the discharge path on opposite‘side's
‘such high voltages‘ require ‘a very high 1Q cir
cuit ‘which, is .‘rather di?icult‘ii‘to obtain; (2) ‘the 70 ‘of the gas tube I-
operation ofsuch circuits depends upon‘resonan-c‘e,
which requires that a new circuit be ‘used “for
each frequency desired; and t3) .alEourier anally- '
‘ The advantages‘ of the systems‘ of‘Figs. 5a and
611 over the circuits ‘of Figs. 5 ‘and ?reside in the
_"fact ‘that ‘the additional .pentodes' or Figs; 5a and
6a enable a control of the time of discharge of
sis of va ‘triangulanwave reveals vthatdihere are i
many harmonics present and ‘ a-.condit'ion\ of res‘ 75 ‘the condenser Ci through‘ the gas tube,‘ through ‘
adjustment of the resistors in the circuit of the
pentode in the discharge path. Also, temperature
limited diodes as shown in Figs. 5 and 6 have to
be’ operated at reduced cathode temperature
which makes the device very sensitive to ?uctua
tions in the supply voltage to the cathode heater.
Hence, temperature limited diodes are to be
avoided where such ?uctuations are to be ex
mains on condenser C6. "The length of time the
charge remains on condenser C6 is determined by
the adjustment of the resistor R7, as well as by
the value of C6. If resistor R2 is small, the charge
on C6 will leak oiT rapidly. As a l'esult‘of the fore
going action of tube T1 becoming non-conducting
and tube T2 becoming conducting, a condition the
reverse of that previously existing, there will be
a positive potential pulse on ‘point A and a nega
Figs. 7 and 8 show preferred arrangements for , 10 tive potential pulse on point B.
When the charge on condenser Cs has leaked
generating triangular pulses of the kind shown in
Fig. 2a. The systems of these two ?gures have
the advantage of being able to produce triangular
pulses which are initiated by the synchronizing
pulse. For this reason they are well adapted'ior
use with the radio locating system hereinabove
described, although not limited thereto.
Referring to Fig. 7 in more detail, there is
shown a multivibrator or trigger circuit compris
ing vacuum tubes T1, T2, and another multi
' vibrator‘ or trigger circuit comprising a pair of
off, the tube T2 will again become non-conduct
ing and tube T1 conducting, thus restoring the
multivibrator to its original condition of stability.
The value and adjustment of resistor R7 will de
termine the time it takes tubes T1 and T2 to‘be
restored to the normal condition of stability in
which T1 is conductng and T2 non-conducting,
and determines the width of the pulses available
at the'anodes of tubes T1 and T2 at points A and
B, respectively. Thus, it will be seen that from
an initiated pulse applied to condenser N, there
are obtained two pulses of voltage, controllable
electrode structures, included in a single evacu
ated envelope T4. The storing or charging ele—
ment comprises a condenser G1, which is charged
in width and‘ 180° out of phase. The time delay
through a vacuum tube T3, the latter in, turn .25 between initiating pulse and ?nal saturation is
being controlled by the multivibrator circuit T1,
determined by the rate at which the voltages at
T2. The condenser Cris discharged in a manner
,A and B can charge C's, Cm and the input ca
described later through the pentode electrode
pacitances of tubes T2 and T1, respectively; that
structure of the multivibrator T4. The grids of
is, Ea must charge T2 and Cm, while Eb must
the two multivibrator circuits are ‘biased'unsym 30 charge T1 and‘Ce.
metrically, one grid having a negative bias ap
- The voltage pulse from tube T1 is positive in
plied thereto, while the other grid has an adjust
sign, very steep-sided, and ?at on top. This pulse
able resistor connected to the ground. In each
is applied through the coupling condenser C0 to
multivibrator circuit, the anode of each electrode
the anode and screen grid of tube T3. Normally,
structure is cross-coupled to the grid of the other ‘ tube T3 is non-conducting in the absence of a
electrode structure, so that the circuit as a whole
positive pulse applied to its anode and screen grid
has one degree of electrical stability. In the op
‘by tube T1 over condenser Cc. The application of
eration of such a multivibrator, there is a pre
a positive pulse to the anode and screen'grid
determined maximum anode current flow in one
of tube T3 causes'it to pass a current to charge
of the electrode structures, and a predetermined 4-0 the condenser C1 at a constant rate. The resistors
minimum anode current flow in the other elec
R8, R9 and R10 are adjusted in such manner that
trode structure, or the reverse, the change being
tube Tacharges the condenser G1 at a constant
controlled by a pulse of desired potential applied
rate, for the duration of the charge is, of course,
' to the grid of one of the electrode structures.
controlled by the resistor R7 and condenser Cc
Referring to the multivibrator circuit composed
in the multivibrator circuit T1, T2.
of tubes T1 and T2, the anode of T1 is coupled
The multi-vibrator circuit T4 operates some
to the signal grid of T2 through resistor and con
what similarly to the multivibrator circuit T1, T2,
denser combination M, while the anode of T2
the former being shown as one tube rather than
is coupled to the grid of tube T1 through a con
two tubes, merely in the interest of economy. The
denser C6. The input circuit which provides the
triode or left-hand electrode structure portion
initiating pulse is coupled to the grid of T1
through a condenser N. The tubes T1 and T2
are such that normally, in the absence of‘an ini
tiating pulse of negative polarity, tube T1 is con;
ductive and tube T2 non-conductive. The appli
cation of a negative impulse to condenser N will
impress a negative pulse on the grid of tube T1,
which causes a change in the anode current of
tube Ti and simultaneously therewith a change
in the anode potential of this same tube. This
same change is immediately augmented by the
consequent changes in the grid and anode po
tentials on the tube T2. The reason for this fol
lows: A decrease in the anode current of T1
caused by the application of a negative potential
to the grid of T1, will place a positive bias on the
grid of T2, thus causing current to flow into T2.
of T4 is normally ‘conducting, while the pentode.
or right-‘hand electrode structure portion of T4 is
normally non-conducting. During the cycle of
operations of the multivibrator'Ti, T2, the nega
tive pulse from point B on the anode circuit of
tube T2 supplies a negative pulse to the differen
tiator circuit constituted by condenser 013, R13.
This di?erentiator circuit will produce from the
?atitopped negative pulse supplied thereto both
a sharp negative pulse and a sharp positive pulse
separated by the width of the pulse from T2, the
negative pulse of which has no effect, but the
positive pulse of which acts on the ?rst grid of
.the pentode electrode structureportion of T4, to
cause this electrode structure to pass current.
The drawing of current by the pentode section
of T4 will stop the current ?ow in the triode seo~
The ?ow of current in T2 in turn will cause a
tion of T4 in a manner which will be quite ap
lowering of the voltage on the anode of T2, as
parent from what has been previously stated in
a result of which the condenser Ce will be charged TO connection with the multivibrator circuit T1, T2.
negatively, and the current of tube Ti will be
further decreased until current saturation of tube
T2 is reached, at which time tube T1 will be non
conducting and tube T2 conducting. This condi
_..tion obtains as long as the negative charge re- »~
Resistor R11 is one of the elements controlling
the rate of discharge of condenser C1, since re
sistor R11 is adjusted so that the pentode section
of T4 is operated as near to saturation as is possi
ble, thus yielding an essentially constant current
movement of said ray in the reverse direction
along said path.
- 9. In a cathode ray oscilloscope system, a cath-_
nately traverse a straightline path, in?uencing
ode ray device having a p'airof horizontal beam"
de?ecting plates and a pair of vertical beam de
?ecting plates, a pair of resistors coupledv be-.
tween the plates of each pair, a connection from
ground to the junction point of each pair of.
said ray by one of said voltages during movement
of said ray in one direction along said path and
resistors, a sweep generator producing a saw
tooth wave form having equal sides, a connec
3, The method of comparing the time relations
of a pair of voltages in a cathode ray oscilloscope,
which comprises causing the cathode ray to alter
in?uencing said ray by said other Voltage during
tion including a blocking condenser from the
movement of said ray in the reverse direction 10 output of said generator to oneof said‘horizon
along said path.
tal de?ecting plates, a source oftiming marks
4. The method of comparing the time relations
coupled through a blocking condenser to one
of a pair of voltages in a cathode ray oscilloscope
vertical de?ecting plate, a source of pulses cou
which comprises applying one voltage of said pair
to said oscilloscope solely- during the time the
cathode ray is traveling in one direction, and ap
plying the other voltage of said pair to said oscil
loscope solely during the time the cathode ray
is traveling in the opposite direction.
pled through a blocking condenser to the other
vertical de?ecting plate, and means for so phas
ing said sources that they respectively impress
their outputs on they vertical plates during dif
ferent slopes of said saw-tooth wave form.
10. In a cathode ray oscilloscope system a cath
5. In a cathode ray oscilloscope system, the 20 ode ray device having a pair of horizontal beam
method of operation which includes repeatedly
de?ecting plates and a pair of vertical beam de
applying the signal to be observed only during
?ecting plates, a pair of resistors coupled between
the forward trace of the cathode ray, and re
the plates of each pair, a connection from ground
peatedly applying the timing marks only during
to the junction point of each pair of resistors,
the return trace of the cathode ray.
25 a sweep generator producing a saw-tooth wave
6. In a cathode ray oscilloscope system, the
form having equal sides, a connection including
method of operation which includes generating
a blocking condenser from the output of said
a voltage of triangular wave form having sub
generator to one of said horizontal de?ecting
stantially equal length slopes, repeatedly apply
plates, a source of timing marks coupled through
ing said voltage to the sweep plates of said
a blocking condenser to one vertical de?ecting
oscilloscope, applying the signal voltage to be
plate, a source of pulsescoupled through a block
observed to the signal plates of said oscilloscope
only .during the forward sweep of the cathode
ray vspot'corresponding to the up slope of said
triangular wave form, and applying the index
mark voltages to the same signal plates only
during the return sweep of the cathode ray spot
corresponding to the down slope of said triangu
lar wave form.
ing condenser to the other vertical de?ecting
plate, means for so phasing said sources that,
they respectively impress their outputs on the
vertical plates during di?erent slopes of said
saw~tooth wave form, a source of timed initiat
ing pulses and means for controlling the start
of the cycle of operations of said saw-tooth sweep
generator by an initiating pulse from said source
7. In a cathode ray oscilloscopesystem, the 40 of initiating pulses.
method of operation which includes applying a
11. In a, cathode ray oscilloscope system, a
voltage of triangular wave form to the sweep
cathode ray beam' device having means for pro
plates to thereby produce a forward trace and
ducing beam' de?ection in the direction of a
a return trace of the cathode ray for each voltage
timing axis and means for producing beam de
wave, and applying both the signal to be ob
?ection in a direction to produce a, trace pat
servedand the index marks to the same signal
tern when operating in conjunction with the
plates but during different traces of a single cycle
timing axis de?ection, a sweep generator pro
of generation of any one triangular voltage wave.
ducing a saw tooth wave form having equal
8. In a cathode ray oscilloscope system, a cath
sides, a connection from the output of said gen
ode ray device having a pair of horizontal beam
erator to the ‘timing axis de?ection means, the
de?ecting elements and a pair of vertical beam 50 connection being operative to excite said de?ect
de?ecting elements, a sweep generator producing
ing means to produce beam de?ection in accord
a saw-tooth wave form having equal sides, con
ance with the saw tooth waveform, a source of
nections'from said generator to the horizontal
signals for producing timing'marks, a connec
de?ecting elements of said cathode ray device, 55 tionvfromrsaid timing mark signal source to said
a source of timing marks coupled to said vertical
‘trace pattern de?ecting means operative to cause
de?ecting elements for applying marking pulses
beam de?ection in accordance with timing mark
thereto solely during the time corresponding to
the interval of one side of said saw-tooth wave
form, and a source of signals to be measured
operatively coupled to said vertical de?ection
elements solely- during the time corresponding
to the interval of the other side of said saw
toothwave form.
signals, a source of pulses, means to connect said
pulse source to said trace pattern de?ecting
means, ‘and means for so phasing said sources
that they respectively impress their outputs on
the pattern trace producing means during dif
ferent slopes of said saw tooth wave form.
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