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Dec. 24, 1946.
Filed oct. s, 1942'
2 sheets-sheet 1
Dec. 24, 1946. -
Filed 0015. 8, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
E C'. a/f/ÈE'SS .
MW@ MAM hm.
Patented Dec. 24, 1946
~ 2,413,171
-2,413,171 ' .
David Gordon Clifford and Ernest C. Qkress,Montclair, N. J., assignors to Westinghouse
Electric Corporation, East Pittsburgh, Pa., a
corporation of Pennsylvania
Application October 8, 1942, Serial No. 461,336
8 Claims.
In its broader aspect, this invention relates to
receiving and transmitting energy in the form of
electro-magnetic waves and more specifically it
relates to» a novel switch which is connected be
tween the transmitter and receiver and serves the
purpose of protecting the receiver during the
transmission pulse.
(Cl. 178-44)
box meeting the exacting requirements outlined
above and with greater eiîectiveness than ac
complished by devices of the prior art.
More specifically, an object of the invention
is to provide a TR box with a cartridge type elec
trode assembly.
Another object of the invention is to localize the
Use of reflection cf radio waves for various pur
lecessary evacuated region, and to require par
poses, such as determination of altitude of an
tial Vacuum only within the cartridge.
airplane to ground, for locating one airplane from 10
A further object of the invention is to provide a
ano-ther or from a ñxed situation, and for other
tunable TR box with‘the electrodes and cartridge
purposes, is an acknowledged fact.
The wave is
envelope maintaining an undisturbed relationship
generated, passed to the antenna and into space,
and with the partial vacuum undisturbed.
reflects from the object addressed, returns to the
A still further object of the invention is to uti
antenna and thence to the receiver. A switch of 15 lize moving parts for tuning purposes entirely out
automatic character has to be provided to keep
side of the cartridge.
the projected pulse from passing through the re
Again, an object of the invention is to provide a
ceiver at the time of projection but which will per
cartridge construction which is readily removable
mit the reflected pulse to operate the receiver.
and replaceable and necessitates minimum mate
Such va switch is now commonly referred to as a 20 rial and labor loss represented by the substitution.
“TR box.”
Another object is to provide for proper orienta
The present invention is directed primarily to
tion of the cartridge in the resonator and also to
an improved TR box capable of use with a wave
establish desired resonance mode.
guide. The term “wave guide” is used to describe
Still further objects of the invention will appear
the means by which electro-magnetic energy is 25 as the description progresses, both by direct reci
propagated in hollow tubes from one place to an
tation thereof and by implication from the con
other before its ultimate transmission into free
space, if that is to be done. More specifically, a
Referring to the accompanying drawings in
wave guide includes the provision of a dielectric,
which like numerals of reference indicate similar
such as air within a channel, the wave guide ex
parts throughout the several views:
tending from place to place and constituting a
Figure 1 is a sectional view longitudinally
metallic boundary laterally engirdllng the dielec
through a TR box and associated wave guide, as
tric. The cross-sectional dimensions of the me
on line I-I of Figure 2;
tallic boundary of the wave guide have a delinite
Figure 2 is a sectional view longitudinally of the
relation to the character of the wave transmitted .‘ en wave guide and transversely of the TR box, as
thereby. Literature has employed and this de
upon line II-lI of Figure 1;
scription will correspondingly employ the letter a
Figure 3 is an elevation of the cartridge struc
to designate the short dimension and letter b to
ture utilized in our improved TR box;
designate the long dimension of the cross section
Figure 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of a
of a rectangular wave guide. In the present speci 40 modified construction of cartridge;
fication selection of a particular mode is employed
for simplicity, and by arbitrary choice herein that
propagation of electro-magnetic energy isi by
Figure 5 is an elevation of the TR box or switch '
in its associated relationship with transmitting
and receiving apparatus;
means of the H01 wave. It is to be understood,
however, that-other modes may be used and other
shapes and" dimensions of wave guides maybe
Figure 6 is a sectional View similar to Figure 1
showing a modified choke construction; and
Figure 6.
The degree of delicacy of operation of the TR
box is highly important as itis essential that the
Figure 7 is a cross section on line VII-VII of
In the speciiic embodiment of thev invention
illustrated in said drawings, reference is ñrst
high power of the outgoing signal shall notpa'ra 50 made to Figure 5 wherein is illustrated the gen
lyze or even filter through tothe receiver, and yet
it is imperative that the faintest of reflected sig
nals shall pass through the switch to the receiver.
The present invention accordingly has for its
primary object the provision of a switch or TR 55
eral assembly of apparatus comprising a wave
generator i9 productive of high pulse energy of
desired frequency promulgated as Hoi' waves lon
gitudinally of a wave guide Il preferably of rec
tangular cross section. Such waves may be dl
from the wave guide or through the agency of
an antenna, such as a horn, or otherwise. Pref
erably the waves are sent forth from a parabolic
tridge comprises essentially a long tubular en
velope 2l Within which are situated cylindrical
device, which for brevity and ease of reference
will be termed an antenna I2 which can be moved
electrodes 22, 22 opposed endwise toward each
about for directing the wave path o'r beam` in a
other on a common axis and coaxial with the en
desired direction and toward an object. The in
vention is preferably used in conjunction with.
velope. The outwardly directed ends of the elec#
trodes are mounted upon lead-in wires 23, 23
of sufficient rigidity to maintain the electrodes
in the position shown with a gap 24 between the
ultra-high frequency radio waves, an advantage
of which is the property of straight-forward pro'
jection and reflection in substantially the same
inwardly directed. ends, said ends preferably
manner as light waves. Accordingly, the- pro
jected wave energy directed toward some object,
such as an airplane, reflects therefrom and on
being somewhat pointed. The glass of the en
velope 2I is sealed around the lead-in wires, the
envelope is evacuated, reiilled with ionizable gas
if desired: to appropriate pressure, and tubulation
25 for. that purpose sealed oiî. The cartridge is
mounted to be removable in its entirety and re
placeable at will, and in use should be situated
symmetrical with respect to the center line of
the wave guide,`that is, the centerline of the
wave guide should be normal to and pass between
the inwardly directed ends of the electrodes. The
glass tube 20 is of adequate internal volume to
maintain long life of operation.
Projecting outwardly from the fixed end I8 of
the resonator body is an inverted cup 26 of cylin
drical shape and having an outer end 2'I‘from
which'projects a neck 28. Said neck is coaxial
its return course between pulses is intercepted
by the antenna I2 which concentratestheA wave
to re-enter wave guide I I and travel therein and
through a branch wave guide I3 to a receiver I4'
which is then excited by the returned Wave. The
generator is placed at a speciñed distance from
the junction of wave guides II and I3 so as to
present such an impedance at the junction (in
the quiescent state) so as to divert the received
energy toward the receiver in guide I3. Ob
viously the returned wave energy will be very
weak as compared to the high power of the en
ergy produced by the wave generator. The TR
box I5 is interposed in branch wave guide I3 be
tween the receiver and generator and between
the receiver and the antenna to automatically
prevent the high power energy from generator I0
during transmission from destroying or inter
fering with the receiver and yet permitting the
receiver to be actuated in consequence of the
relatively weak power of the returned' signal be
tween pulses.
tures open. Coaxial with and within the cylin
drical resonator body is situated, in use, the re
movable and replaceable cartridge 20 constitut
ing a feature of the present invention. The car
rectionally transmitted into free space directly
with the' said cup which in turn is coaxially alined
withv the cylindrical body portion I6. Said cup
furthermore is provided with an axial bore for
receiving one of the lead-in wires 23 of the car~
- tridg'e. When the cartridge is adjusted to its de
sired position a set screw 29 projecting radially
The switch or TR box of the present invention
inward of the neck is employed for clamping the
lead-in wire at such position.
It will now be
clear that insertion, removal, and replacement, as
well as adjustment of the cartridge, may be read
I6 which is hollow and in part provides a reso
ily eiîected.
nator chamber Il> therein'. The body I6 is pro
The bottom wall 30 of the resonator, that is.
vided with a fixed end wall i3 which is situated
the wall opposite from the iixed end wall I8, is
in the plane of the long dimension wall b of the
made adjustable. For that and other purposes
branch wave guidev I3, the said body I6 extending
said bottom wall is made integral with a cylin
from 'said fixed end> wall I8 of the wave guide,
drical section SI coaxial with and spaced in
transversely through the hollow of the wave guide
wardly from the body portion I6, the hollow of
and out through the opposite long dimension wall
this cylindrical section affording the necessary
b of said wave guide. Apertures, closed by win
region for introduction of the cartridge to its
dows I9 of material transparent to the wave en
desired position within the resonator. At the
ergy are provided at parts of the resonator body
outer peripheral face of the said cylindrical sec
within the wave guide and centered upon the
tion intermediate the ends thereof is a flange 32
center line of the wave guide. The windows are
the 4outer peripheral face whereof is screw
of suitable dielectric material, such as low loss
threaded, as at 33, and is engaged with corre
glass and serve as means for passing the flow of
sponding screw threads on the interior periph
wave energy in the guide through the resonator. i
eral face of body portion I6. The outer end of
Said windows are suitably dimensie-ned both as to
the cylindrical section 3| is formed with a cap
diameter and thickness and with due considera
34 thereon said cap having a rim portion 35
tion to their dielectric constant, to introduce a
which overlies the outer peripheral wall of the
minimum of disturbance and still give sufficient
body portion. Said cap constitutes a convenient
coupling between the resonator chamber and the GI) finger hold by which the same may be manipu
wave guide. These window apertures are shown
lated and it will, therefore, be clear from the
circular, though they need not be, andrconcentric
above that rotation of the cap will obtain a cor
preferably comprises a cylindrical body of metal
with a diameter of the resonator as well as with
responding rotation of the cylindrical section and
the center line ofthe wave guide. The windowed
its threaded flange thereby advancing or retract
apertures are preferably as small as practicable 65 ing the movable end wall 3l] depending upon di
i‘or still obtaining desired energy transfer with
rection of rotation. Movement of the adjustable
out undue lessening of the surface continuity of
end wall 3B is for purposes of tuning the resona
the resonator. The area of the windows to a con
siderable extent controls the coupling coeñìcient,
Electrical continuity is necessary between- the
detailed discussion of which is out oi.'` place here'.
adjustable wall- 30 and the cylindrical wall of
Since neither the resonator nor the. wave guide,
the resonator, but sliding contact at the periph
in accordance with preferred construction, are
e'ry of the said end wall is highly objectionable.
evacuated, there is no need for the windows to
construction employed accordingly spaces the
be vacuum tight, and it is within the scope of the
invention to omit the windows- and leave the‘aper- '
periphery of the adjustable end wall slightly in
ward from the surface of the body portion of the
resonator, leaving a gap 36 thereat. From the
peripheral edge of the adjustable wall next the
said gap, a skirt 31 projects rearwardly from the
resonator said skirt being cylindrical and having
energy ycan pass substantially unattenuated to
they receiver. ' In greater detail this means that
some spark mechanism is placed inthe resona
tor which is ineiîective during small signals or
small pulses and allows the energy to pass
a depth equal to a quarter wave length in the
through substantially unattenuated. On the
other hand, however, during the time when the
medium involved, which in the present showing
is air.
The adjustable wall 3B and skirt 3l ac
generator l0 is operating and/or a large pulse is
cordingly constitute a piston, opening away from
the resonator and setting up a high impedance 10
at the open end.
In consequence of the quarter
wave length depth, high impedance at one end
results in low impedance at the other end so
that there will be low impedance at said gap 36
which wave energy recognizes as equivalent to
contact between the surfaces and, therefore, con
stitutes electrical continuity without actual con
tact. This construction is referred to herein and
in the trade as a choke.
yElectrical continuity between the adjustable
wall 30 and its adjacent electrode 22 and be
tween the fixed wall I8 and its adjacent electrode
22 is obtained by a choke in a manner similar to
that above described with respect to the adjust
able wall and resonator body. The construction
of choke accordingly provides a metal ring 38 for
the ñxed wall I8 and a metal ring 39 for the
adjustable wall 30 of the resonator, both said
rings projecting outwardly from the resonator
and having an inside diameter of appropriate size
for permitting the cartridge to loosely pass there
through. Ring 38- is likewise smaller than the
cylindrical wall of cup 26 so there is an annular
space therebetween. This space is iilled with a
glass or other dielectric ring 4I) having the same .
loss tangent and real dielectric constant as the
glass of the cartridge envelope. Similarly, ring
39 is spaced inwardly from cylindrical section 3l
leaving an annular space therebetween which is
ñlled with a glass or other dielectric ring 4I also
having the same loss tangent and real dielectric
constant as the glass of the cartridge envelope.
Each metallic ring 38 and 3,9 has an axial depth
equal to a quarter wave length in the medium em
ployed, which in the present instance is glass. ‘i. ‘
Observation is made at this time, that the wave
length in a dielectric such as glass is materially
shorter than in air, and in the present showing,
length of the metallic rings 3B and 39 represents
received, the spark gap discharges, reducing the
Q of the resonator, and blocks the large signal
there, cutting down the transmission through the
TR box to protectiveV values; This discharge oc
curs during the high pulse because a very high
electric gradient is set up between the spark gap
electrodes properly positioned in the resonator.
The use of such a spark gap in the cylindrical
resonator containing the sparkgap electrodes
coaxial -with its axis will not permit an easy corn
putation of the resonant frequency of the system.
As 'it'has been found that there is a time lag,
inñnitesimal though it may be, in the high ñelds
becoming effective to break down the gap be
tween electrodes 22,22 it becomes deiinitely de
sirable to obtain greater promptness in this re
spect. Generally speaking for the moment, this
objective is attained by utilizing an ionizable
gaseous medium‘in the resonator and a keep
alive therein by which a gas ionization is main
tained and thereby supplying the desired ionizing
radiation across the gap. Consequently when
resonant potential builds up across the gap the
moment of breakdown of the gap is accelerated,
thus reducing the time lag in operation. Ac
cordingly, the resonator body is ñrst evacuated
after which approximately one millimeter (or
more if desired) of an appropriate gas is. ad
mitted. Suitable gases for the purposes include
hydrogen, nitrogen, with or Without water-Vapor,
as well as other gases alone or in combination.
For keep-alive purposes, one of the electrodes
is rendered emissive. As. shown in Figures 1 to 3
the inner end of one electrode has a‘radio-active
or gamma emission' material thereon, such as
radium, as indicated yat 41.'
`Otheri'formsí’of keep-alive electrode may be
provided, and in Figure 4 is shown a construction
wherein glow discharge is obtained by a structure
utilizing external potential for the purpose.
Some -rn'odiilcatiorí of the envelope is likewise
a single quarter wave length for the glass dielec- 5'1 involved. In this showing oneelectrode 22' dii"
tric as compared with the depth of the piston
fers `from electrode 22 in that it is hollow or
wall or skirt 31 heretofore described which rep
tubular and has therein a rod or wire 42 which is
resents a single quarter wave length in air. As
a continuation of its lead-in wire 23. This rod
explained above, high impedance at an open end
extends to the forward end of electrode 22’ so
means there must be low impedance a quarter a as to be at the forward opening of the electrode
wave length distant where the rings are attached
but without making contact therewith. Rod 42
to their respective end walls, wherefore, for >the
wave energy involved, there is electrical continu
ity thus obtained between the said end walls and
the adjacent electrodes at the ends adjacent to le'
the resonator I1.
It may be here added that all
parts above described, except those specifically
referred to as glass or dielectric, are of suitable
metal such as brass, copper and the like, to be
electrically conductive.
may be of electron emissive character, such as
tungsten-oxide-barium, tungsten-barium, stron
tium-barium and the like. The envelope 2 I ’ next
the tubular‘electrode 22' is sealed to a metallic
tube 43 of substantially the same diameter and
the electrode 22’ is ñanged as at 44 next its outer
end so` asy to fit this metallic tube for support and
centering thereby. The flange 44 may be secured
in place within the tube by soldering as at 45.
In 'performing its function as a TR box, the
resonator is constructed and positioned with re
spect t0 the junction of the wave guides II and
Beyond the ilange the lead-in wire 23 is sealed
within the metallic tube by a glass bead 46. Po
tential diiïerence between the tubular electrode
I3 so as to present such, an impedance at the
and the rod 42 may be applied through the metal
junction to provide electrical continuity through f' I' lic sleeve 43 and the lead-in wire 23.
the guide ,II during transmission and prevent
leakage of power above a safe value to the re
ceiver and furthermore to provide a suitable im.
In the _foregoing description, it will be vobserved
that an important lfeature is the provision of á.
quarter wavelength of coaxial lines by metallic
pedance at the junction during the period of re
rings 38, 39 in conjunction with the electrodes 22,
ception (generator quiescent) so that the received 75 to secure eiîective' electrical connection through
not affect the gap 24 between the electrodes` at. all.
Since the various details of construction, asf
well as the precise relation and functioning of
parts, are subject to variation and change with
out departing from the inventive concept or scope
of the invention, it is intended that all matter
contained in the specification or illustrated in the
the glassv of envelopev 2‘ll at the desired placchetweenthe electrodesand the body of the, resonant;
chamberV l 1. The structure thus far described
has the advantage of overall limitations of length
by use of relatively short chokes by virtue ofthe
hollows of the chokes being filled with the
dielectrics 40 and 4l .with the dielectric the same,
drawings, shall be interpreted as exemplary and
not in a limiting sense.
t is also to be under
or having the same dielectric constant, asV the
glass or wall of envelope 2|.
The inclusion of
glass as dielectric rings 39 and 40, however, in
10 stood that the following claimsA are intended t0
cover all of the generic and speciñc features cf
the invention herein shown and described and all
the nature of the material and the desirability of'
statements of the scope of the invention herein
obtaining a snug fit thereof in its appointed place.
forth as aL matter of language which might
It is accordingly deemed within the scope of the
be said tofall therebetween.
invention to utilize other dielectricA than glass,
We claim:
and to vary the arrangement of the choke if
l. A 'IR box comprising a non-evacuated en
found desirable. A modified construction in this
forming a resonant chamber having a
respect is accordingly shown in'Figures 6 and 7.
cylindrical side wall, and said side wall having
In connection with the construction shown in
Figures 6 and 7, those parts which are identical 20 window openings to the exterior of said chamber,
and a cartridge structure insertable through said
with parts heretofore describedA are identiñed by
chamber, said cartridge structure comprising a
the same reference numerals- and repetition of
partially- evacuated envelope and electrodes sepa
description thereof is omitted. As to parts which
troduces certain difliculties in_fabrication, dueto
are similar, the same reference characters with
the addition of the` letter “a” thereafter are ap
plied and the following description will set forth
the differences so far as deemed necessary.
‘ rated by a gap within said partially evacuated
envelope, said gap being substantially opposite
said window openings.
2. A TR box comprising an enclosure forming
a resonant chamber having opposed end walls
Metallic rings 39a andv 40a are provided in this
provided with openings therethrough, a cartridge
modified. construction> of Figures 6 and 7, said
rings having a quarter wavelength dimension 30 structure traversing said chamber past said. op
posed end walls and projecting> through said open
axially thereofY as in the previously described con
said cartridge having electrodes therein, and
struction, but in this instance said rings do not
means next said openings outside said end walls
provide hollow spaces“ to> the next adjacent sur
for establishing electrical continuity between said
roundingV wall, but are solid> from their inner
end walls and electrodes while maintaining phys
openings to said- surroundingv wall.
ical separation thereof.
Axially` outward from each said ring 39a and
3. A TR box comprising an enclosure forming
40a is a choke, each being constituted by a longi
a resonant chamber and having a cylindrical wall,
tudinal cavity 48 having a quarter wavelength
a movable wall to said chamber for tuning to de
dimension. in the axial direction, the wavelength
dimension being referred to the dielectric of the 40 sired resonance, said movable wall being spaced
from the said cylindrical wall, means for estab
cavity, in this instance, in air. Said cavityy in
lishing electrical continuity across said space, and
each instance has a‘circular slot opening or gap
a cartridge structure having a dielectric envelope
49 at the end next the metallicring and inwardly
in part within said chamber and having elec
toward the cartridge or envelope.
(The effect
of this choke isto introduce a high'impedance > trodes therein separated from each other by a
gap -andadapted to destroy resonance in said res
at the gap dsthereby forcing a low impedance at
onant chamber, one of said electrodes being in
the. far end therefrom ofY the metallic ring,
part within said movable wall and the envelope
namely at the end of the metallic, ring next the
being interposed in part therebetween, and means
resonator chamber.) Thus, both constructions
for establishing electrical continuity between one
obtain this desired low impedance across the gap
electrode and said movable wall through said di
and provide the eiîect" of electrical continuity
electric of the envelope at the said part thereof
between the electrodes andthe adjacent wall of
interposed between said one electrode and mov
the resonant chamber.
able wall.
The constructions sho-wn are accordingly both
4. A TR box comprising an enclosure forming
of cartridge types, namely, longn and slender and
a resonant chamber and having a cylindrical wall
representing a minimum ofl evacuated volume.
and end walls of which one is adjustable in an
The cartridge can be insertedfat, the resonant
axial direction of the cylindrical wall, said mov
chamber of the-TR box, which chamber no longer
able wall being spaced from said cylindrical wall,
has to be of partial.vacuumtypeconstruction as
inthe prior art. This isextremely-important be 60 means for establishing electrical continuity across
said space, a cartridge structure having a dielec
cause oftheprecisicn of part fabricationlrequired
tric envelope in part extending through said end
ofthe resonant chamber ofthe TR boxpand the
walls and in part within said chamber and hav
resulting high cost. anddiiflculty of fabrication
ing electrodes therein separated from each other
ifeach TR box is made as- a comp-leteand evac
uated` integral unit; With a- TR. box of the> pres
ent invention', any failure. of' partial vacuum or of
theÍ discharge» electrode characteristics; can be
readily repaired or altered by simplyf inserting a
newv cartridge. It furthermore may be pointedout
that an outstanding featurerof* the-:device ofthe
f by a gap, said electrodes projecting in part
through said end walls within the envelope and
the envelope being in part interposed between
said electrodes and said end walls, and means for
establishing electrical continuity through said
interposed part of the envelope between each said
electrode and-the said end wall through which
present invention is the abiiity> t0V arbitrarily-sc
each electrode projects.
l‘ectf gap width for optimum operation> and this
5. A TR box comprising an enclosure forming
gap will then be independentfof‘the wavelength-~
a resonant chamber and having a cylindrical wall
controlling mechanism. More-specifically, it: is to
and end walls of which one is adjustable in an
beA noted that tuning by rotation ofcap 35 does
axial direction of the cylindrical wall, an elec
trode cartridge supporting means projecting from
the ñxed end wall, and supporting and adjust
ing means projecting from the movable end wall,
both of said end Walls having openings axially
therethrough for receiving an electrode cartridge
inserted therethrough, both of said end walls hav
for establishing electrical continuity through the
cartridge structure from the electrodes to the
respective walls of the resonant chamber through
which said electrodes pass, said means constitut
ing a choke for said electrodes whereby mode dis
tribution is maintained in saidv chamber, said
choke comprising a metallic ring and a solid di
electric around said ring of a length equal to a
ing quarter Wavelength rings neXt said openings
projecting outwardly from the resonant chamber
quarter Wavelength in the dielectric.
for establishing electrical continuity at said open 10
8. A TR box comprising an enclosure forming
ings with electrodes situated therein,
a resonant chamber, a cartridge structure in
6. A TR box comprising an enclosure forming
sertabie through said resonant chamber, said car
a resonant chamber, a cartridge structure in
tridge structure having electrodes each passing
sertable through said resonant chamber, said car
through a different wall of said enclosure, means
tridge structure having electrodes each passing 15 for establishing electrical continuity through the
through a different wall of said enclosure, and
cartridge structure from the electrodes to the re
means for establishing electrical continuity
spective walls of the resonant chamber through
through the cartridge structure from the elec
which said electrodes pass, said means constitut
trodes to the respective walls of the resonant
ing a, choke for said electrodes whereby mode dis
Chamber through which said electrodes pass, said 20 tribution is maintained in said chamber,v said
means constitutingT a choke for said electrodes
choke comprising a metalli-c ring having longi
whereby Inode distribution is maintained in said
tudinally therebeyond a circular gap toward the
cartridge and providing a longitudinal cavity
'7. A TR box comprising an enclosure forming
communicating with said gap and extending lon
a resonant chamber, a cartridge structure in
gitudinally away from the said ring with a length
sertable through said resonant chamber, said 25 equal to a quarter wavelength in air.
cartridge structure having electrodes each passing
through a different wall of said enclosure, means
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