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Dec- 24, 1945-
e. w. PONTIUS, 313., ET AL
2,413,112
AUTOMATI C GUN CHARGER
Filed Dec. 26, 1940
~
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
> INVENTORS
ésoeas I44 PomvusZZZ .
Ae-rHue P. MASON
On‘).
Dec. 24, 1946.
e. w. PONTIUS, 30., ET AL
2,413,112
AUTOMAT IC GUN CHARGER
Filed Dec. 26, 1940
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTORS
650265 144 Paw-m5 Z27
AETHUE P. WILSON
Dec. 24, 1946.
G. W. PONTIUS, 3D., ET AL
2,413,112
AUTOMATIC GUN CHARGER
Filed Dec. 26, 1940
5 Sheets-Sheet 5 '
. ,3
7/(1k;.m
lr
INVENTOHS
GEORGE W. Pom r/us?
By
AQTHUE FE WILSON
ldli
liatentecl Dec. 24, 1946
Frrc
=UNlTED STATES PATENT
2,413,112
AUTOMATIC GUN CHARGER
George W. Pontius, III, and Arthur P. Wilson,
South Bend, Ind., assignors to Bendix Aviation
Corporation, South Bend, Ind., a corporation of
Delaware
Application December 26, 1940, Serial No. 371,742
11 Claims. (Cl. 89-1)
1
2
This invention relates to guns, and more par
ticularly to an automatic system for charging
reliable and positive in action and therefore is
guns.
In many types of guns the loading operation is
performed by the reciprocation of a breech bolt.
This is particularly true of automatic guns such
preferred over pneumatic systems. There are
many special problems involved in the use of a
hydraulic ?uid as compared toa gaseous ?uid.
‘Whereas a gaseous ?uid may be exhausted to
atmosphere, return lines must be provided for
hydraulic ?uid. Further, valves must be designed
as machine guns or automatic cannon. In auto
matic guns the reciprocation of the breech bolt
is accomplished by power developed by the ?ring
to return exhaust ?uid to a reservoir, as well as
of a shell, and the ?ring of one shell ejects its
empty cartridge and places the succeeding shell
in the gun breech ready for ?ring. If, however,
one of the shells is a dud and fails to ?re there
is no reciprocation ‘of the breech to eject the dud
and insert a fresh shell.’ Such a gun is described
as a jammed gun, which gun is thereafter unable
-
to supply ?uid under pressure.
Our invention further di?ers from the‘ prior
art in that electrical controls completely regulate
the hydraulic ‘charging system. The electrical
control circuit is believed to be an improvement
over any prior device and is believed to be dis
tinctly novel.
In our vinvention, the time lag
mechanism is electrical, thereby saving weight.
Also; when compared to a‘ dash pot, there is an
increase in service life as a dash pot is subject
of an automatic gun may become stuck or pinched
to abusive operation at every shot. The various
so that they are, unable to operate automatically
and such a gun is also termed a jammed gun. 20 parts of the system are particularly designed for
a hydraulic system, to accommodate the peculi
In any event, the only way to place a jammed
arities of ?ow of a hydraulic ?uid. In addition
gun in an operating position is to reciprocate the
to the above, according to one very important
breech bolt by auxiliary means. I
feature our invention incorporates a selector valve
In the past it has been customary to reciprocate
the sliding parts of a jammed gun by hand. 25 mechanism for charging several guns from a
to ?re automatically.
Also, the moving parts
When the gunner is remote from the gun, as the
pilot of an airplane having guns in the wings,
cables and other operating mechanism have to
single master valve.
.
There are many important parts to the inven
tion. These include a specially designed charging
cylinder for hydraulic ?uid. Also, special brack
‘be supplied for this purpose. There are several
drawbacks, however, to hand freeing of a jammed 30 ets are provided to hold charging cylinders to
the guns. We further provide charge counting
gun. In the larger calibre guns and cannons now
devices to limit the number of charging opera
in use it is very di?icult to reciprocate the mov
tions of a gun, as a gun requiring a large number
ing parts manually. Further, if the gunner has
other duties, as has the pilot of an airplane, he
cannot take the time and effort necessary to
manually free and charge the gun. These and
other considerations make it desirable to have a
of such operations has probably expended its
' ammunition or is in some way defective.
Means
are provided whereby the armorer of a gun may
power mechanism for charging guns,' and this
reload'the gun with afresh belt of ammunition
or test the operation of a gun when it is equipped‘
mechanism is most desirable when operated auto
with our charging system.
matically.
cut-out means for stopping “runaway” guns,
'
Also, we provide a
‘Attempts have been made‘ to provide power
systems to charge guns by using various pneu
which might otherwise be injured by a long burst
matic power‘ systems. Some of the pneumatic
systems are automaticpusing electrical controls
It is therefore an ‘object‘of our invention to
to create an automatic action. Invariably, how
ever, in these systems there is a mechanical time
lag mechanism, such as a dash pot, which is reset
at every shot of the gun. If the gun should fail
to ?re for a given period of time the dash pot‘
will travel through its stroke and set the charging
system in action.
_
'
Our invention improves upon the prior art in
that it uses hydraulic?uid rather than a pneu
matic ?uid as the power medium for charging
guns; Hydraulic ?uid has been found to be more
of ?re.
'
I
provide an electro-hydraulic charging system
which ‘is fully automatic.
It is a further object of our invention to pro
vide an automatic charging system which meets
all conditions and requirements of operation of
a gun.
>
_
Another object of our invention is to provide
a charging system for several guns, wherein se
lector valves direct hydraulic ?uid from a single
master valve to the particular'guns requiring
charging.
_
'
Another object of the invention is to provide
2,413,112
3
4
a quick acting solenoid-operated hydraulic valve,
attached, and when the charging stroke is com
having a positive seal in the closed position and
pleted valves 1 8 automatically exhaust the charg
operable by a small electric current.
ing fluid, completing the charging stroke.
Another object is to provide a charging cylinder
The electrical controls are designed to meet the
for use with hydraulic fluid.
5 many requirements of military operations. If
Another object of the invention is the provision
during a ?ring period, a gun becomes jammed,
of means whereby the armorer of a gun equipped
with our invention may reload a gun with a fresh
the charging cylinder 20 must be operated to once
more place the gun in an operative condition.
belt of ammunition or test the operation of the
If the charging cycle is started and the ?ring
period is ended, the charging should nevertheless
be continued so that the gun will be ready to ?re
gun.
Another object is to provide charge counters
which cut out a charging system after a pre
‘ the next time the trigger is actuated.
In the
determined number of charges.
event that agun starts ?ring continuously be
cause of some defect, regardless of trigger opera
Another object is to provide means to‘ stop
“runaway” guns which ?re regardless of trigger 15 tion, the charging mechanism must be operable
to charge the gun to prevent the “runaway” gun
actuation.
from being injured, or from ?ring indiscrimi
A feature is to provide special brackets for
nately. Another contingency that must be pro
holding a charging cylinder to a gun, which
vided for is that of a defective gun which will
brackets may be quickly opened to remove a
charging cylinder from a gun.
20 not ?re. If such a gun were charged repeatedly
Other objects and features of the invention
will be apparent in the following description and
during the ?ring period it might reduce the ?uid
pressure available, and means must be provided
to cut out the charging mechanism after a given
claims which may best be understood when con
number of strokes. These and other contin
sidered in connection with the following drawings,
in which:
25 gencies are all provided for in our system here
described.
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic plan view of the
The electrical circuits of Figure 1 will now be
entire automatic charging system as applied to a
pair of machine guns; '
Figure 2 is a diagrammatic plan view of a modi
?ed form of an automatic system employing se
lector valves for each charger;
Figure 3 is a view in vertical section of a charg
ing cylinder and a cooperating switch and me
chanical charge counter forming a part of our
invention;
Figure 4 is a fragmentary outline view showing
the switch of Figure 3 in an inoperative position;
Figure 5 is a vertical section along the lines
5-5 of Figure 3 showing the construction of a
described, and for purposes of simpli?cation will
be described with relation to one gun. Corre
30 sponding circuits having the same reference nu
merals can be traced for the other gun. Elec
trical current under a potential may be derived
from any suitable source, but as illustrated, a
storage‘ cell 22 is employed. The current passes
to an ignition switch 24, which which closed
passes current to a slow release relay 26 by means
of an electrical conductor. A branch of this
electrical conductor passes current to switch 34,
which when closed passes current through an
clamp which holds the charging mechanism to 40 electrical charge counter mechanism 300 and
a gun;
through that unit to solenoid valve l8. Thus
Figure 6 is a view in longitudinal section of the
when switch 24 is closed, current will pass to
solenoid-operated hydraulic'valve used with the
switch 34, which when closed will pass current to
system; and
.
the hydraulic valve I8 which will cause the hy
Figure 7 is an end View of the piston of the
charging device.
Description of the system of Figure 1
1 draulic charging mechanism to operate.
The control of the charging mechanism is ef
fected by making and breaking switch 34, and
the electrical circuits to accomplish this end will
The embodiment of our invention shown in
now be described. The circuit through slow re
Figure 1 will ?rst be described. Two guns 2] are 50 lease relay 26 has two branches leading to ground.‘
the guns controlled by the accompanying electro
Interposed between the relay 26 and the branches
hydraulic system. Although two guns are shown
is a manually operated switch 3!. One ground
to disclose the application of the invention to a
branch for relay 26 is through the switch 38
plurality of guns, the invention is equally appli
placed at the rear of the gun. Switch 38 is nor
cable to a single gun. Also, the invention can 55 mally open, but is closed by a breech pin on the
be used to control a larger number of guns, and
breech bolt of the gun 2|, when the breech bolt
this is implied from the application of the inven
reciprocates in the gun. The breech bolt recip
tion to two guns as in Figure 1. The guns may
rocates in the gun during automatic ?ring, or
be on an airplane in a turret, or placed in the
when the charging mechanism retracts the breech
wings. ‘Or the guns may be in a tank, ship or
bolt of the gun in a charging cycle. The other
land forti?cation or ‘any other place where guns
branch ground circuit for relay 26 is througha
are needed. The use and application of the guns
normally open type of switch 28, which is held
forms no part of the invention.
'
closed by the breech bolt when it is in its forward
Our invention employs a hydraulic charging
positionof the gun, and through switch 30 which
circuit operated by electrical controls. Hydraulic 65 is normally closed. Switch 28 is at the forward
?uid is stored in'a reservoir l0 and flows from
end ‘of the path of reciprocation of the breech
there to a pump l2 which forces hydraulic fluid
bolt of the gun 2 I. The breech bolt pin will keep
under pressure into an accumulator M, which
switch 28 closed whenever the breech bolt is
charges high pressure line IS with high pressure
closed, but when not closed by the ‘breech bolt it
?uid. Low pressure line I5 returns exhaust ?uid 70 tends to open. Thus, when the breech ‘bolt ‘is
to the reservoir. The fluid ?owis regulated by
closed there will normally be a ground‘circuit for
solenoid operated valves 18 which direct hydraulic
relay 26 through switch 28 and 30:»Grounding
?uid through conduits H to ‘charging cylinders
relay 26 energizes its solenoid 21, which actuates
2!]. The hydraulic ?uid acting in cylinders 20
a bell crank 29 to'open switch 34; cutting oif any
charges the guns 2! to which the'cylinders are 75 current to valve I 8. Thus when switch 24 is
aiiaiia ,
5
304 contact the conductor sector of the member"
302. A ratchet arm 308 is also attached to pivot
30B and has a catch 3| 0 pivotally secured thereto,
contacting the notches of the member 302. A
solenoid 3I2 receiving current from the main line
to valve I8 is placed adjacent to ‘the other end of
closed, and the breech bolt oi the gun H is closed,
the relay 26 will be grounded and will actuate.
bell crank 29 to open switch 34 before any appreciable amount of current can reach the valve
I8. The only eiTect then of closing switch 24 will
be to open switch 34 when the breech bolt is in a
ratchet arm 308. Every time the valve I8 is en
closed position.
Closing switch 24 also passes current to one
contact of safety or combat switch 40. When
safety or combat switch 40 is closed current is
passed to one contact of trigger switch 42. Clos
ing trigger switch 42 passes current to a solenoid
operated trigger actuator 44 mounted on the gun
2 I. This trigger actuator will actuate the trigger
of the gun 2i and cause the gun to ?re if there 15
is a live shell in the ?ring chamber. Closing trig
ger switch 42 also passes current to a solenoid 46
which acts through a bell crank to open switch
30 in one of the ground branches of relay 26.
Thus, when trigger switch 42 is closed the ground 20
circuit of relay 26 through switches 28 and 30 isv
broken at switch 30, and the solenoid 21 of relay
26 starts to lose its energy. However, relay 26 is
a slow release relay and will hold the bell crank
29 to keep switch 34 open, during the particular 25
time period for which it is constructed. This
period can be any period longer‘ than the time
between shots of gun 2I when ?ring automati
ergized, current passes through the solenoid 3I2
cally. Wherrthe breech bolt upon ?ring reaches
charge as described above.
the rearward end of its stroke, the breech pin
touches a switch actuator 33 to close switch 38,
grounding relay , 26 through this circuit which
again reenergizes the soleniod 21 of relay 26.
This intermittent energization of relay 23 through
switch 38 maintains switch 34 in an open position
so that valve I8 will not be operated.
If the gun should jam, however, relay 26 would
not be intermittently energized through switch 38,
and at the expiration of the time period necessary
to ground, and solenoid 3I2 acts on ratchet arm
308 to cause rotation through a small arc. The
catch 3l0 on lever arm 300 contacts the notches
of member 302 to rotate that member through a
corresponding arc. In the meantime the main
current passes through brushes 304 and through:
the conductor portion of member 302 to energize
valve I8. After a predetermined number of
charges, a conductor sector of the member 302
will rotate out of contact with the rearward brush
304, and thus effectively break the circuit to valve
I8.
In this way a gun which has expended its
ammunition or which repeatedly jams, will not be
charged after a predetermined number of charges
have already been made.
Switch 3I is manually operable by means of a
handle placed on one member of the switch. By
holding switch 3| open current cannot pass
through relay 23 and any energy therein wi11 be
dissipated thus closing switch 34, effecting a
By means of switch
3| the gunner may charge any gun if he has any
reason to doubt that it is not in an operative con
dition, or if there is a “runaway” gun this gun may
be effectively stopped by opening switch 3 I, which
also causes any gun to be charged. By holding
switch 3! manually open the associated gun will
charge and the breech bolt will be held in a re
traoted position, and if the object in so doing is
to cool off a “runaway” gun this switch can be
kept manually open until such a gun is cooled to
for it to lose its energy it will release bell crank 40 the point where another burst of ?ring will not
23 closing switch 34 and passing current through
the counter 300 to the valve I8, actating the hy
draulic charging mechanism. When the charging
mechanism moves the breech bolt to its most re
tracted position, switch 38 is again closed and
current passes through solenoid 2'! of relay 26.
The solenoid 21 then attracts one arm of hell
crank 29 to again open switch 34 and deenergize
solenoid valve I8 causing it‘to close and communi
cate the charger 20 to exhaust. When the breech
bolt again closes the gun will continue to ?re
automatically.
1
If a charging cycle should be started and the
?ring period then terminated, the gun will never
theless continue to charge. When the ?ring pe
riod ceases solenoid 43 will be deenergized, allow
ing switch 30 to close, thus closing one link in one
ground circuit of relay 26.
However, as soon as
the charging cycle starts switch 28 opens, thus
opening the only possible ground circuit and the
charging operation will continue until switch 38
is closed at the end of the charging movement.
Thus one purpose of switch 23 is to continue a
charging stroke when the ?ring period ceases
after charging starts. This function could also
be served by a switch normally closed, but opened
by a charging movement of the charger itself.
Electrical counter unit 300 is provided to limit
the number of charges for one gun, as a gun which
injure the gun.
,
‘
A ring 23 is provided for actuating one member
of switch 28. This ring is used by the armorer
when reloading the gun with a new belt of am
45 munition.
The old belt of ammunition is ?rst
manually removed from the gun. By pulling on
ring 23, the ground of relay 26 will be broken, and
if the pull is of a duration long enough to allow
relay 26 to deenergize before reelasing ring 23
- current will thereby pass to the solenoid of valve
_I 8 to‘ effect a charge which will eject the live shell
in the ?ring chamber. The ?rst link in a new belt
18 then inserted in the feedway of gun 2| and ring
23 again pulled as before, allowing the gun pawlv
to engage the ?rst live round. Following these
operations, one more charging cycle must be per- '
formed before the gun will ?re. This charge is
usually performed by the gunner, just prior to
combat by manually opening switch 3I. This
charging sequence is followed to provide an added
safety feature. Charging ring 23 makes possible
the reloading of the gun while performing a
minimum of manual operations upon it.
The details of construction of the charging cyl
inder 20 and the hydraulic valve I8 will be later
described, as well as the construction of the
brackets which hold the charging cylinder 20 to
the gun 2 I.
Description of the system of Figure 2
requires a large number of charges has expended 70.
The selector valve system shown in Figure 2
its ammunition or is probably defective. This
will next be described. The selector valve system
~counter 300 comprises a plate member 302 having
differs from that of Figure 1 in that each charg
a conductor sector and having notches along the
ing cylinder 20 has a selector valve I I0 controlling
edge of another sector. The member 302 is piv
oted at 306 about which point it rotates. Brushes 75 ;'fluid. flow from a single master valve I8. vThe se
2413,11?
i.
lector valves I III are connected to a common by
draulic iiuid line I 9 controlled by master valve
I8 and are selectively opened to charge the proper
gun. The selector valve system is used to elimi
nate the weight for each charging cylinder of a
separate hydraulic valve strong enough to control
?uid under full pressure. The selector valve I I0
8
White and Pontius Serial No. 311,978, ?led Jan~
uary 2, 1940. The charging cylinders can also be
used in a semi-automatic system such as de
scribed in an application by Pontius Serial No.
319,925, ?led February 20, 1940. Other uses and
applications of the charging unit can be made,
and we do not intend to limit its use to the
is opened only when there is no ?uid pressure in
present systems.
the line to the charging cylinder 20, and therefore
The cylinder unit 25 comprises a cylindrical
can employ a very small and lightweight solenoid 10 casing I50 within which a cylindrical piston I52
In some installations there is a saving of
reciprocates. The right hand end of the unit is
weight by the use of selector valves, making the
toward the front of the gun on which it is mount
system very desirable in such installations, as in
ed, and the left end of the unit is secured tov
aircraft.
7
the rear of the gun. The piston I52 is provided
The electrical circuit for the selector valve sys
with means such as a lug I53 which contacts a
tem is basically the same as that for the directly
breech pin I84 (shown in dotted outline) and
operated system. Closing switch 24 passes cur-'
moves the breech bolt of the gun 2I rearward
rent to relay 26, which as in Figure 1 has two
by acting on breech pin I84 during a charging
ground circuits, one through switch 33, and the
other through switches 28 and 130. Solenoid 21 20 stroke. The cylinder I50 is slotted at I5I to ac
commodate the lug I53 which reciprocates with
when energized acts through a bell crank IIB to
the piston. Fluid ?ow is directed into the cylin
open switch 613 to master valve I8 in much the
same way as in Figure 1.
Bell crank II3 differs
from bell crank 29 of Figure 1, however, in that
it is a conductor of current, passing current
through its length when switch 35 closes.
The
other end of a bell crank H8 also forms a part
of a switch £20 at the same timeit operates a
switch 34. When solenoid 21 of relay 25 is de
energized, and'bell crank IIB is released, current
flows from switch 34 to master valve I8 and in
addition through bell crank M8 to switch I20,
and through a conductor to the solenoid III of
selector valve H0. Thus when the solenoid 2’I.is
deenergized, current is passed to selector valve
H0, and to master valve I3.
der I50 by a ?tting I54 which may be connected
to either a selector valve III) as in Figure 2 or
directly to the valve line I8 as in Figure 1. The
cylinder I56 is held to the gun by a forward
bracket I 55 and a rear bracket I 58.
The piston I52 is held in a forward position
by a compression spring I60 which ?ts inside
cylinder I55 and extends into piston I52. The
spring I60 is mounted on a two-part tubular tele~
scoping spring guide. One part of the spring
guide is an outer member I62 which is secured.
to the cylinder I50 by a ?tting I64 at the rear
end of cylinder I50. The other part of the spring
guide is an inner tubular member I66 secured to
the piston I52. As the piston I52 reciprocates
The selector valve III} is a simple solenoid lift
within cylinder I50 under the in?uence of hy
valve or poppet valve of any suitable construc
draulic ?uid and the return spring I65, the inner
tion. The solenoid II I employed is so small, that
means must be provided to insure that there will 40 member I56 secured to the piston I52 telescopes
in the stationary outer member I62.
be no pressure on the line I9 when it is operated
A'pointed pin I68 slides in guide member I62
as any interfering forces cannot be overcome
and has an extended shank I10 which passes
by the selector valve solenoid III. This means
through a constriction in the inner end of guide
includes a switch I54 for grounding the master
valve I 8, which switch is operated by the opening
member I66, and has a head IE2 attached to the
end of the shank. The relationship of parts is
movement of selector valve IIG. A movable valve
core H2 or solenoid valve IIO actuates a bell
such that the last portion of the rearward move
crank H6, the opposite end of which opens and
ment of piston I52 causes the inner telescoping,
closes the switch I I4 which grounds master valve
member I66 of the spring guide to contact the
I8. This construction insures that selector valve
pin I68 and move it rearward- The last part of
H0 will always be open before fluid under pres
sure is directed to it by master valve IS.
the forward movement of piston I52 causes the
constricted end of guide tube IE6 to act on the
head I12 of pin shank I16 to pull the pin I58
The selector valve system employs'mechanical
forward.
charge counters, and these will ‘be next described
along with the charging cylinder 26. The electri 55
These movements of pin I68 cooperate with a
cal counters 36d of Figure 1 could also be ap
breech bolt catch to hold the breech bolt in a
plied, and could be inserted in the selector valve
retracted position after the charging stroke until
circuit with equal effect. The mechanical charge
the piston I52 has returned nearly to its startingv
counters could also be applied toithe system of
position, giving the breech bolt a free path of
Figure l, with equal effect.
60 travel. The breech bolt catch includes a rocker
arm I14 ‘pivoted at I15 to the rear support
bracket I58. It comprises a forward end I16,
and a rearward portion I18 connected by an in
The charging cylinder ‘.25 used with the sys
termediate portion I19. On the forward end I16
tems of Figures 1 and 2 is shown in detail in 65 of the rocker arm I14 is a catch ?nger I16a piv
Figures 3 and 4 and will next be described. Al
oted at I16?) and urged by a leaf spring I160 to
though this charging unit is well suited for the
a “catch” position. On the rear end I13 of the
automatic systems here described, it is applicable
rocker arm I14 is a roller I180. designed to reduce
to any type of gun charging system and is not
friction when the rocker arm is contacted by the
limited to any speci?c system. The unit may be 70 pin I68. Also secured to the rear end I10 of
used on a manually controlled system, and for
rocker arm I14 is a leaf spring I50 contacting
such use none of the electrical features’ of the
the bracket I 58. The leaf spring I80 normally
present systems would be used. A manually con
maintains the rocker arm I14 in a disengaged
trolled system in which this unit could be used
position. The ?tting I64 on the rear end of cyle
is described in the copending application by 75 inder I50 has secured thereto a roller I82 to pro
Description
and operation , oi’
Figures 3 and 4
the
device
'
'
of
2,413,112
vide a-thrust bearing when the pin I68. strikes
rocker arm roller I18.
The operation of the charging unit as thus far
described is as follows. Charging fluid from any
suitable control device, manual or automatic,
10
ton ‘I94 extends into the path of travel of pin
I68. At every charging stroke of the charging
unit 20 the pin I68 strikes the push button I04
causing it to move upward against the com
pression of its spring. This causes a rotation of
the ratchet wheel I82.
.
flows through ?tting I54 into the cylinder I58.
‘ The actuator switch 38 is rotatably secured to
The ?uid under pressure forces piston I52 to the
the bracket I58 by means of pivot pin I08. Pro
left and in doing ‘so the breech bolt of the gun is
.truding from the rearward side of the pivot
moved backward through contact of piston I52
with the breech pin I84, shown in dotted outline. 10 point of switch 38 is a ?nger 200, which contacts
the ratchet wheel I92. The entire switch unit
As the piston I52 nears the end of its stroke, the
38. is urged in a clockwise rotatable movement
guide tube I56 strikes the end of pin I68 forcing
by spring 202 coiled about pivot pin I98, one end
it between rollers I82 and I18. This movement
of which contacts the rear bracket I58 and the
of the pin I68 forces the rocker'arm I14 to move
other end of which contacts the ?nger 200.
against the compression of spring I66 to assume
However, the switch 38 .is held in a substantially
a nearly horizontal position. In that position
horizontal position by the contact of ?nger 200
the latch I18 is in the path of the breech pin I84
against the ratchet wheel I02. The purpose of
as shown by the dotted outline of latch I16. As
the ratchet wheel I92 and push button I94 is to
the breech pin nears the end of the charging
stroke, it strikes the latch I16 and causes it to 20 cut out a charging unit 20 from the hydraulicv
circuits when a predetermined number of charg
rotate about its pivot against leaf spring I1’5c
ing operations have been made. An excessive
allowing the breech pin £84 to pass. Once the
number of charging operations indicates that a
breech pin is past the latch I16 the spring I160
gun has expended its ammunition or is defec
causes the latch to snap back to its normal po
sition, locking the breech pin in its retracted 25 tive and in any event can not ?re normally, and
therefore should be out out from the hydraulic
circuits so as not to reduce hydraulic pressure
When the charging cylinder reaches the end
unnecessarily.
of its stroke the charging ?uid is cut off from
The operation of the mechanical charge
pressure and ported to exhaust, either auto_
matically or manually. Spring I60 now forces 30 counter is as follows. At every charging stroke
the ratchet wheel I92 will be rotated one notch
the piston I152 to its starting position, forcing
by the spring metal strip I96 attached to the
out the ?uid to exhaust. The latch I16 on
push button I94 when it is contacted by pin
rocker arm I14 holds the breech bolt through
I68, and after a given number of movements, for
pin I84 in a retracted position until the piston
I52 is out of the path of travel of the breech .135 example seven, the ratchet wheel I92 will be
rotated so that the relieved portion or segment
pin I84 so as to allow the breech bolt to have
is adjacent the ?nger 200. When the relieved
an unimpeded action on the closing stroke. The
portion reaches the ?nger 200 the spring 202
release of the breech pin I84 is accomplished
causes the entire switch unit 38 to rotate in a
by pulling pin I68 from between rollers I82 and
I18, which removal allows rocker arm I14 to 40 clockwise direction, to the position shown in Fig
ure 4. When in this position the switch actuator
rotate about its pivot to render the latch I16
position.
7
v
-
inoperative. The pin I68 is pulled from between
36 is beyond the reach of the breech pin I84 and
the switch 38a remains continuously in a closed
the rollers by the restriction of tube I166 striking
position. To return the gun to normal oper
head I12 on shank I10 of pin I68 as the piston
I52 is moved to its starting position by spring 45 ation, the ratchet wheel I92 is manually rotated
to its starting position, causing switch 38 to once
I60. The arrangement of parts is such that
more assume an operative position as shown in
the pin I68 is pulled out from between rollers
Figure 3." '
‘
I18 and I82 only when the piston I52 has re
The switch 28 is also shown in Figure 3, and
tracted out of the path of travel of breech pin
I84. As described, the device is a charging unit 50 is shown as housed in casing. Switch 28 is oper
ated by a switch operator 28a, similar to oper
which will hold a breech bolt in a retracted posi
ator 36 for switch 38. This operator is con
tion until the charging piston has withdrawn
tacted by the breech pin I84 in the breech bolt
from the path of travel of the breech pin. ‘
of gun 2i, whenever the breech is closed on the
The charging unit as applied to the systems
herein described incorporates further features. 55 ?ring chamber.
The actuator switch 38 is also shown in detail
Description of the device of Figure 5
in Figure 3. ‘This switch is operated by the
Another
part of our invention relates to the
switch actuator 36 which is secured to the bot
brackets I56 and I58 for holding the charging
tom side of switch 33. At every reciprocation
of the breech bolt, whether during automatic 60 unit to the gun. As shown in Figure 5 which
is a section through‘ the rear bracket I58 the
?ring or during a charging cycle, the breech pin
bracket is of a type which may be opened to
I84 strikes the switch actuator 36 which in turn
remove the charging cylinder I50 and its internal
closes the switch 3811. It will be noted that the
mechanism from the gun 2I. A semicircular
switch 38a is of the snap spring type wherein
a small movement on one part causes a. move 65 locking member 204 is pivoted to the bracket
I58 at 206. A clamp member 208 is hinged to
ment in the opposite direction of the contacts
the bracket I58 at 2I0, and acts through screw
to close the switch 380..
'
'
f
‘
2I2 to clamp the locking member 204 around the
The charging unit as shown incorporatesa
?tting I64 of the charging cylinder I50. ‘When
mechanical charge counter. Mounted on the
rear bracket I58 is an ar
I90 supporting a 70 it is desired to dismount the charging cylinder
I50, screw 2II2 is unloosened, the clamp swung
rotatable ratchet wheel I92 which has a segment
downward and the locking member 204 swung
removed, and a reciprocable spring pressed push
upward. In this way the charging cylinder I50
button I94. A strip of spring metalv I96 is at
may be unfastened from the gun and the gun
tached to the upper end of the push button and
removed
without disconnecting the hydraulic cir
The
push
but
75
contacts the ratchet Wheel I92.
2,413,112
11
12
cuit. This type of bracket is desirable for re
moving a gun from its emplacement for repairs,
cleaning or replacement, which operations may be
against its seat in casing 220. Spring 253 forces
?uted hammer 254 toward the right.
When the solenoid 232 is energized vby any
performed without disconnecting any hydraulic
means including the charging systems which have
circuits.
.
5 been described, it attracts ?uted hammer 254 to—
ward the left. Hammer 254 compresses weak
Description and‘ operation of the device of Figure 6
spring 253 and then strikes violently against the
head 252 of stem 253 unseating pilot valve 244
Another part of our invention relates to the
against the compression of spring 245. Thehigh
solenoid operated master valve 18 used with our
pressure ?uid within the. sleeve 244 then ?ows
automatic systems. This valve is of the pilot valve
through passage 245 to the exhaust pressure in the
type, wherein the ?uid pressures controlled are
right hand side of the valve casing 229. Since
applied by a small pilot valve for opening the main
passage 245 is larger than passage 242, the pres
valve. The valve I8 is shown in detail in Figure 6
sure inside enlarged sleeve 249 will drop and be
which is a sectional view of the entire mechanism.
come greatly less than the pressure in port 222.
High pressure ?uid in port 222 will now act on
The valve is comprises a casing 220 having an in
let port 222 and an exhaust port 224, which are
the enlarged sleeve 244, throwing it rapidly to
the left, allowing the slots in sleeve 238 to com
municate high pressure port 222 with operating
at one end is secured to the left side of the casing
20
port
226. The same movement of sleeve 228 closes
220 by an annular nut 230. A solenoid unit 232 is
off exhaust port 224. Fluid will now flow from
secured to the cylinder 228 by a bolt 236 acting
port 222 to operation port 223 and the operated
through nut 234 placed inside of cylinder 228. A
mechanism connected thereto.
main valve member comprises a sleeve 238 which
selectively communicated by the valve mechanism
to an operation port 226. A cylinder 228 closed
is centrally slotted to form communicating open- ,
ings. The end of the sleeve toward the solenoid
232 is enlarged as at 24!} to form the large sleeve
24!, and seats on the casing 220 adjacent to the
inlet port 222. A small passage 242 continuously
communicates the interior of the large sleeve 24l
with inlet pressure, causing cylinder 228 to be
?lled with liquid.
A pilot valve is provided for valve l8, and the
pilot valve when actuated by a relatively small
When it is desired to close the valve, the sole
noid 232 is deenergized, and ?uted hammer 254 is
no longer attracted to the left. Spring 246 then
seats pilot valve 244, which causes pressure to
build up behind it, as passage 242 is at all times in
open communication with port 222. The ?uid
under pressure within the left portion of the valve
l8 forces the enlarged sleeve 24S against its seat
on casing 223, effectively cutting off the ?ow of
high pressure from port 222 to port 225. The same
valve movement communicates exhaust port 224
magnetic effort, applies the principal ?uid pres
with operation port 226, through the slots of sleeve
233. Spring 253 forces ?uted hammer 254 to the
right, and the whole valve is once more ready to
sure to open the main valve, which requires a
relatively large eilort. The pilot valve comprises
a needle valve 244 reciprocably mounted in the en
larged end 24! of sleeve 238, and is normally seated
against the mouth of a passage 245 formed ad
jacent to the enlargement 240 and communicating
sleeve 238 with enlarged sleeve 24L The needle
,
' 4.0
valve 244 is urged toward its seat by a. conical
spring 245 seated on cylinder 228. Passage 245
is larger than passage 242. The needle valve
244 is slidably held in sleeve 24!! by a transverse
pin 248 traversing a slot in needle valve 244. The
needle valve body 244 is ?uted to allow the flow
of ?uid past it. A stem 250 is pinned to pilot valve
244, and a ?uted hammer member 254 is axially I
be operated.
The valve I8 just described is very important
where weight is a factor to be considered, as in
aircraft use. By means of the pilot valve, 3, very
small electro~magnetic force can be used to con
trol and operate a poppet type valve subject to
,high pressures. The use of a small electrc-mag
netic force allows the use of a very small and
lightweight solenoid as compared with the rela~
tively huge solenoid which would be required for
direct operation. In the control of high pres
sures, it is important to use a poppet type valve as
contrasted to piston type valves, as a. poppet type
valve is self-seating and self-sealing. It is be
head 252 on the end of stem 253 holds a weak
lieved that the pilot valve control and operation
spring 253 under compression against ?uted ham
of a poppet type valve which has been disclosed
mer 254. Fluted hammer 254 moves along stem
is novel and constitutes a distinct improvement
258 against the compression of weak spring 253, '
in the art.
when solenoid 232 is energized, and strikes head
Operation of the system 0 1‘ Figure 1
252 of stem 25B, pulling pilot valve 244 off of its
seat.
The operation of the system shown in Figure 1
The operation of solenoid valve I 8 is as fol
is as follows. The hydraulic pump 12 is operated
lows. The position of the parts of the valve I8 GO by any suitable source, and pumps hydraulic ?uid
under normal conditions is shown in Figure 6.
from reservoir In to accumulator l4. The pressure
Sleeve 238 communicates operation port 226 with
conduit l6 becomes ?lled With ?uid under pres
exhaust port 224. The enlargement 240 of sleeve
sure and the exhaust conduit l5 becomes subject
mounted thereon, and free. to slide axially.
A
232 is seated against the casing 220 eifectively
sealing o? high pressure port 222. Pilot valve 244
is seated on the mouth of passage 24!) and pre
vents leakage into sleeve 238,
High pressure
fluid enters passage 242 and ?lls the interior of en
larged sleeve 24 l, the portion of casing 220 behind
or to the left of sleeve 24!, and the interior of
cylinder 228. The full fluid pressure available at
port 222 is exerted on the ?uid inside the valve,
through passage 242, and the fluid presses against
the end of cylinder 223 and against the sleeve 238
to exhaust pressure.
Solenoid valves 18 are now
ready to direct hydraulic ?uid to conduits if!
when operated by the electrical circuit. Conduits
l9 direct the ?uid from valve I8 to the charging
cylinders 20 to charge guns 2 I.
The operation of the electrical circuit will now
be described with relation to one gun 2!, as the
operation is identical for the other gun 2 l. Igni
tion switch 24 is ?rst closed, passing current to
slow-release relay 26 which is normally connected
through manual switch 3 I, which is normally
to e?ectively force enlargement 240 of sleeve 238 75 closed, and through switch 28, which is normally
2,415,112
13
closed by the breech bolt when the breech of the
gun 2| is closed and from there through switch
‘ 30 which is normally closed when the gun is not
‘?ring, and is there grounded. Grounding this
circuit energizes the solenoid 21 of relay 26, which
acts through bell crank 29 to open switch 34,
1.4
'
-The ?rst charging stroke ejects the live shell in
the ?ring chamber. The ?rst link in a new belt
is then inserted in the feedway of gun 2|, and
ring 23 is again pulled, allowing the gun pawl to
engage the ?rst live round. Following these op
erations, one more charging cycle must be per
formed before the gun will ‘?re. This charge is
thus cutting 01? current to solenoid valve I8.
usually performed by the gunner, just prior to
When it is desired to ?re the gun, safety switch
combat by manually opening switch 3|. This
'40 is ?rst closed, and then trigger switch 42 is
closed. ‘The trigger solenoid 44 is operated by '10 charging sequence is followed to provide an added
the current from switch 42 and the gun begins to
safety feature inasmuch as the gun cannot be
?red until this ?nal charge is made.
?re. At the same time solenoid 46 is energized,
The electrical charge counter 300 cuts out a
which breaks the ground of relay 26 at switch 30.
gun which requires an ‘excessive number of
When the ground relay 26 is broken at switch
charges, as such a gun is probably defective, and
30, there is a tendency for the solenoid 21 of relay
the operation. is as follows. At every charge,
26 to release the bell crank 29, closing switch 34.
solenoid 3|2 is energized, pulling on ratchet arm
However, relay 26 is a slow release relay having a
308 which in turn rotates conductor member‘ 302
release period greater than the interval between
about its pivot 300. The current meantime flows
shots of the gun to which the charging mecha
nism is a?ixed. Since the same switch operation 20 from brushes 304 through conductor member 302
to operate valve [8. After a predetermined num
that breaks the ground of relay 26 at switch 30
also energizes the trigger actuator 44, the gun 2|
ber of charges have been made, the ratchet has
rotated conductor member 302 out of contact with
will ?re at the same time switch 30 is broken, and
the forward brush 304. In this position of mem
the breech bolt reciprocates, alternately closing
and opening actuator switch 38. Closing switch 25 ber 302, current can no longer pass to valve I8,
and thereafter when gun 2| jams it will not be
38 grounds relay 26, energizing solenoid 21 so that
charged, but will remain in a jammed condition.
it will continue to maintain switch 34 in an open
_ position.
Charge counter 300 can be reset manually to start
through its cycle of operation.
,
'
H the gun jams during a ?ring period actuator
In ?ring a gun it sometimes happens that a
switch 38 remains continuously open because the 30
part will become stuck or injured so that a gun
breech bolt will not reciprocate, and the solenoid
will continue to ?re regardless of trigger actua
21 of relay 26 becomes deenergized at the end
tion. Such a gun is known as a “runaway” gun.
of its time period causing switch 34 to close.
Solenoid valve I8 then opens, passing ?uid to the ' Our invention provides~means to control such
hydraulic charging cylinder 20 which charges the 35 guns to keep them from becoming injured by long
continued ?re. This means is the manually op
gun by retracting the breech bolt of the gun,
erated switch 3| illustrated as'near relay 26. By
ejecting the dud shell and inserting a fresh one.
manually opening switch 3| the ground connec
When the breech bolt reaches its most retracted
tions of relay 26 are all disconnected and switch
position it acts on operator 36 to close switch 38,
thereby grounding relay 26 and breaking the con 4-0 ‘34 closes passing current to solenoid valve I8
causing it to charge the gun 2|. Often a single
nection to solenoid valve I8. If the trigger system
is still in a ?ring condition the gun will once
more ?re upon the breech bolt closing and con
charge is enough to restore a runaway gun to
normal operation, but where this is not sui?cient
tacting the cartridge chamber.
the breech bolt of the gun can be held in a
If the ?ring control is cut off during the charg
ing stroke it is desirable to continue the charging
operation so that a fresh cartridge will be in the
?ring chamber for the next ?ring period and this
operation is as follows. Upon cessation of ?ring,
solenoid 46 is deenergized and switch 30 is there
retracted position by keeping switch 3| open
by closed. Relay 26 is not grounded, however,
as the ?rst movement in the charging cycle forces
the breech bolt backward opening switch 28. Be
cause switch 28 is open the ground of relay 26 is
broken during the charging cycle until the breech
'bolt reaches the end of its reoiprocatory move
ment, at which time relay 26 is grounded through
actuator switch 38, and valve I8 is thereby closed.
‘The charging operation inserts a fresh shell in
until the gun is cooled to a point where further
“runaway” ?ring will not injure it. . The switch
3| is shown adjacent to the gun, but by using
longer conductors the switch 3| could be placed
near the other manually operated switches 24,
40 and 42.
‘Operation of the system of Figure 2
The operation of the selector valve system
shown in Figure 2 is as follows. Ignition switch
24, is ?rst closed passing current to slow release
relay 26 which is grounded through switch 28,
which is normally closed by‘the bolt of gun 2|
and from there through switch 30, which is closed
the ?ring chamber and the gun is once more
when the gun is not ?ring.
ready for ?ring when the trigger is actuated,
rent energizes the solenoid 21 of relay 26, which
'
Often when a period of ?re is over it is desir
‘able to reload the machine gun 2| by inserting a
fresh belt of ammunition into the mechanism of
the gun. The old belt is removed from the gun‘
and a new belt inserted into the gun. The charg
ing operations necessary to place a cartridge of
the new belt into the gun can be performed by
the charging system. Thearmorer pulls on ring
23, opening switch 28, breaking the connection to
ground for relay 26. If ring~23 is pulled to keep
switch 28 open for a period longer than the time
.interval of relay 26, the deenergization of relay
'26 will release bell crank 29 closing switch 34,
Grounding this cur
acts through a bell crank M8 to open switch 34
and switch I20, thuscutting off current to master
valve I8 and selector valve 'I Hi. When it is de
sired to ?re the gun, safety switch 40 is ?rst
closed, and then trigger switch 42 is closed. The
.‘igger solenoid 44 is operated by current from
switch 42 and the gun begins to ?re. At the same
time, solenoid 46 is energized, breaking the
ground of relay 26 at switch 30.
i
_
When the ground of relay 26 is broken at switch
30, there is a- tendency ‘for thesolenoid of the
relay 2%‘; to release the bell crank I I8, closing
switches 34 and I20. Relay 26 is, however, a slow
.which actuates valve l8, charging the system. 75 release relay of any suitable time period greater
2,413,112
16
than the period of automatic fire of the gun 2|.
Due to this characteristic, relay 26 will hold the
bell. crank H8 until its time period has elapsed,
in the absence of an intervening charging cur
rent. Relay ‘26 is intermittently grounded, how
ever, through actuator switch 38, and the bell
crank I it is thereby held to keep switches 34 and
I2Il in an open condition, preventing the opera
ure 2 is similar to that of Figure l, which opera
tion has also been described.
'
Having described our invention it is not in
tended to be limited to the speci?c disclosure
made. The hydraulic and electrical systems may
be changed in many ways and yet fall within our
invention. Any fluid could be used in place of a
hydraulic fluid in the systems disclosed.
The
tion of master valve I8 and selector valves IIB.
devices included in the system may have various
Actuator switch 33 is intermittently closed by 10 different applications and still come within the
reciprocating breech bolt of gun 2i striking
scope of the invention. Nor is the invention lim
switch operator 38. At every shot of the gun 2I,
ited in any way other than by the terms of the
the breech bolt reciprocates and as the time be
following claims.
'
We claim:
tween shots is less than the period of the slow
release relay 26, the solenoid of relay 26 will be 15 ~ 1. The combination with a gun having a recip
reenergized before its release period has expired.
rocable breech bolt, of a fluid motor mounted on
If one of the guns should jam during a ?ring
the gun to retract the bolt, a piston in said fluid
period, the solenoid 2'! of relay 26 of the jammed
motor normally urged toward one end thereof,
gun becomes deenergized at the expiration of its
means for engaging the breech bolt for retracting
release period, and the bell crank II 8 moves to 20 the same upon movement of the piston toward
close switches 34 and IZll, Selector valve I II] now
the other end of the motor, means mounted at
said other end of the motor for latching the bolt
opens, and the movement of its core I12 acts
through bell crank IIB to close switch I I4,
in retracted position, and means within said fluid
grounding the current through the solenoid of
motor and operative upon movement of the pis
master valve I8 which then opens to line I 6. The 25 ton toward the said other end of the motor to
opening of selector valve IIB opens a passage for
control the latching means to latch the bolt in
retracted position and operative upon movement
?uid to flow from the line l9 into the charging
of the piston toward the said one end or the mo
cylinder 20. When master valve I8 is operated,
tor to release the latching means.
high pressure ?uid ?ows into line I9, and through
2. The combination with a gun having a recip
the open selector valve I It] and into the charging
cylinder 25] of the jammed gun, charging that gun
rocable breech bolt, of a fluid motor mounted on
the gun to retract the bolt, 2. piston in said, ?uid
by retracting its breech bolt for counter-move
motor normally urged toward one end thereof,
ment, which action ejects the dud shell and inserts
a fresh one. During this charging operation, the
means for engaging the breech bolt for retracting
the same upon movement of the piston toward
selector valve of the other gun remains closed,
no ?uid can enter its charging mechanism, and
the other end of the motor, means mounted at
the gun continues to ?re uninterruptedly. When
said other end of the motor for latching the bolt
the breech bolt reaches its most retracted posi
1 in retracted position, and latch controlling means
tion during the charging stroke, it acts on oper
disposed within the motor and including a two
ator 36 to close the actuator switch 38, thereby
way lost-motion connection with the piston'and
grounding relay 26 and breaking the connection
operative upon movement of the piston toward
to selector valve III] and master valve I8. The
the said other end of the motor to control the
charging mechanism exhausts its charging ?uid
latching means to latch said bolt and operative
and the gun is again ready for ?ring. If the
upon movement of the piston toward the said one
trigger system is still in a ?ring position, the gun ~
end of the motor to control the latch means to
release the bolt.
wiFl once more ?re upon the breech bolt contact
ing the cartridge chamber.
3. The combination with a gun having a recip
Upon cessation of ?ring, solenoid 46 is clean
rocable breech bolt, of a ?uid motor mounted on
ergized, allowing switch 30 to close and estab
the gun to retract the bolt, a piston in said ?uid
lishing a ground for relay 26 through switches '
motor normally urged toward one end thereof,
28 and 3B. This energizes the solenoid of relay
means for engaging the breech bolt for retract
25 which acts on bell crank II8 to render master
ing the same upon movement of the piston toward
valve It and solenoid valve H0 inoperative.
the other end of the motor, means mounted on
If the ?ring control is cut o? during the charg
the motor for latching the bolt in retracted posi
ing stroke, it is desirable to continue the charging - ' tion, and means slidably mounted within said‘
operation so that a fresh cartridge will be in the
fluid motor and operative upon movement of the
?ring chamber for the next ?ring period and this
piston to the said other end of the motor to con
operation is as follows. When the charging cycle
trol the latching means to latch the bolt in re
is started just prior to the cessation of ?ring,
tracted position and operative upon movement of
switch 28 is opened, thereby breaking the ground
the piston to the said one end of the motor to re~
circuit for relay 25 that is normally established
lease the latching means.
upon cessation of ?ring. Relay 25 therefore re
4. A mechanism for retracting the breech bolt
mains deenergized, and switches 34 and I20 re
of a gun comprising a cylinder, a piston in the
main closed. When the breech bolt reaches the
cylinder, said piston being normally urged toward
end of its charging stroke, it causes switch 38 to (35 one end of the cylinder and arranged for recip
close thus grounding relay 2B, and causing
rocation therein, means for engaging the breech
switches 34 and I20 to open, allowing the charg
bolt for retracting the same upon movement of
ing ?uid to return to exhaust. By this operation
the piston toward the other end of the cylinder,
a fresh cartridge is placed in the ?ring chamber,
means mounted on the cylinder for holding the
and the gun is again ready for automatic ?re
breech bolt in a, retracted position, and means
when the trigger is actuated.
slidably mounted in the cylinder and operative
The armorer’s charging operation by pulling on '
upon movement of the piston toward the said
ring 23 is similar to that of Figure 1 which has
other end of the cylinder to control the holding
already been described. Also the operation for
means to hold the bolt in retracted position and
stopping a "runaway” gun in the system of Fig
operative upon movement of the piston toward
2,413,112
17
the said one end of the cylinder to release the
holding means.
5. A mechanism for retracting the breech bolt
of a gun comprising a cylinder, a piston in the
18
to latch the bolt in retracted position and oper
ative upon movement of the piston to the said
one end of the motor to release the latching
means.
cylinder, said piston being normally spring urged
9. A mechanism for retracting the breech bolt
toward one end of the cylinder and arranged for
of a gun comprising a cylinder, a piston in the '
reciprocation therein, means for engaging the
cylinder normally spring urged toward one end
of the cylinder and arranged for reciprocation
breech bolt for retracting the same upon move
ment of the piston toward the other end of the
cylinder, a latch means mounted on the cylin
therein, means carried by the piston to engage
10 the breech bolt to retract the same upon move
ment of the piston to the other end of the cylin
der for latching the breech bolt in retracted po
der, means mounted on said other end of the
sition, and latch controlling means carried by the
cylinder for latching the bolt in retracted posi
‘ cylinder and slidably mounted with respect there
tion, and means within said cylinder for control
to and operative upon movement of the piston
toward the said other end of the cylinder to con 15 ling said latching means and including a mem
ber constructed and arranged to be extended
trol the latch means to latch the bolt in re
from the said other end of the cylinder after
tracted position and operative upon movement of
the piston has retracted the breech bolt to latch
the piston toward the said one end of the cylinder
the bolt in retracted position and to be with
to release the latch means.
drawn into said cylinder after the piston has re
6. A mechanism for retracting the breech bolt
turned to its normal position to release said
of a gun comprising a cylinder, a piston in the
latching means.
cylinder, said piston being normally urged toward
10. A mechanism for retracting the breech bolt
one end of the cylinder and arranged for recip
of a gun comprising a cylinder, a piston in the
rocation therein, means for engaging the breech
bolt for retracting the same upon movement of 25 cylinder normally urged toward one end thereof,
means secured to the piston to engage the breech
the piston toward the other end of the cylinder,
means mounted on the cylinder for holding the
breech bolt in a retracted position, and means
bolt to retract the same upon movement toward
the other end of the cylinder, means mounted on
said other end of the cylinder for latching the
carried by the cylinder and operative upon move
ment of the piston toward the said other end of 30 bolt in retracted position, a member in said cyl
inder constructed and arranged to be actuated
the cylinder to control the holding means to hold
by the piston to control said latching means, said
the bolt in retracted position and operative upon
member having a portion extendable from the
movement of the piston toward the said one end
end of the cylinder to engage said latching means
of the cylinder to release the holding means.
'7. In a mechanism for retracting the breech 35 to latch the bolt in retracted position after the
piston has been moved to the said other end of
bolt of a gun, a cylinder, a piston in the cylinder
the cylinder and a portion engageable by the
arranged for reciprocation, means for engaging
piston to Withdraw said extendable portion into
the bolt for retracting the same upon movement
said cylinder after the piston has been moved
of the piston in one direction, a latch member
mounted on the cylinder and constructed and ar 40 to the said one end of the cylinder to disengage
said latching means to unlatch the bolt.
ranged for holding the bolt in retracted posi
11. A mechanism for retracting the breech bolt
tion, and latch controlling means slidably dis
of a gun comprising a cylinder, a piston in the
posed within said cylinder and operative upon
cylinder, said piston being normally spring urged
movement of the piston in said one direction to
control the latch member to latch the bolt in 45 toward one end of the éylinder and arranged for
reciprocation therein, means for engaging the
retracted position and operative upon movement
breech bolt for retracting the same upon move
of the piston in the opposite direction to release
ment of the piston toward the other end of the
the latch member.
cylinder, a latch member mounted on the cylin
8. The combination with a gun having a re
ciprocable breech bolt, of a fluid motor mount 50 der and constructed and arranged for latching
the breech bolt in retracted position, and latch
ed on the gun to retract the bolt, a piston in said
controlling means slidably mounted in the cylin
?uid motor normally urged toward one end
der and operative upon movement of the piston
thereof and constructed and arranged to engage
toward the said other end of the cylinder to op
the breech bolt to retract the same when said
piston is moved toward said other end of the 55 erate the latch member to latch the bolt in re
tracted position and operative upon movement
motor, means mounted on said other end of the
of the piston toward the said one end of the cyl
motor for latching the bolt in retracted position,
inder to release the latch member.
and means Within said fluid motor and operative
GEORGE W. PONTIUS, III.
upon movement of the piston to the said other
ARTHUR P. WILSON.
end of the motor to control the latching means 60
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