close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

код для вставки
Dec. 24, 1946.
Q
7
L, P. SMITH
2,413,251
ELECTRON DISCHARGE ‘DEVICE
Fi‘led Nov. 26, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet’ 1
39
1
'
INVENTOR
. LLogD PfmrrH
WM
'
ATTORNEY
Dec. 24, 1946.
L. P. SMITH ,'
‘
2,413,251
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
Filed Nov. 26, 1942
I,’
2 Sheets-Shéet 2
I'll»
IN'VENTOR
LLogD p/THTH
/
ATTORNEY
?‘
ZAIZLZ'SI
Patented Dec. 24, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
‘2,413,251
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
(Lloyd P. Smith,v Princeton, N. 3., assignor to Radio
Corporation of America, a corporation of Dela
ware
Application November 26, 1942, Serial No. 466,993
15 Claims. (01. 250—27.5)
2
My invention relates to electron discharge de
vices, particularly such devices useful as oscilla
tors at ultra high frequencies and utilizing reso
nators or resonant cavities.
structure with a period of oscillation independ
ent of the energy lost by the electrons.
The novel features which I believe to be char
acteristic of my invention are set forth with par
In one form of an electron discharge device Ci ticularity in the appended claims,'1but the inven
tion itself will best be understood by reference to
utilizing a resonator, a beam of electrons is di
the following description taken .in connection
rected toward a, collectorand passes through
with the accompanying drawings in which Fig
a resonator comprising a hollow conducting
ure 1 is a diagram of the transverse sections of
member and provided with a passageway through
which the beam is directed. A gap in the pas 10 the electrode structures necessary to practice my
invention, Figure 2 is a'voltage gradient diagram
sageway surrounds the discharge path and lies
produced by electrode structures of the kind
in a plane transverse to the direction or" the path
shown in Figure 1, Figure 3 is a transverse sec
of the beam of electrons. The hollow conducting
tion of an electron discharge device made accord
member during operation is energized so that
ing to my invention and taken along the line. 3-3
an electric field is set up and con?ned within
the member, the high frequency oscillating ?eld
of Figure 4., which shows the longitudinal section
of the device shown in Figure 3,’ Figure 5 is a
appearing across the gap. An interchange of en
transverse section of a modi?cation of an elec
ergy takes place between the ?eld across the gap
tron discharge device made according to my 'in
and the beam of electrons passing through the
resonator.
20 vention and Figure 6 is a circuit diagram of an
electron discharge device made according to my
In some oscillators using resonators, electrons
are ‘allowed to pass through the opening in the
Below is described a unique system of electrodes
resonator in which the high frequency ?eld is
of an electron discharge device and between
con?ed in such a way that at repeated intervals
which an electron will oscillate with a period
motion of the electrons is retarded and part of
which is independent of its energy. The elec
the energy is transferred to the high frequency
trode system is described in combination with a
?eld. It is usually not possible to convert all the
resonant cavity or resonator to form a high fre
kinetic energy of the electrons into ?eld energ
quency oscillator. An electron will move back
in one transit, especially when the loading on
and forth along a line with a period which is
the resonator which forms the output circuit is
independent of its energy or amplitude only pro
variable. This could be overcome by causing elec
vided the force tending to return it to its equilib
trons to oscillate back and forth through the res
rium point is proportional to the distance away
onator until nearly all of their kinetic energy
from this point. This requires the ' potential
is transferred to the electromagnetic ?eld pro
gradient to follow the form V=—Vo:r2. In a two
vided the period of oscillation of the electrons can
dimensional potential ?eld there is only one sys
be made independentof- how much energy they
tem of electrodes which accomplishes this. It
have lost, This is necessary to insure that an
can be shown that these are the family of hyper
electron which loses energy on the ?rst transit
bolic cylinders shown in section in Figure 1. This
of the cavity loses energy on all subsequent tran
sits.
40 family of hyperbolae satis?es the equation
V 0 (x2 —y2) = constant.
'
An object of my invention is to provide an
invention.
electron discharge device of improved design,
particularly useful as an oscillator at ultra high
'
'
V0 is the potential difference between the point
0 and a point one centimeteraway from B on the
line 3C. V is ‘the potential at any distance X
from I] measured along 60 or 60'. If the fre
Another object of my invention is to provide
quency of the oscillating electron is i then
such a device utilizing resonators in which energy
V0 (volts) :1.12 X 10-14f2
is successively extracted from electrons which are
‘made to oscillate a plurality of times through
Assume electrodes having the form. and shape
the resonator.
50 shown in Figure 1, to be assembled such that they
A still further object of, my invention is to pro
lie along the asymptotes AA’ and BB’ and along
the hyperbolas C and C’. If an opening is made
vide such a device in which the electrons will
in the electrodes at the intersection of the asymp
oscillate back and forth through the electromag
totes AA’, BB’ which asymptotes intersect at
netic ?eld of the resonator with a ‘period of oscil
right angles, and a potential is applied‘ to these
lation independent of the energy lost by the elec
frequencies.
trons.
electrodes which is positive relatively to the po
tential applied to the electrodes lying on the.
hyperbolae C and C’, then an electron starting
to provide an electron discharge device having
anywhere from rest on line CC’ will oscillate
an. electrode structure which will cause electrons
to oscillate back and forth through the electrode 60 back and forth on this line with a period which
More speci?cally it is an object of my invention
2,413,251
4
3
is ?xed by the applied potential and distance
In operation the cathodes and the electrodes
0C=0C’, but it is the same no matter from what
position the electron was started. This is en
|'|, I8, l9 and 20 may be operated at the same
potential so that the cathodes form a part of the
hyperbolic cylinders formed by these electrodes.
tirely equivalent to the period being the same for
electrons with di?erent maximum kinetic en
ergies.
The diagram in Figure 2 represents the voltage
1a
The cavity walls become the anode. The arrows
show the electric ?eld in the cavity at any given
instant of time.
The device operates in somewhat the following
manner: A steady stream of electrons passes
point 0 and the surfaces of the electrodes at points
CC’. This curve satis?es the equation V=--Vo$2. 10 through the cavity from the cathode 2|. Of
these, some will lose energy to the oscillating
The cross-hatched region in Figure 1 is avail
gradient of the electric ?eld existing between the
able for the resonant cavity or resonator so that
a complete oscillator may be constructed. The
structure may be made long in a direction at
right angles to the plane of the paper. The cath
odes are linear and at the same potential as and
really form a part of the hyperbolic electrode C
and C’. The cavity walls become the anode.
An electron discharge device made according
to my invention and satisfying the above require
ments is shown in Figures 3 and 4. The reso
nator 9 is provided with walls H), II, l2 and iii
?eld in the cavity and some will gain energy.
‘ The former will not reach the opposite electrodes
I9, 26 but will stop and return and again pass
through the cavity, giving up still more energy.
This is repeated and these electrons ?nally reach
the anode or cavity walls. Electrons which gain
energy on their ?rst passage through the cavity
strike the electrodes I9, 20 and 2| and are thereby
removed from the beam so that they remove no
further energy from the radio frequency ?eld.
This provides the mechanism by which the ap
which walls form the anode electrodes which lie
propriate electron phasing is accomplished. To
along asymptotes corresponding to asymptotes
increase the cathode area as Well as the symmetry
of the arrangement a second cathode may be em
ployed as shown at 22. Electrons from cathode
' AA’ and BB’ in Figure 1. Apertures I5 and‘ I5
are provided at the intersection to permit the
passage of electrons through the resonator, the
electrodes being spaced so as to provide a gap
l4 across which, during operation, a radio fre
22 are automatically synchronized by the high
frequency ?eld within the resonator.
When electrons depart from the plane passing
through the cathodes they will experience a force
to the side of the plane and be collected by the
quency ?eld is generated and with which elec
trons react to transfer energy between the elec
sides of the resonator which function as collectors
trons and the radio frequency ?eld within the
or anodes. In order to keep the electrons near
resonator. As shown in Figure 4 the two reso
the plane passing through the cathodes a mag
nant cavities having sector shaped transverse
sections communicate with each other through 35 netic ?eld may be established in the direction of
the plane by means of magnet 39. The magni
closed chambers 3| and 32 at each end of the
tude of the magnetic ?eld is not critical and needs
device. It is possible to eliminate the top and
only to be su?icient to hold the electrons near
bottom chambers 3| and 32, and the device will
the plane mentioned.
function. ' However, the chambers 3| and 32 cou~
In some cases it may be desirable to operate
ple the ?elds in the sector shaped sections and 40
the apparatus as an oscillator intermittently, in
insure that both sections will operate in proper
which case a partial grid may be substituted for a
phase.
slot part of the electrodes |'|, |8 by running grid
An electrode whose surface is de?ned by a
wires across said slot as at 33 in Figure 5. A
hyperbola includes segments I7 and i8 which
?nd their duplicates in the segments l9 and 20 in SI cathode 2|’ is mounted slightly behind these
electrodes as shown in Figure 5. Electrons will
-on the opposite side of the resonator. Electrons
not pass through the grid when a potential is
are furnished by means of an indirectly heated
applied to the cathode, which is positive with re
cathode 2| and if desired a like cathode 22 may
spect to the grid or hyperbolic electrodes.
be placed on the other side, although this is not
In the arrangement shown in Figure 5, in
essential. The electrode segments l‘! and I8 are 50
which like numerals indicate parts correspond
electrically strapped together by the conductor
ing to like parts in Figure l, a cathode 2|’ is
l1’ and the electrode segments l9 and 20 are
placed behind the hyperbolic electrodes |'|, I8
electrically strapped together by means of con
and is shielded by the shielding member 40. A
ductor it’ to form a single electrode provided
55 voltage may be applied between hyperbolic elec
with a slot in which the cathodes lie.
trodes |'|' and I8 and the cathode for modulating
In order to provide a cathode assembly, op
or determining the period during which electrons
positely disposed insulating members, preferably
may ?ow from the cathode into the electrode
mica spacers 23 and 24, are secured to the upper
system comprising the hyperbolic electrodes and
and lower ends of the electrode segments I‘! and
I8 and I9 and 20 by, for example, tabs 25 and 60 the resonator.
A circuit diagram of my invention is shown in
26. These spacers frictionally support the cath
Figure 6. The indirectly heated cathode 2|’ is
odes 2| and 22 in position. The assemblies are
heated by means of the heating transformer 4|.
supported from the walls In and II and I2 and
Biasing voltage between the cathode and the
I3 by means of glass bead support arrangements
electrodes is indicated at 43. Means
such as 29 and 30.
6.5 hyperbolic
for controlling the electron ?ow is indicated at
In order to provide an enclosure which may
44. A positive voltage source for applying a posi
be evacuated, a closure member 33 is sealed to
tive voltage between the resonator and anode
the lip 34 supported by the anode electrode m, l |
and the top and bottom chambers 3| and 32.
electrodes and the hyperbolic electrodes is ln
The cathode lead 35 may be extended through 70 dicated at 42.
In an apparatus of the kind described and
an insulatng bead in the lip or ?ange 34 and
utilizing my invention, high efficiency, which is
likewise the cathode heaters 35 may be extended
more or less independent of the load applied to
through the lip 34. In order to apply a biasing
the cavity results. The magnetic ?eld is not
voltage if desired to the hyperbolic electrodes,
leads 31 and 3'!’ may be provided.
'
75 critical, and intermittent operation with low
2,413,251
6
5 .
control voltage and a high Q radio frequency cir
cuit is made possible.
While I have indicated the preferred embodi
ments of my invention of which I am now aware‘
and have also indicated only one speci?c appli
cation for which my invention may be employed,
it will be apparent that my invention is by no
electrode forming the asymptotes for said hyper
bola, said second electrode having an aperture
registering with the aperture inv said- ?rst elec
trode, and means registering with said aperture
for directing a stream of electrons from an aper
ture in one electrode through the aperture in
the other electrode.
6. An electron discharge device having a ?rst
means limited to the exact forms illustrated or
electrode provided with surfaces intersecting
the use indicated, but that many variations may
be made in the particular structure used and 10 each other and having an aperture at said inter
section, a second electrode spaced from said ?rst
the purpose for which it is employed without de
electrode and having a surface the transverse
parting from the scope of my invention as set
section of which is de?ned by a hyperbola, the
forth in the appended claims.
intersecting surfaces extended of said ?rst elec
What I claim as new is:
1. An electron discharge device including an 15 trode forming the asymptotes for said hyper
bola, a source of electrons ‘lying in the surface
electrode having surfaces approaching each other
of said second electrode and registering with the
at an angle of 90° and having an aperture at the
aperture in said ?rst electrode, said ?rst elec
intersection of said surfaces, and a second elec
trode having an independent lead adapted to be
trode having a hyperbolic surface and positioned
between and spaced from said intersecting sur 20 at a potential positive with respect to said sec
ond electrode during operation of said device
faces the extensions of which provide the
to cause electrons to pass from said source of
asymptotes for the extended surfaces of said
electrons through said aperture.
second electrode, and meansregistering with said
7. An electron discharge device having a ?rst
apertures for directing a stream of electrons
electrode provided with surfaces intersecting
through said aperture and between said elec
each other and having an aperture at the inter
trodes and along a line lying in a plane bisect
section, and a second electrode spaced from said
ing the angle between said intersectingr surfaces
?rst electrode and having a, surface the trans
and passing through the axis of the hyperbole.
verse section of which is de?ned by a hyperbola,
de?ning the surface of the second electrode.
the intersecting surfaces extended of said ?rst
2. An electron discharge device having an
electrode provided with surfaces intersecting
electrode forming the asymptotes for said hyper
each other and having an aperture at said inter
section, a second electrode spaced from said ?rst
electrode and having a surface the transverse
section of which is de?ned by a hyperbola, the
bola, a third electrode provided with surfaces
intersecting surfaces of said ?rst electrode form
intersecting each other and lying parallel to the
surfaces of the ?rst electrode and having an
aperture registering with the aperture in said
?rst electrode, and a fourth electrode having a
ing the asymptotes for said hyperbola, said sec
ond electrode having an aperture registering with
surface lying in a hyperbola, the intersecting
surfaces extended of said third electrode form
the aperture in said ?rst electrode, andmeans
ing the asymptotes for said last hyperbola, and
registering with said apertures for directing a
stream of electrons between said apertures.
3. An electron discharge device having an
means registering with said apertures for sup
plying a stream of electrons passing through said
electrode provided with surfaces intersecting
each other and having an aperture at said inter-
trodes.‘
apertures and between the ?rst and fourth elec
8. An electron discharge device having a ?rst
section, a second electrode spaced from said ?rst 4. electrode provided with surfaces intersecting each
other and having an aperture at the intersection,
electrode and having a surface, the transverse
and ‘a second electrode spaced from said ?rst elec
section of which is de?ned by a hyperbola, the
trode and having a surface, the transverse sec
intersecting surfaces extended of said ?rst elec
tion of which is de?ned by a hyperbola, the inter
trode forming the asymptotes for said hyperbola,
and means registering with said apertures for 50 secting surfaces extended of said ?rst electrode
forming the asymptotes for said hyperbola, the
supplying a stream of electrons directed along
second electrode having an aperture registering
a path from the surface of said second electrode
with the aperture in said ?rst electrode, a third
through said aperture.
electrode provided with surfaces intersecting
4. An electron discharge device having an
each other and lying parallel to the surfaces
electrode provided with surfaces intersecting
of said ?rst electrode and having an aperture
each other and having an aperture at said inter
registering with the aperture in said ?rst elec—
section, a second electrode spaced from said
trode, and a fourth electrode having a surface
?rst electrode and having a surface the trans
de?ned by a hyperbola, the intersecting surfaces
verse section of which is de?ned by a hyperbola,
extended of said third electrode forming the
the intersecting surfaces of said ?rst electrode
asymptotes for said last hyperbola, and means
forming the asymptotes for said hyperbola, said
registering with said apertures for supplying a
second electrode having an aperture registering
stream of electrons passing through said aper~
with the aperture in said ?rst electrode, and
tures and between the ?rst and fourth electrodes.
means registering with said apertures for di
9. An electron discharge device having a ?rst
recting a stream of electrons from an aperture in
electrode provided with surfaces intersecting each
one electrode through the aperture in the other
other and having an aperture at the intersection,
electrode, and an electrode in the path of the
and a second electrode spaced from said ?rst elec~
electrons passing through said last aperture.
trode and having a surface, the transverse sec
5‘ An electron discharge device having an
electrode provided with surfaces intersecting 70 tion of which is de?ned by a hyperbola, the inter
secting surfaces extended of said ?rst electrode
each other at 90° and having an aperture at
forming the asymptotes for said hyperbola, the
the intersection, a second electrode spaced from
second electrode having an aperture registering
said ?rst electrode and having a surface the
with the aperture in said ?rst electrode, a third
transverse section of which is de?ned by a
hyperbola, the intersecting surfaces of said ?rst 75 electrode provided with surfaces intersecting each
2,413,251
7
8
other and lying parallel to the surfaces of said
asymptotes of said hyperbolas, one of said elec
?rst electrode and having an aperture register
trodes having an aperture oppositely disposed to
ing with the aperture in said ?rst electrode, and a
the apertures in said resonator, and a cathode
fourth electrode having a surface de?ned by a
positioned on the other side of the electrode
hyperbola, the intersecting surfaces extended of 5 from said resonator and registering with the
said third electrode forming the asymptotes for
aperture in said electrode, said electrode and said
said last hyperbola, said fourth electrode having
cathode having independent leads and being ad
an aperture registering with the aperture in said
apted to have an alternating voltage applied
third electrode and cathodes aligned with said
therebetween during operation of said devices
apertures for supplying oppositely directed
for modulating the stream of electrons directed
streams of electrons through the apertures in
through the apertures in said resonator.
said resonator and between the surfaces of the
14. An electron discharge device including an
second and fourth electrodes.
elongated resontator, the transverse section of
10. An electron discharge device including a
the walls of which de?nes oppositely disposed
resonator the transverse section of the walls of 15 sectors of a circle, said resonator having opposite
which de?nes a pair of oppositely disposed sectors,
ly disposed apertures in the wall thereof at the
the tips of which are adjacent and having oppo
tips of said sectors and providing oppositely dis
sitely disposed apertures in the Walls thereof at
posed gaps lying in a plane transverse to the
said tips through which an electron stream can
plane passing through said apertures, said gaps
be directed to excite said resonator, an electrode 20 communicating with the interior of said resona
positioned on each side of said resonator, the
tor, elongated electrodes positioned on each side
surfaces of which are de?ned by hyperbolas, the
of said resonator, the transverse section of the
walls extended of said resonator forming the
surfaces of which are each de?ned by hyper
asymptotes of said hyperbolas, and means regis
bolas, the walls extended of said resonator form
tering with said aperture for directing an electron
stream through the apertures in said resonator
and between the surfaces of the electrodes.
11. An electron discharge device including a
ing the asymptotes of said hyperbolas, one of
said electrodes having an aperture oppositely
disposed to the aperture in said resonator and an
elongated cathode aligned with said apertures for
resonator the transverse section of the walls of
providing an electron stream passing from the
which de?nes a pair of oppositely disposed sec 30 aperture in said one electrode through the aper
tors, the tips of which are adjacent and having
tures in said resonator toward the surface of
oppositely disposed apertures in the walls thereof
said other electrode.
at said tips through which an electron stream
15. An electron discharge device including an
can be directed to excite said resonator, an elec
elongated resonator, the transerse section of the
trode positioned on each side of said resonator,
walls of which de?nes oppositely disposed sectors
the surfaces of which are de?ned by hyperbolas,
of a circle, said resonator having oppositely dis
the walls extended of said resonator forming the
posed apertures in the wall thereof at the tips
asymptotes of said hyperbolas, one of said elec—
of said sectors and providing oppositely disposed
trodes having an aperture oppositely disposed to
gaps lying in a plane transverse to the plane
the apertures in said resonator, and a cathode 40 passing through said apertures, said gaps com
lying in the aperture of said one electrode for pro—
municating with the interior of said resonator,
viding an electron stream through the apertures
elongated electrodes positioned on each side of
in said resonator toward the surface of the other
said resonator, the transverse section of the sur
electrode.
faces of which are each de?ned by hyperbolas,
12. An electron discharge device including a
the walls extended of said resonator forming the
resonator the transverse section of the walls of
asymptotes of said hyperbolas, cathode means
which de?nes a pair of oppositely disposed sectors,
aligned with said apertures for providing an elec
the tips of which are adjacent and having oppo~
tron stream passing through the apertures in
sitely disposed apertures in the walls thereof at
said resonator and between the surfaces of said
said tips through which an electron stream can
electrodes, the ends of said sector shaped portions
be directed to excite said resonator, an electrode
of the resonator communicating with each other
positioned on each side of said resonator, the
at the ends thereof.
surfaces of which are de?ned by hyperbolas,
16. An electron discharge device including an
the walls extended of said resonator forming the
elongated resonator, the transverse section of the
asymptotes of said hyperbolas, one of said elec
walls of which de?nes oppositely disposed sectors
trodes having an aperture oppositely disposed to
of a circle, said resonator having oppositely dis
the apertures in said resonator, and a cathode
posed apertures in the wall thereof at the tips
positioned on the side of said one electrode
of said sectors and providing oppositely disposed
opposite said resonator and registering with the
gaps lying in a plane transverse to the plane
aperture of said one electrode for providing an
passing through said apertures, said gaps com
electron stream through the apertures in said
municating with the interior of said resonator,
resonator toward the surface of the other elec
elongated electrodes positioned on each side of
trode, and a cathode shield surrounding the
said resonator, the transverse section of the
cathode.
surfaces of which are each de?ned by hyperbolas,
13. An electron discharge device including a
the walls extended of said resonator forming the
resonator, the transverse section of the walls of
asymptotes of said hyperbolas, and an elongated
which de?nes a pair of oppositely disposed sec
cathode aligned with said apertures for provid
tors, the tops of which are adjacent and having
ing an electron stream passing through the aper
oppositely disposed apertures in the walls thereof
tures in said resonator and between the surfaces
at the tips through which an electron stream can
of said electrodes, and means extending from the
be directed to excite said resonator, an electrode
walls of said resonator insulatingly supporting
positioned on each side of said resonator, the
said cathode and said electrodes.
surfaces of which are each de?ned by hyperbolas,
the walls extended of said resonator forming the
LLOYD P. SMITH.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
801 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа