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Dec. 24, 1946.
e. w. PONTIUS, 30., ETAL
ZABJ‘M
GUN TURRET
Filed Jan. 18, 1943
7 Sheets-Sheet 2
~~~ \
Tia-2
'
GEORGE W
NVENTORS
I05 11'
55mm’ lM’?Z/V/TZ
Dec. 24, 1946.
'
' G. w. PONTlUS, 30., ETALGUN
TURRET
Filed Jan. 18, 1945
2,413,114
‘
7 Sheets-Sheet 3
Dec- 24, 1946.
G. w. ‘PONTIUS, 30., EI‘AL
2,413,114
GUN TURRET
Filed Jan_ 182 1943
7 Sheets-Sheet 4
Dec- 24, 1946-
G. w. PONTIUS, 30., E_TAL
2,413,114
GUN TURRET
Filed Jan. 18, 1945
'7 Sheets-Sheet 5
>
INVENTOR
GEORGE W FONT/U5
E55
M
’
Dec. 24, 1946.
‘
j-TE 11
G. w. PONTIUYS, '30., EI'AL
2,413,114
INVENTORS
wmwggm
5y
.
2,413,114
GUN
'
BET
‘George W. Pontius, all ,
and Frank V. Kuzmitz',
South Bend, End, assignors to Bendix Aviation
Corporation, South Bend, Ind., a corporation of
Delaware
Application .l’anuary 18, 1943, Serial No. 472,716 I
4 Claims.
This invention relates ‘generally to turrets and
particularly to turrets of the type which may be
employed in aircraft. More particularly, the in
vention relates to aircraft turrets which may be
located in the bow or the stern of the fuselage
of an aircraft for improving the defense of these
vital
areas.
‘
~
'
While the invention is shown as being adapted
to the bow of the fuselage, so that the horn
bardier may at times act as a gunner in defend
ing the forward part ‘of the aircraft, it will be
apparent in the course of the description here
'
, i
(Cl. 89-375)
guns for both the normal tracking speeds re
quired and the'slewing speeds whereby the gunner
may keep the target‘ ship ?xed within the sight.
The successful tracking of a target is depend
ent upon the operator’s ability to control the
angular velocity of the guns without their being
. influenced by factors such as wind loads, fric
tional loads andrecoil forces. The new and im
proved turret accordingly makes use of a control
in circuit having therein a‘ pair of motor-generator
[sets or motor-amplidynes for furnishing current _
to the azimuth and/or elevation drive motors of
such value that, irrespective of the load factors
employed in the defense of the aft portions of
on the guns, there will be maintained an angular
the aircraft.
l5 velocity’ of the guns according to the control
inafter that the invention may be equally as well i
Where .the gunner is stationed in the bow or
'stem of the fuselage, opportunity is a?orded to
scan with the naked eye the ?eld of view, since,
it is the general practice to have these portions
handle position.
An important consideration in the design and
placement of gun turretsincludes the provision
of the aircraft furnished with transparent plastic 20 of both automatic and mechanical stops or limits
to prevent movement of the guns at the end of
material. Where the turret guns are positioned
their permissible limit of travel in both azimuth
below the gunner’s station it becomes necessary
and elevation. Thus, a turret mounted in the
then to supply some sort of sighting means which
bow of the fuselage must be limited in its per
is coordinated with the movements of the guns
in azimuth and elevation whereby the gunner 25 missive azimuth travel, so that the guns will not
point and fire into the engine nacelles and the
may view the target ?eld of the turret guns;
wings. Similarly, the elevation travel of the guns
since the gunner may easily follow the sight in
is limited as desired. Necessary also ‘with the’ ' '
azimuth and elevation with his head at the eye
provision of limits or stops is the requirement
piece of the sight, a simple and effective sighting
arrangement is thus e?ected._
A further desirable advantage in such a turret
lies in having- the control for the movements of '
the guns in azimuth and elevation arranged in
such a manner that a measure of “feel” is given
that the guns may travel only in the opposite
direction when the limit in one direction has
been reached, thereby insuring that noharm is
done to the drive motors or any of the mechani
cal parts.
i
The rapidity with which the turret guns can
to the gunner in operation of the turret, i. e., to
have increasing displacement of the control in 3*’ respond to movement of the control being of
utmost importance in the defense of the aircraft,
any direction give increasing speed of travel of
it is therefore desirable that the movement of
the guns and the sight in the same direction.
the control effect an immediate movement of the
For example, the movements of the control may
be resolved into two components, viz., the move 40 guns, and, accordingly, a feature of the control
lies in the fact that it has no “dead spot"
ment about a vertical axis to give azimuth move
through whichit must be moved before'a move
ment to the guns, and the movement about a
ment of the guns is had. _
horizontal axis to give elevational movement to
With the foregoing problems in mind, it ‘is an
the guns. As explained above, giving increased ’
displacements of the control about these axes 45 objector this invention to provide a power op
erated turret having a sight synchronized in its
will, in the instant device, give corresponding
movements therewith, which will enable the gun
increments in speed of travel of the guns in both
ner to follow the target" ?eld with a minimum of
azimuth and elevation.
effort on his part, the sight being movable in
Since at times target ships are movingin the
?eld or fire of the guns at very high speeds, it 50 the same direction as the head and e'yesv of the
gunner in following the target.
is desirable to have the control so arranged that
the tracking speeds of the guns may be varied
Another object is to Provide a novel control.
arrangement for the use of the gunner in laying
for normal speeds and for very fast or "slewing"
the turret guns on the target.
speeds. Means arev provided in the control for
- changing ‘a circuit controlling the speed of the 55
A further object includes the provision of ‘novel
2,418,]. 14
.
4
Figure 9 is a view partly in section, and partly
in elevation along the lines 8--8 of Figure 8.
Figure 10 is a view taken along the lines I0—I0
means for giving “feel” to the gunner in moving
the guns in azimuth and elevation.
A still further object includes the. provision
of a quickly operated controller adjustment
whereby the gunner may move the guns at mod
erate tracking speeds or at high orslewing track
of Figure 9, showing details of the controller
seen in Figure 1;
‘
Figure 11 is ‘a section taken substantially along
ing speeds.
the lines I I-I i in Figure 9; and
,
Figure 12 is'a schematic diagram for the con
trol circuit of the turret shown in Figure 1. '
Referring now to Figure 1 of the drawings,
10
a fuselage I00 of an airplane supports a turret
Yet another object is to provide a novel con- '
trol for an aircraft turret wherein the displace
ment of the controller is a function of the angu
lar speed of the guns in azimuth and elevation.
I02 which has mounted therein guns I04 which
Another object is to provide a controller char
acterized by the absence of a “dead spot,” so that
as soon as an initial displacement of the con
is
troller is had, there will be an immediate track
ing movement of the guns in azimuth or elevation
motor-amplidyne sets for speed control of the
azimuth and elevation drive motors whereby their
speed may be accurately controlled regardless of
the turret
I02 so that a gunner-bombardier ‘
may adjust his position to operate the turret M2
or in combination of the two. >
A still further object of the invention com
prehends the use of motor-generator sets or
are arranged to rotate with the turret ‘I02 in
azimuth and to rotate with respect to turret I02
in elevation. A seat I05 is slidably mounted atop
or a bomb-sight (not shown) mounted in the
extreme forward portion of the fuselage I00“,
20
A controller I08‘, supported on arm I08 pivoted
at “0 is adapted to be operated by the gunner.
for moving the turret, or to be moved to one
side of the fuselage I00 ‘out of the gunner’s
way. when he is operating the bomb-sight. As
the various ‘load factors ‘to which the guns are
subjected.
will be described with particularity later, the
.A yet further object of the invention includes 25 ‘controller I08 pivots about II2 for controlling
the provision of mechanical and electrical means
the movement of guns I04 in azimuth, controller
to limit the angular travel of the guns.
I08 being so arranged that increasing angular
Still another object includes the provision vof _ displacement about axis‘ II2 gives increasing
novel means for insuring that the guns must " angular tracking speed of the guns I04.
travel in the opposite direction when the guns 30. A pair of handles II4 (one being shown) are
have reached the mechanical limit of travel in
mounted on a shaft H8 and rotate with respect
one direction, thereby insuring against injury‘
to the controller I08 for controlling the elevation
to the guns and the turret mechanism.‘
'
movement of the guns I04, handles II4 being
A yet further object is to provide dynamic 35 so arrangedthat clockwise rotation causes upbraking to the guns as they reach their limit
ward movement of the guns I04 in elevation and
of angular travel. so that they will~not ‘coast
into the mechanical stops.
‘
.
I -
counter-clockwise rotation causes downward
movement of the guns I04 in elevation. Handles
II4 are also arranged that increasing angular
‘
While the invention is disclosed with reference
to its employment in the bow of the fuselage, 40 displacement both in a clockwise and a counter
clockwise direction gives increasing tracking
it will be obvious that features of the invention
speeds to the guns I04 in elevation either up or
are not limited tothe use shown, the speed con
trol system and ‘the controller being readily
down.
-
‘
For giving high tracking or, slewing speeds in
adapted to the turrets disclosed in Pontius ap-»'
plication Serial No. 391,911, ?led May 5, 1941, 45 both azimuth and elevation a high speed switch
H5 is provided which may be closed at the will
‘Pontius application Serial No. 429,439, ?led Feb
of the gunner.
\
man: 4, 1942, and Kuzmitz et al. application_
A “dead man” control is provided for the con
Serial No. 471,124, filed January 2,. 1943. It is
troller I08 consisting of a switch II8 which is
to be distinctly understood, also, that the inven
tion is not limited otherwise than by the ap- 50 opened when the gunner grasps control handles
pended claims.
'
,
In the drawings ‘which show a preferred em
bodiment of the invention:
4
_
_
Figure 1 is a longitudinal section of an air- ‘
plane fuselage near the bow thereof, certain of 55
the elements forming a part of the invention
II4. Switch II8 controls the‘ flow of all cur
rent to the control circuit for the drive motors
of‘the turret I02. so that the turret I02 may
not be operated excepting under the control of
the gunner.
,-
>
.
A sight I20 15 provided for the gunner to ob
serve the field of fire of the guns I04, and‘ is
_’
.
synchronized with the movements of the guns
Figure 2 is a schematic, isometric view of the
I04 both in azimuth and elevation. Sight I20
turret showing the mechanical parts and move
is held in a mounting bracket I22 which is so
ments, and showing schematically the motor
‘arranged that it may rotate about axis I24 in
generator or motor-amplidyne sets for supply
synchronism with ‘the elevation movements of
ing current to the drive motors;
Figure 3 is a plan view of the sight shown in .I I the guns I04 and about a second axis I28 in
being shown in elevation;
- synchronism with the azimuth movements of
,
Figure 4 is an elevation view ,of the sight shown 05 theguns I04.
Referring to Figure 2, turret I02 is supported
in Figure 3 looking toward the opposite side >
Figure 1;
within the fuselage I00 by a four-arm spider I28,
_
the extermities of which are fastened to the
Figure 5 is an enlarged section taken along
fuselage I00 in any convenient manner. Adapted
the lines 5--5 in Figure 4;
Figure 6 vis an elevation view of the controller 70 to rotate at the center of spider I28, and sup
looking from the right in Figure 1;
' ported thereby, is a center column I30 which
has secured near the top thereof a worm-wheel
Figure 7 is an enlarged view of the controller
I32 which is driven by a worm I34 suitably con
support arm shown in Figure 1;
nected
as by a gear train I38 to an azimuth
Figure 8 is a section taken along the lines
'
9-8 in Figure 6;
70 drive motor I 38.
from that seen in Figure 1;
2,413,114
5
,
g
For e?‘ecting the azimuth movement of the
sight I20 in synchronism with the azimuth move
ment of the center column I30 of the turret I02,
a ?exible shaft I38 is connected to the gear train
I35.
.
for exciting an exciter ?eld of azimuth motor
" amplidyne set I82, as will be more fully described ’
with reference to Figure 12. For changing the
position of wiper arms 33% and 030, as the control
I06 moves about vertical axis IIZ, a stationary
Depending from the lower end of column I30 '
vertical shaft 205 is provided which has mounted ’
I are the guns I04, which are driven in elevation
at one end thereof a gear sector 206 which drive
by a drive motor I 30, which‘ through gear trains 1 ' ably .engages a pinion 20d mounted on a shaft
I82 and Ida e?ect- rotative movement to a shaft
2H3 which rotates therewith. Gear sector 2,06is
I56 at the ends of which are mounted the guns 10 secured to shaft 20% by a set screw 209. Wiper
I08 for corresponding elevation movement.
arms 33d and 336 are mounted on the shaft 2m
For effecting the elevation movement of the .,
to rotate therewith, and it will be seen that as
sight I20 in synchronism with the elevation move
the control I06 is shifted angularly about they
ment of the guns I04, 2, ?exible drive shaft M8
pivot M2, the wiper arms 38d and are move with
is connected to gear train M2.
'
.
15 respect to the potentiometers 328 and 33d.
Mounted on the spider I28 are a pair of motor
For returning the control I06 to neutral posi
generator sets or motor-amplidyne sets I50 and
tion, and for moving the control I06 angularly
I52 which respectively furnish current and volt
against a small force to give a measure of “feel"
age to drive motors I36 and M0 at desired azi
to the gunner to a coiledspring 2H2 is mounted
muth and elevation tracking speeds according to 20 around shaft 2041?, the ends rid of which are held
the displacement of the controller I06, and irre
spective oi‘ the load on the motors I35 and I50 in
moving the guns ‘I 0%. Reference will be had later ’
to Figur'el2 for details of the circuit for control
ling the drive motors I36 and M5. the motor 25
generator sets I50 and I52 in response to the dis
against movement in‘ the neutral position by
means of adjusting-screws ZIS threaded into the
body of control I 06.
As the control its rocks
about axis II? the gear sector Edd will tend to
coil spring 2I2 about the shaft 2% thereby in
creasing the force necessary to displace control
I06 about axis II2.
The details of sight I20 are shown in Figure 4,
Means are provided to prevent the travel of'
and as shown, sight I20=is mounted at the lower
control Hit about axis ‘H2 beyond a position
and forward end of bracket I22. Sight I 20 in 30 where injury to the potentiometer-s 328 and 33d
cludes a lamp housing I5d which supports a lamp
and the control I06 might occur. As shown in
' I55 therein whose rays impinge against a reticle
Figure 10, gear sector 208 is provided with a pair
I53 of any desired pattern, as for example, a
of ears 205 which engage stops 2t? adjustably
circle. Rays which pass the reticle I58 are re
threaded into the ‘body of controller I d6.‘
‘ placement of controliergIIIt.
?ected from a mirror surface I50 upwardly past 85
a collimating lens'system I62, ltd, whence they
Elevation movement of the guns Id? is effected
by moving handles I III about their axis I It. Ro
are re?ected from a second mirror I85 into the
eye of the gunner. Mirror I65 is of the fraction
tation of handles IId e?ects rotation of a gear
sector 2m which driveably engages a pinion 220
ally illuminized type, i. e., it re?ects the reference
mounted on a shaft 222 which carries a pair of
pattern passed by the reticle I58 and transmits 40 potentiometer wiper arms'dttl and 63% which con
' through'itself light rays from the target ?eld view
tact a pair of potentiometer windings 452d and
by the gunner or bombardier.
I30. In asimilar fashion to wiper arms 334i and
For moving the sight I20 in synchronism with
336, wiper arms AIM and 6136 pickoir a voltage
‘the movement of the guns I06 in elevation, the
di?erential which is ‘applied to the elevation
mounting bracket I22 is pivoted about I 24 and 45 motor-amplidyne set I50, as is more particularly
has in the circular periphery thereof external
described with reference to Figure 12.
gear teeth I58 which mesh with a pinion I70
For giving “feel” to the gunner, gear sector Z’Id
(Figures 4 and'5), which is driven by a worm I‘IZ
is similarly provided with a spring as shown in
mounted at the end of the ?exible shaft I68, and
Figure 11, and for preventing movement in'eiocess
a worm wheel III.
,
of a desired amount of the controller handles IId,
Similarly, for moving the sight I20 in'synchro
gear sector no is provided with adjustable stops
nism with‘ the movement of the guns I05 in azi
similar to those shown in Figure 10.
muth, the mounting bracket I22 is journalled atv
I24 in a yoke I16 which'is pivoted at I26. Yoke
The control of the guns 80% both in azimuth
I and elevation will best be understood with refer
178 is provided with a gear sector III‘) which
meshes with a pinion I80 driven by ?exible shaft
I38 through a worm I82 mounted at the end
thereof, and a worm wheel I86, to effect rotation
of the yoke I76 and the sight I 20 about pivot
point I26 in synchronism with the azimuth move 60
ments of the guns IOI.
-
It will be seen, therefore, that the assembly
just described gives synchronized'movement of
the sight I20 with the movement of the guns I06
in both azimuth and elevation.
ence to Figure 12 which; is a schematic diagram\
of the circuit controlling the azimuth andeleva
tion motor-amplidyne sets I52 and I5@, azimuth
and elevation drive motors I36 and Iéléi. con
troller I06 is shown schematically also in its rela
tion to the control circuit of Figure 12.
A source 306 is provided to furnish power to
the azimuth and elevation drive motors I38 and
its and to the azimuth and elevation motor
amplldyne sets I52 and IE0 through a power relay
'
'
‘
302 by closing a'main- power switch 39% which '
The details of controller I06 will best be under
energizes the winding of relay 302 through con
stood with reference to Figures 6 to 11 inclusive.
duit 306. Passing current through conduit 80%
Controller I06 is secured to control support arm
at the same time passes current through a con
I08 by means of a union 200. which threadably
duit 308 to energize the ?eld of azimuth drive
engages a support member 202 of the controller 70 motor I36. The closing of switch 306 at the time
I05.
passes current to a lead em to energize the field
A pair of control potentiometers 328 and 330
winding of elevationdrlve motor M0.
are held ?xedly in the controller I06 and are ‘
Simultaneously with the closing of the power adapted to be contacted by a pair of wiper arms
relay-8M is the passing of current through lead
336 and 335 for picking off a voltage differential 76 @IZ to the motor of the elevation motor-ampli
. 2,413,114
‘
with the closing or power
dyne set I60. Similarly.
v
relay 302 current is passed to the motor of the
azimuth motor-amplidyne at I62 through a lead“
3“. It will be seen, then, that as long as the
main power switch 304 is closed the motor-ampli
dyne sets or motor-generator sets I60 and I62
8
.
being a?ected by the loads on the guns I04, a
circuit for controlling the speed of the drive
motors I30 and I40 irrespective of the loads
- thereon is shown in Figure 12. The circuit will
?rst be. described with reference to the azimuth
movement of the guns I04.
_
g
\ a
.
As has been ‘described previously, closing‘ the
main power switch 304 passes current to the ?eld
azimuth drive motor I30, and starts the
or amplidyne side of sets ‘I60 and ‘I62 will vary. of
motor-amplidyne set I62. Closing main
according to the load and speed, as determined 10 azimuth
power switch- 304 also energizes the pair of
by the position of controller I06 in azimuth and
azimuth control potentiometers 323 and 330
elevation drive motors I30. and I00.
(shown in Figures 8 and 9) through a conductor
As has been partly described with reference to
The pair of potentiometer wiper arms 334
Figure 1, safety means are incorporated into the '. 332,.
and 330 (shown In Figures 8 and 9) are so linked
16
12
to
insure
that
the
‘control circuit of Figure
> to the controller m, that as controller m is '
' guns I04 are not moved except when the control
displaced angulariy to the right, or clockwise,
handle II4 of Figure 1 is grasped. ‘Safety
the potentiometer wiper arms 334 and 336 are
switches H6 of Figure 1 are shown schematically
moved to the right as‘shown in Figure 12. As
in Figure 12, the left switch of the pair of switches
controller I00 is moved from the neutral II6 being the one mounted in theleft onelof the 20 the
position as shown in Figures 1 and 12 in a clock
pair of control‘ handles II4 of Figure l. Switches
wise direction, wiper arm 334 moves toward the
IIO are normally closed, i. e, when the gunner
positive end of 3,‘ otentiometer 320 and wiper arm
does not grasp either of control handles H4, so
3.30 ‘moves toward the negative end of potentiom
that the armatures of the drive motors I36 and
eter 330. The voltage that exists across wiper
I40 are disconnected from the output side of the 25 arms 334 ‘and 330 is thus a function of the posi
motor-amplidyne sets I62 and I60, and the arma
tion of controller I06 and is applied by a pair of
tures thereof are shorted; and since the arma
leads 338 and 340 to an exciter ?eld 342 of the
turesare in a strong ?eld furnished by the ?ellld
amplidyne side of motor-amplidyne set I62.
t e
will operate continuously, and, as will be cri
plained hereinafter, the output of the generator
' windings of the drive motors I36 and I40,
Voltages thus applied to the exciter ?eld ' 342
armatu'res thereof are immediately dynamically‘
braked.
cause the amplidyne side of motor-amplidyne set
I62 to generate an output voltage across a pair
Controller I06 is so arranged
that dy
_
- namic braking of the drive motors I36 and I40
of leads 34,4 and 340 which is proportional to the
is effected only when neither ‘of, the control han
exciter voltage applied ‘to ?eld 342, and several
~,dles is grasped by the-operator or gunner. Since
the “dead man” switches I I0 are of the normally 35 times the voltage across wiper arms 334 and 336.
'closed type. opening only when one or both of . However, the power input to the exciter ?eld 342
may never exceed one watt while the output
the control handles I I4 is grasped, dynamic brak
ing will not occur until both hands are freed
power of the motor amplidyne I62 may be several _
from the controller handles H4. The circuit for
effecting dynamic braking when the control han 40
hundred times as much.
,
Thus the circuit described has not takeninto
account the effect of load on azimuth ‘drive mo
dles are freed by the gunner is as follows. Cur
tor I30 caused by recoil forces of the guns I04
and movements thereof in the slipstream. In
order to keep the drive motor I36 running at a
rent is supplied by lead 3“ to switch group _I I0
whence it passes out a lead 3I6'to energize a
winding 3I3 of an azimuth dynamic braking relay
320. Similarly, current is passed out of switch as speed corresponding to controller position alone,
means are provided to correct for the factor of
group II3 by a lead 322 to energize a winding
changing loads on the azimuth drive motor I30‘.
324 of an elevation dynamic braking relay 320.
It will be noted that when windings 3I3 and 324 '
It will be noted that wiper arm 334 is directly
7 connected by lead 338 to the exciter ?eld 342.
are energized, the armatures of relays 320 and
320 are attracted downwardly, thereby shorting 50
the armatures ‘of drive motors I30 and I40. It
may be noted that when the armatures of relays
320 and 326 are attracted downwardly, the cur-'
rent supplied by the output'sides of motor-gen
erator sets I62 and I60 is thus cut off from the
armatures of drive motors I30 and I40. I
Tracking speeds for the drive motors I36 and
However, wiper arm 336 is connected to exciter
?eld 342 not only through lead 340 but also
through a resistor circuit consisting of resistors
340, 360, and a part of resistor 352. As soon as
the voltage across leads 344 and 346 begins to
rise, the voltage across resistor 360 and the bot
tom part of resistor 362 opposes the voltage from
the wiper arms 334 and 336, thus reducing the
current to exciter ?eld 342. A stable'point of
I40 are selected in accordance with the position
balance is thus immediately reached. _
of the controller I06 shown in Figure 1. Moving
It will be seen that when the output voltage
60
controller I06 about axis II2 to the right or
,‘of the amplidyne side of motor-amplidyne set
clockwise, for example, causes guns I04 to move
I62 is lowered because. of increased load on
to the right or clockwise. Increased angular dis
azimuth drive motor I36, the opposing voltage
placement of the controller I00 about axis II2
across resistor 350 and the bottom part of re
. clockwise, causes the tracking speed in azimuth
, sistor 362 decreases, and more current flows to the
clockwise to increase. It will be seen, therefore,
exciter field 342. Conversely, if the output volt
that speed of the guns I04, is a function of the _ age from the amplidyne side of motor-amplidyne
position of controller I06.
Similarly, movement of controller handles 1 I4
set I62 increases, because of lighter loads on
For giving the increased tracking speeds of the
guns I04 according to the angular displacement
of the controller I06 without. the tracking speeds 75
controller I06.
azimuth drive motorr I36, the opposing voltage‘
in a clockwise direction as viewed in Figure 1,
resistor 360 and the bottom part of resistor
causes guns I04 to move up in elevation, and the 70 across
362 increases. This tends to keep’ the output
speed will be a function of the controller handle v voltage constant, regardless of load on azimuth
position.
_
drive motor I36, for any given position of the
.
When a load is applied to the drive motor I36,
asraiie ‘_ '
-
it. tends to slow down, at the same time dra
more current from motor-amplichrne set ' I82.
This current ?ows through‘ lead 866 through
the dynamic braking relay 320 and through re
sistor 3A8, causing a voltage drop therein. Since.
resistor 348 is'in the circuit for wiper am 338,
this voltage drop is added to the voltage from
wiper arms 336 and 334, bringing the amplidyne
output voltage‘ up, and it thereby brings the
speed of motor I36 back to its no-load value.
10
Forobtaining high tracking or slewing speeds
of the guns We in azimuth, means are provided
- in the control circuit‘ just described for-obtain
ing high output voltages from the motor-ampli
-‘
?g
'
arms 8186 and 336 with respect to each other,
i there can be no possibility that-the‘ failure of
the amplidyne output polarity, and thus direc
tion of azimuth drive motor I36, to change im
mediately as the polarity of the wiper arms 334
and 336 changes will cause the guns I04 to be
driven through the clockwise mechanical limita
tions of travel because of selection of the wrong
limit switch 868' or 368.
‘
'. Means are provided for eliminating “dead
spots” on the controller I06. It. will be seen inv
Figure 12 that potentiometer 330 is divided at‘
the mid or neutral point, and wiper arm 3%
is so arranged that it contacts both halves of the
dyne set I52 for the azimuth drive motor I38. 15 divided potentiometer 330 when the controller
.Closing either one of the pair of high vspeed
l?e'is in the neutral position. An adjustable
switches H5 of Figures 1 and 12 passes current
rheostat 318 connects the two halves of poten
from lead 3M‘ through one or both of switches
I IE to a lead 358 and thenceto a relay 356.
When the left of the pair of armatures asso
ciated with relay 35d moves to the right, resistor
} set, which furnishes part of the'opposing' volt
tiometer 336, and as-soon as arm 336 is moved
whereby wiper arm 335 contacts only one of the
halves of divided potentiometer titan immedi
ate and-controllable voltage across wiper arms"
33% and 3364s set up.
_
'
,
age, is shorted out. Current ?owing in lead 360
While the operation and control of the‘ spec
then takes a path through lead 3%, through
of azimuth motor ltd has been described for
the left-hand armature of relay 3%, through 25 e?ecting clockwise‘motion'of the guns we in
lead 358 and directly to the bottom part of re
azimuth, it will be seen-that to effect counter
sistor 352. .At such time‘the voltage supplied
clockwise ‘movement of‘ the guns we in azimuth,
by wiper arms 33d and 836 is not opposed by as
the wiper arms 33% and 336 will move to the left.
great a voltage as part of the resistor circuit
This movement will reverse the current in the ‘
_ has been shorted out, and, therefore the voltage 30 exciting held 362 and will reverse the current out
-
supplied to exciter ?eld 332 is correspondingly
put- on the amplidyne side of azimuth motor
increased.
amplidyne set 852.
'
I
.
For the purpose of. cancelling any excitation
The operation of the azimuth drive system has
of the amplidyne, including the excitation ‘due ‘ been described with particularity, and the eleva
to residual magnetism, thus bringing the am 35 tion drive system is similar in operation. For
plidyne output voltage down to zero when dy
namic braking is applied to drive motor let, an
anti-shunt ?eld for the motor-amplidyne set
552 is provided.
the sake of brevity, however, detailed description
of the elevation drive has been omitted, but parts
corresponding to the parts of the electrical system
Switches He are of the nor
{on the azimuth drive have been given ordinals
mally closed type, closing when the gunner does 4-0 corresponding to those in azimuth, except that
not grasp controller handles us. At such times
the ordinals are in the 400 series.
as both of switches its are closed, winding Sid ‘
of relay 3% will be energized,- causing dynamic
braking of azimuth drive motor 638 by shorting
the armature thereof. An armature 236i is as
sociated with relay 326 which moves downward
ly when relay 329 is energized, closing-as a switch.
Current from the amplidyne side’of motor-am
plidyne set I52, which ?ows in lead are, passes
into lead 380 through a currents-limiting resistor ,
362' and thence to an anti-shunt field 3%, which '
furnishes a field opposite in direction ‘to the
other ?elds‘of amplidyne I52, and thehce to _
lead 366;. It will be seen, then, that the output
voltage of amplidyne 652 immediately falls‘ to
zero‘ or very close to zero.
e
For preventing movement ' of vthe guns in
. azimuth beyond a permissible limit of travel a
‘The above-described circuit which is not basi
cally or broadly of our invention as a control of
general application, but which involves features
of novelty in the described combination, for the
purposes of convenience and succinctness in the
claims is called “motor-generator means."
The operation of the turret described above is,
' as follows:
,
/
The gunner or bombardier occupies seat W5
which he may slide forward so that he can grasp
Jcontroller we at the control handles lid and at
the same time mer through sight ltd at its eye
piece. Closing the main power switch 3% passes
current to the motor-amplidyne sets E50 and 552
and the ?eld windings of drive motors are and ‘i til,
‘placing them in a "make-ready” condition to re
ceive control voltages from the controller we
pair of limit switches 366 and 388 are‘ provided.
in accordance with its position.
.
Limit switch 366 in conjunction with a limit-‘60' By moving controller I86 clockwise aboutv its
selector switch 372, prevents clockwise rotation
axis H2,’ clockwise rotation of the glms its in
beyond a predetermined limit when controller
azimuth will take place, and the speed of rotation
are ig’displaced to give clockwise movement of
will be a function of the clockwise displacement
the guns in',azimuth, and when bothare closed
of the controller B98 about vaids H2. (Jounter
energizes dynamic braking relay ‘320. The cir 65 clockwise rotation of the controllerv e?ects in a
cuit for effecting dynamic braking is made
similar manner the counterclockwise rotation in'v
through lead 832, adjacent a pair of limit‘ selector
azimuth of guns ms. 7
switches 310 and 312, a lead 3M through clock
By moving controller handles Wt clockw sev
wise limit switch 366 and thence to winding 3l8
about their axes us the guns we will be “eyed
of relay 320 through lead 3l6. Limit selector 70 upward in elevation about shaft 168 (Figu e 2').
switches are moved with the controller I06 and
As in the case with the azimuth‘ movement of '
overlap, so that when the controller I06 is going
the guns I04, increasing tracking speed is e?ected
through the neutral pcsition to eiiect movement
by increasing the displacement of controller‘
of the guns in the opposite direction, i. e., while
handles H4 about axes H6, counterclockwise
the controller is changing the polarity of wiper
rotation of the controller handles ilt causes the
‘2,418,114 _
_
.
.
v11
‘
-
guns to move down in elevation about shaft I 08.
Since sight I20 is synchronized with the azi
Jnuth and elevation movements of guns I0!
’ through the medium of sight drive cahles'll? and
I48, the gunner may observe the target field of
the guns as. they swing in azimuth and elevation;
or conversely, havhig kept the sight I20 on the
* _ target, his guns will also be. trained on the target.
.
12
.
'
for changing the exciting ?eld when an increase
in the tracking speed is‘ desired for any given
position of the control from neutral, limit selector
' switch means associated with said control and
arranged to respond to movement or said con
troller for limiting the movement of said gun, said
limit means including conductors and a relay
controlled switchconnected' to each of said power -
means for dynamically braking said power means.
' Any convenient means may be emplr-ved for ~
2. A turret for use in the bow or stern portions
?ring the guns I04 when they are trained on‘the 10 of an aircraft or the like comprising, in combi
target, as for example as shown in Pontius appli
nation, a turret member, a mounting for said tur
cation Serial No. 391.911, ?led May 5. 1941, and : ret member carried by‘ said aircraft, a gun mount
Pontius et al. application Serial No. 489,622, ?led _ ed on said turret member for rotation therewith
April 20, 1942. ‘A ?ring switch for the guns IM
in azimuth and constructed and arranged to ro- ' i
may be conveniently mounted in each of the 161 tate with respect to said turret member‘ in ‘eleva
controller handles II. or any other convenient
tion, a sight synchronized in its movements with
place according to esigner’s choice. the azimuthal and elevational movement of said _
For giving increased tracking or slewing speeds
gun and constructed and arranged to enable a
the gunner closes one of the high speed switches
gunner peering into said sight to observe the ?eld
20
mounted in controller handle “4, and then the
of fire of the gun, means including a pair of.
high tracking speeds may be varied according to
?exible cables connecting said turret member and
the angular displacement of control I08 and con
gun to said sight to impart movement thereto,
trol handles III.
power
means for rotating said turret member
As has been explained with reference to Figure
with
the
gun in azimuth, motor generator means
12, when the guns I04 reach their mechanical
for supplying voltage and current to said power
limit of travel in azimuth and elevation drive
means in accordance with load and desired speed,
motors I36 and I40 are immediatelydynamically '
a separately excited winding on the generator for
braked. The gunner then is able to move the.
furnishing an exciting ?eld therefor, power means
guns in the opposite direction only, which he does
by reversing the direction of movement of con 30 .for rotating said gun in elevation, a second motor
generator means for supplying voltage and ‘our
trol I06 and controller handles Ill.
, rent to the elevational power means in accord
While the invention has been described with
ance with load and desired speed, a separately
reference to a preferred embodiment it is to be
excited winding on said second-named generator ..
understood that the‘; invention is not limited in
scope except by the claims which are hereto ap-_ 35 for furnishing an exciting ?eld therefor, and
control means for both of said power means in-‘
pended.
-We claim:
1. A turret for use in the bow or stem portions
of an aircraft or‘ the like comprising, in combina
cluding a manually operated controller rotatable
. about a plurality of axes angularly displaced with
:respect to each other, said controller being nor
40 mally held in a neutral position on said axes
tion, a turret member, a mounting for said turret , and constructed and arranged so that rotation
member carried by said aircraft, a gun mounted ‘ from neutral in any direction about said axes
on said turret,member for rotation therewith
in azimuth and constructed and arranged to
selects the gun for corresponding movement in
the selected direction, the angular displacement
rotate with respect to said turret member in ele 45 of said controller'from neutral determines the
vation, a sight synchronized, in its‘movements
tracking speed of the gun, said control means in
with the azimuthal and elevational movement
cluding a switch to be closed for changing the
of said gun and constructed and arrangedto en
exciting ?eld when an increase in tracking speed
able a gunner peering into the said sight to ob
is desired for any given position‘ of the control
servesthe ?eld of fire of the gun, means including 50 from neutral, limit selector, switch means asso-‘
a pair of ?exible cables connecting said turret
ciated with said control and arranged to respond
member and gun to said sight to impart move
_ to movement of said controller for limiting the
ment thereto corresponding to movement of the
vmovement of said gun, said limit means includ
gun, power means for rotating said turret mem
‘ ing conductors and a relay-controlled switch con
ber with the gun in azimuth, motor generator
nected to each .of said power means for dynami
means for supplying voltage and current to said ‘
cally braking said power means.
power means in accordance with load and de
3. A turret for aircraft or the like comprising
sired speed, a separately excited winding on the‘
a turret member, a mounting for said turret
generator for furnishing an exciting field there
member carried ‘by said aircraft, a gun mounted
on. said turret member for rotation therewith in
for, power means for rotating said gun in eleva
azimuth and arranged for rotation with respect
tion, a second motor generator means for supply
ing voltage and current to the elevation power '
thereto in elevation, power means for rotating ‘
means in accordance with load and desired speed,
s‘aid turret member with the ‘gun in ‘azimuth,
a separately~ excited winding on Y said second
motor generator means for supplying voltage and
named generator for furnishing an exciting ?eld
current to said power means in accordance with
‘ therefor, and control means for both of said
. power means includinga manually operated con
troller rotatable about a plurality of axes~ angu
larly displaced with respect to each other, said
controller being normally held in a neutral posi
tion on said axes and constructed and arranged
so that rotation fromneutral in any direction
about said axes selects the gun for correspond
load and desired speed, a separately excited
. winding on the generator for furnishing an ex
citing ?eld therefor, power means for rotating
said gun in elevation, a second motor generator
‘means for supplying voltage and current to the
elevational power means in accordance with load
and desired speed, a separately excited, winding ‘
on said second-named generator for furnishing
an exciting ?eld therefor, and control means for
_ ing movement in the selected direction, said con
- trol'means also including a switch to be closed 75 both of said power ‘means including a manually I
2,413,114 '
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operated controller rotatable about a plurality of
axes angularly displaced with respect to each
other, said controller being normally held in a
14‘
in elevation, a second motor generator means for’
supplying voltage and current to the elevational
power means in accordance with load and de-,
neutral position on said axes and constructed and
sired speed, a separately excited winding on said,
arranged so that rotation from neutral in any 5 second-named generator for furnishing an ex
direction about said axes selects the gun for
citing ?eld therefor, and control means for both
corresponding movement in the selected direc
of said power means including a manually oper
. tion, said control means including a switch to be
ated controller rotatable about a plurality of
closed for changing the exciting ?eld when an
axes angularly displaced with respect to each
increase in the tracking speed is desired for any 10 other, said controller being normally held in a
given position of the control from neutral, limit
neutral position on said axes and constructed
selector switch means associated with said con
and arranged so that ‘rotation from neutral in
trol and arranged to respond to movement ofv
any direction about said axes selectstthe gun for
said controller for limiting the movement of said
corresponding movement in the selected direc
gun in the dire ‘ion selected, said limit means 15 tion, the angular displacement of said controller
including conductors and a relay-controlled '
switch connected to each of said power means
for dynamically braking said power means.
4. A turret for aircraft or the like comprising
a turret member, a mounting for said turret 20
from neutral determines the tracking, speed of
said gun, said control means including a switch
to be closed for changing the exciting ?eld when
an increase in the tracking speed is desired for
any given position of the control from neutral,
member carried by said aircraft. a gunmounted
limit selector switch means associated with said
on said turret member for rotation therewith in
control and arranged to respond to movement
azimuth and arranged for rotation with respect
of said controller for limiting the movement of
thereto in elevation, power means for rotating
said gun in the direction selected, said limit
said turret member with the gun in azimuth,
means including conductors and a relay-con
motor generator means for supplying voltage and 2.5 trolled switch connected to each of said power
current to said power‘ means in accordance with
means for dynamically braking said power‘
load and desired speed, a separately excited wind
means.
ing on the generator for furnishing an exciting
GEORGE W. PONTIUS, III.
_ ?eld therefor, power means for rotating said gun 80
FRANK V. KUZMITZ.
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