31, 1946. F, PUENING 2,413,335 APPARATUS FOR OPERATING COKE OVENS WITH MOVABLE WALLS Filed Jan. 18, 1943 7 Sheets-Sheet 1 .69 85 .9190 8 .91, 34/ ‘c9. riwomtov -.::::::..-..-..= .-......= _____ ___ g;j. Bet. 341, 1946. ‘ 2,413,335 F. PUENINGI APPARATUS FOR OPERATING coxm OVENS WITH MOVABLE wALLé Filed Jan. 18, 1943 112 Y 4wil“ /5/2%, 10.9 5. 7 sheets-sheet 2 1:?0 1136" /// / z434/,x/5,,.45, //11%.1////1 1/ n 1/ HnUulI. / 1I/ /\74/ / /. /////l // ///////l I, // ///// //,, ////// // ,, ' 31, 1946. ' F. PUENING 2,413,335 APPARATUS FOR OPERATING COKE>OVENS WITH moYABLE‘wALLs ‘Filed Jan. 18, 1943 \\\\\\\~ \\ \\\\ \\\ \ J \ \ \ \\\‘ \ _ \ \\ \\\ \\\ \ \ P, v ; \\\ \ \ \\\ \\\\\\\\\\\\\\ \\\ \\\\\ \\\ \ x114 7 Sheets-Sheet 3 M31,‘ 1946. I RPUENING ' 2,413,335 APPARATUS FOR OPERATING COKE OVENS WITH MOVABLE WALLS Filed Jan. 18, 1943 'r’sheets-sheet 4 \ . 31, 1946. F. PUENING 2,413,335 APPARATUS FOR OPERATING COKE OVENS WITH MOVABLE WALLS Filed Jan. 18, 1943 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 - w\ § .g? . 31, 19%. F. PUIIENING 1 - 2,413,335 APPARATUS FOR OPERATING COKE OVENS WITH MOVABLE WALLS - Filed Jan. 18, 1943 ‘Q. " 7 Sheets-Sheet 6 31, 1946. 2,413,335 F. PUENING APPARATUS FOR‘ OPERATING COKE OVENS WITH MOVABLE WALLS Filed Jan. 18, 1943 7 Sheets-Sheet 7, " \\ \\ \ \\ \ \ \\ \\ w» \\\\\\\ 141"): 1%. 13f Patented Dec. 31, 1946 “ 2,413,335 - u no STATES2,413,335‘PATENT orrlca are ‘ FOR OPERATING COKE OVENS ' at MDVABLE WALLS Frans u-r-w Bethlehem, Pa. Application January 18, 1943, Serial No. 472,886 15 Cla (?aunt-195i) 3 2 The present invention relates to the coking of coking walls working with thin coal charges and peak quite destructive to the ovens. The precise moment when the maximum pressure peak is reached greatly depends upon the width of the short coking times as shown in my United States v chamber. _ Patent No. 2,240,575 and in my co-pending appli cation, Serial No. 389,302, now Patent No. after 75% of the coking operation is completed. coal in batteries of coke ovens having movable 2,311,349, granted February 16, 1943, ?led April , 19, 1941, whichdescribe ovens in which each cok On the average the peak is reached Therefore, ma 6'' oven which cokes in 4 hours the peak is reached after 3 hours; while in a 4" oven which cokes in 2 hours it would be reached . ing chamber formed between a pair of movable after 11/; hours and in an 8" oven which cokes walls is equipped with individual means for seal 10 in 6 hours it would "be reached in 41/2 hours. ing the chamber separately from the atmosphere, It is an object of this invention to provide there being no enclosure common to the several means which forestall damage due to excessive walls. The oven walls are preferably built of swelling peaks by making certain that at the be ?re-bricks and preferably are of‘ very large size, ginning of the coking operation all chambers have as for instance, 16 ft. by 30ft. and they are there 15 equal width ‘and by increasing the width of all fore quite sensitive to hostile forces. They can oven chambers in a battery uniformly, so that easily be warped or buckled, which in case of with absolute certainty every part of each cham brick walls would cause cracks in the walls and ber receives the same increment in width at the gas-leaks between the heating flues on the one same moment during the coking operation and side and the coal chambers on the other hand, 2o, by thereafter, after the discharge of the coke, re which is turn would destroy safety and economy of operation. Such warping would also mean that the width of some coal chambers is increased while the width of the adjoining chamber is de turning all walls to exactly their original posi tion in the battery, so that all pressure peaks in all chambers in the battery develop at the same time and thereby neutralize each other, and creased with the result that the thicker body of 25 are also reduced in height to avoid, during these coal requires a longer coking time, resulting in motions of the walls, any Jerking or vibrating of loss of plant capacity and in uneven coke quality. the walls in order to prevent disturbance of coke Furthermore, such movable walls when suspended formation and damage to the walls. ' on jointed or otherwise ?exible hangers or supports A further object of thisv invention. has to do 30 are very sensitive to eccentric loads, and are eas with the means for sealing the coking chambers. _ ily swayed out of their alignment by the weight Since the new oven‘ is intended for operation'on of eccentrically located inlets for heating gas and the largest commercial scale, it/ls absolutely nec air and outlets for waste heat and by layers of essary, in view of the value of the by-products, insulating materials, and by eccentric attack of ' that the chambers remain perfectly sealed against the forces required to move the walls. ' The hy drostatic pressure of the coal also tries to press the top or the bottom portion of the walls apart and , to make them assume wedge-shaped position. It is the intention of this invention to provide means whereby buckling, warping and any other mis alignment are absolutely avoided and by which the walls are maintained exactly in their vertical panes and alignment and to eliminate or coun ' teract all distracting forces that might interfere the atmosphere, during the coking operation, also . in case the width of the chambers is increased during coking. Consequently sealing means are provided, which permit the chambers of a block 40 to be expanded in width, for instance from 5" to 7"’, while the coking action proceeds, without thereby unsealing the chambers, the sealing means to be of a type adapted for commercial simultaneous operation of many large coking with the successful commercial operation of large 45. chambers in a battery, and adapted to operate automatically and reliably and without loss of brick oven batteries and thus forestall expenses time, and to remain gas-tight in spite of the and delays. _ higher coal gas pressure in the chambers.‘ which A further object of this invention has to do results from the high coking speed. with the well-known characteristic of low volatile In order that the nature of the invention may coals, to swell during coking operation and to ex- be more clearly appreciated, particular embodi ert pressure against the oven walls. This pres ments will now ‘be described with reference to sure is fairly low during the ?rst and. major por the accompanying drawings, in which: ' tion of the coking period until the last quarter of Figure 1 is a sectional elevation through a bat the period approaches, when the swelling in creases more rapidly and may reach a pressure 55 tery of coking ovens, comprising four coking 2,413,385 - 3 4. the line 2-2 of Figure 1; Figure 3 is a partial plan view upon the top‘ position of the buckstays and the coking walls relative to girders ii is guaranteed by virtue of these flanged rollers and the tilting bearings [1. The outermost coking walls are protected against heat losses by heavy blankets of insulat ing brick-work 30, see Figures 1 and 4, ‘and by sealing troughs, shown in Figures 1 and 2; slabs of concrete 3| and by a strong gridwork of . chambers, the section being taken on the line i--i of Figure 2; ' Figure 2 is a sectional elevation through one of the coking walls, the section being taken on Figure 4 is a partial horizontal section through iron beams 32, which absorbs the pressure exerted by the coal during carbonization and prevents the battery taken on the line 4—4 of Figure 2; Figures 5, 6,7 and 8 show details of the top 10 warping of the brick-walls. The insulating brick work 30 and the concrete slab are held together supporting truck and the means for moving it, by means of iron frames 33 similar to those sur shown also in the top right-hand corner of Fig rounding each brickwall and these frames 33 also ure 1; extend upward and may be connected to their Figure 9 is a sectional elevation through one‘gf the spreading screws taken on line 9—9 of Figure. » 15 own top trucks but preferably they are connected 2, ' Figure 10 is a sectional plan view taken on lines ill-i0 of Figure 9; Figure '11 is a sectional elevation taken on lines ‘ii-H of Figure 9; Figures 12'and 13 show details of‘ the clutches shown also in Figure 9; Figure 14 shows the centralized drives for mov to the outer top trucks I2--a which carry the outer wall 3-4, these latter trucks being made correspondingly longer, so that the outer walls 3‘—a move in common with their insulating 20 blankets and their iron gridwork 32. Frames 8, 3, l0 and H of the coking walls are firmly tied to the frames of the insulating walls 33 for in stance by tie plates 34 and 35, Figure 1. For the purpose of forcing the walls to execute ing the walls in end elevation, the view being the desired accurate motions and for holding taken on the line ll—-l4 in Figure 1; and 25 them securely in their intended position, without Figures 15, 16 andll'l show details of the seal allowing their frames any other possibility but to ing means, shown also at the upper right-hand remain in their intended vertical position, there corner of the coking wall in Figure 2. have been provided six distance regulating Two rigid supporting towers I, see Figure 1, are set up at distances sufficient to permit be tween them the construction and operation of preferably only one battery of coking ovens com prising from six to ten coking chambers 2, sand wiched between movable walls 3, although only four chambers are shown in Figure 1. The towers l serve to support two strong girders l which 30 spindles 40 and l I, see also Figure 14, four of these ‘ spindles are connected'to the iron frames sur- ' rounding the walls 3 while two more are con nected to the movable trucks l2. In the case of the outer coking walls which are connected to the iron grids 32 by tie plates 34, 35, the screw spindles are preferably connected to these grids 32 and not to the wall frames Ill. in turn serve to support the coking walls 3. The right-hand ends of the four lower spindles Coking chambers 2 formed between walls 3 are 40 are supported in tower I. Bearings 42,are heated by burners 6, see Figure 2. Waste heat may leave through exit ?ues 5 equipped with ?ex 40 provided to permit rotation of the spindles, see also Figure 9,‘ while collars 43 are provided to .ible Joints 1, permitting motion of the walls. stop longitudinal movement of the spindles. The Each of the coking walls 3 is held together by a right-hand ends of the four spindles 40, see Fig strong iron frame, having a horizontal bottom ure 14, are equipped with worm-gear drives 45 beam 8 and a horizontal top beam 8 and-two lateral vertical buckstays [0, these latter having 45 driven by shafts l6 and spur-gears l1 and 48 connecting to vertical shaft 49 connecting to upward extensions H making connection with motor 50. The two top spindles 4| are driven by two movable trucks l2, composed of rollers l3, similar worm drives 52, spur-gears 53, vertical see Figures 5, 6, 7, 8, held together by chassis l4, spindle 54 and spur-gears 55 connecting to shaft roller plate l5 balancing plate l6, supported above roller plate l5 by means of tilting bearing H 50 46 and to the same motor 50, ‘ The six screw spindles 40 and 4| are equipped which prevents lateral motion between these with screw threads of increasing pitches, so that plates; the truck being further composed of screw nut l8 held in its position by bolts 13 and _ in case of seven coking walls, those regulating the position of the outer walls have, for instance, brackets 20. Theupward extensions ll of the buckstays are forked, see Figure 2, having a sec 55 a pitch of V4", those for the middle walls have . ond branch-2| reaching upward and passing , a pitch of 1/2", those regulating the position of the inner walls have a pitch of 1/4", while the around the outside of the girders and being con nected to the outer portion of said trucks. This ' position of the center wall is kept fixed by being connected to the screw shafts by means of simple outer branch of the forked extension can be quickly disconnected from the stronger inner 60 bearing 56 located between collars 51, see Figure 9. The direction of the screw threads to the left branch I l by removing bolts 22 and 23, whereupon of the ‘center wall is opposite to the direction of the coking wall with its frame can be lifted out the screw threads to the right, so that upon rota of its position and replaced by another. Addi tion of the motor all coke chambers are jointly tional operating rails 25 are provided above gird ersl for the operation, for instance, of the coal 65 either widened or narrowed. The screw threads for the inner walls may have a single thread, 'chargingimachinery, said operating rails being those for next adjoining walls a double thread, located above said spreading trucks and sup and those for the next following walls‘a triple ported by stools 26 built upon said girders in thread. Upon their rotation the screws turn positions between said buckstays. The top sup porting trucks are thus linked to the walls by 70,_ toward each other so that their turning impulses which would tend to rotate the walls in their stiff bucl" tays. The rollers l3 are equipped with vertical plane and which would, for instance, round ?niges 21 which grip around the top tilt the horizontal top sealing troughs and shed ?anges 21 which grip around the top ?anges 28 their water, are neutralized, see arrows in Figure of girder d. The roller plates l5 are of the same 14. In vorder tov obtain minimum_travel motion width as the top ?ange 28 so that the lateral 2,418,885 6. a for each wall, the center wall is made stationary. The location of the top drives 52-53 for trucks an electric limiting device of standard type is provided in order to forestall that the walls are I2 is in a vertical plane above the four lower drives for the coking walls. In this manner with the ends of all screw spindles located upon the 5 same supporting tower I, the accurate vertical position of the walls and-the maintenance of their . carried beyond their initial position and damaged. vertical shape and position are guaranteed by the rigidity and strength of the tower. Further Such limiting device may, for instance, be con nected to the top trucks or the screw spindles. As already stated, it is intended to employ the oven also for the mass carbonization of coal of dangerously swelling type. For this purpose the more, lateral or rotating motion of the walls 10. within their vertical plane is made impossible by the ?anged rollers i3, and the horizontal tilt ing bearing i ‘8 between the balancing plate I6 and following automatic pressure control is added. The coal pressure is communicated fro'm\brick wall to brickwall and ?nally from the outer walls to the iron grids 32. The pressure is also at times transferred by each well to its own surrounding iron frame and from these through rotatable pins of the buckstays, and by the rigidity of'the upper 15 62 and vertical set screws 83 and nut 60 onto extensions ii of the buckstays and by the fact the four screw spindles til. These spindles are that the screw spindles are ?anking the walls. preferably composed, see Figs. 9, 10, of separate This con?nement of thewalls also has the ad relatively short, hollow screw shells 8| threaded vantage that the side sealing members remain on their outsides for cooperation with nuts 60, and in their intended alignment and gas-tight, see 20 also composed of unthreaded shell ‘II. All shells Figures 2 and 16. g ti and ‘ii are in contact with each other, and The screw spindles are located substantially each, at its point of contact with the other is near the corners of the walls but more exactly shaped in the form of a jaw clutch 13 so that the at elevations where they are most effective in rotation imparted by worm drive 65 to shell ‘H carrying the pressure exerted against the iron 25 is communicated to all screw shells 6!. On the grids 32. The free left-hand ends of the screw inside of the screw shells is provided hollow ten spindles may be centered in the left-hand tower sion shaft 15, being ?rmly fixed in its longitudi or may be left free as shown in Figures 1 and 9. nal position relative to the screw shells by means The connection between the spindles 60 and of bolted on collars 63. lA further collar 44 is the roller plate 85 which fix the lateral position ' - the iron frames is shown in Figures 9, 10 and 11 30 bolted onto shell ‘H thus ?xing the longitudinal which show that nut 60 which surrounds screw position of the entire screw spindle 40 relative shell Si is rotatably attached to buckstays It by pin 52 and screws t3, the advantage obtained being that minor irregularities in the shape of to bearings 62, worm drive 45 and-tower I. The strength of this tension shaft 15 is so chosen, that the coal expansion forces are successful ‘ in ‘the frame members or minor differences in heat 35 stretching the shaft within safe elastic limits, expansion of the,walls will not create binding the increment in length of the shaft in case of forces which resist the. operation of the spindles. a big commercial battery being for instance $4; The thickness of the body of coal in each ’ of one inch. ' ' - chamber is ?xed ?rmly by the screws, so that On the inside of tension shaft ‘I5 is loosely in case the speed of the coal charging opera 40 placed a reference rod 11, its longitudinal posi tion varies and one chamber is ?lled before the tion within tension shaft 15 being ?xed by nuts other, the static pressure of the coal will not ‘I8. Two spools 19 are slipped over reference rod distend that chamber, making that particular coal body thicker thus delaying its pressure peak while making the adjoining coal body thinner, ' thus advancing its pressure peak. The screws‘ 11 with pressure spring 80 between them, strong enough to pull reference rod 11 as far as possible out of tension shaft 15 without however stretch ing the rod. The distance between the spools is thus always a maximum and faithfully indicates the tension in the four tension shafts ‘l5. and guarantee that thickness of coal bodies in the chambers may be varied during coking and that it will always be equal in all chambers. thereby the pressure of the coal. Assuming the The provision of the two top screw spindles 4| 50 coal pressure were to be limited to 1 lb. per square with their ?anged rollers I3 has another impor inch of coking walls, and the coking surfaces in tant advantage, as follows: The brick-work of contact with the coal were 15' wide and 30' high, then the total pull on each tension shaft would a wall, when heated expands sidewlse and presses against the buckstay. This force subjects the side buckstays to a horizontal bending force par allel to the coking surfaces. The coal pressure also tries to warp the wall out of its vertical plane in a direction normal to the coking surfaces. A be 16,200 lbs., which can be safely carried by a 1" double extra strong pipe, thereby stretching the pipe only about $4; inch. The distance be tween spools 19 will therefore be'decreased by % inch, which is ample for the operation of elec portion of this force is at times transferred to the ' tric contact and control mechanism 82 and 83 side buckstays and subjects them to-another 60 which is connected directly or by relay with motor bending stress normal to the coking faces. In the new oven with its high walls,'these two forces 50. When contact points 83 touch each other the motor 50 is started and, rotates all 6 screw spindles with the result that the distance between all the walls is increased until the contact points would require heavy and expensive side buckstays. However, by ?xing each top truck in its position, by means of the two top screw spindles with their 65 83 have parted again, thus preventing the coal ?anged rollers and tilting bearing, and by extend pressure against the brickwalls from rising above ing the wall buckstays rigidly to these ?xed the stipulated 1 lb. per square inch. This auto trucks, the advantage is reached that each side matic pressure limitation remains active during the, entire coking time. Assuming that the width buckstay is converted into a beam, the upper end of which is fixed, with the result that its strength 70 of the coking chamber‘ in the beginning of the to resist de?ection is more than doubled. Thus operation when the chamber is filled with coal also the use of very large brick-walls is facili is 5 inches and that the coal chosen is of a type which swells 30% during carbonization when kept For the returning of the walls to their initial under a load of 1 lb. per square inch, then the closed position, the motor is started by hand and 75 described control mechanism will retract the walls tated. - ' _ 1* 9,413,885 springs I88 is advantageous.- They press all ele ments of the side sealing devices upon each other and they can quickly be unhooked and facilitate erection and repair. The easy removal of the metal members also facilitates inspection and re pair of the brickwork behind them. Furthermore, the distance between the walls can be still fur- ‘ ther increased, to obtain discharge of the coke, after the coking operation is completed. , This hand-control is also used for reversing the motor, in order to reduce the chambers to their original width. The assurance that the automatic pressure con 8 have considerable thiclmess so that substantial contact between them is secured. The use of an the width of the chambers has been increased to 6% inches. An additional hand-operated con trol-not shown-is provided by means of which shipping, storing and handling of the sub-divided ' 10 sealing parts is much facilitated and cost re trol prevents damage to the walls gives the plant operator'the opportunity to raise the coking speed in the walls to a high level thus increasing the ' thruput of the ovens and their revenue. The 15 reference rod 11 is needed in only one shaft. duced. Also their subdivision into short pieces permits the use of cast iron, which is corrosion re giisting. an important feature in coking opera on. In order to facilitate the assembling of these side members, projections may be provided on them which can be gripped by pairs of tongues or vises. This system of side sealing members per . the walls. The door is hinged around the shaft mits spreading of the walls during coking, while 85 attached to beam 8 of wall 8. The other side of the door is supported by horizontal bolt 81 20 keeping the chambers gas-tight. In order to seal the top opening of each coking forming part of the bracket 88, which is rotatable chambers! during coking, the chamber is sur around fulcrum 88. When the walls are spread rounded on top by a continuous water ?lled apart, bracket 88 and bolt 81 follow the horizon trough, see Fig. 3, the two longitudinal sections tally receding door 85. If the coke is to be dis charged, piston 88 belonging to the coke dis 25 of which I81 are slidably fastened to angles I88, Figs. 15 and 1, which are ?xed upon the top frame charge ma'chine, not shown, is pushed upward plates I88 of the walls, while the gaps between against buifer 8| of bracket 88, whereby the hori the ends of the longitudinal sections I81 are zontal bolt 81 is forced to the left and permits The bottom door 85 and its supports; see Fig. 1, are arranged to permit the spreading motion of bridged by semi-circular ?exible bridging troughs ' Provisions have been taken to keep the coking 30 II8. A removable bell-shaped cover II2, Figs. 1, . 2, is used in cooperation with the continuous chambers gas-tight, while‘ the automatic spread trough, dipping with its side skirts Ill into the ing during coking operation takes place. a water ?lled longitudinal trough sections I81 and The bottom opening of each coking chamber dipping with its end skirts III into the bridging is sealed with the aid of a tub-shaped water ?lled door 85 shown in Figures 1 and 2 into which dip 35 troughs H8. The longitudinal trough sections I81 pass through valleys H8, see Fig. 15, cut in the bottom skirts 84 of the coking walls and the the upper ends of the side frame plates 85. The lowest ends of theside'frame plates 85 and of horizontal length of these valleys is increased by the side seals 86 and 81. The bottom skirts 84 door 85 to drop. vU-shaped extensionsyIIl Figures 15, 17, welded extend laterally till they are in contact with and ?xed in gas-tight manner to the lowest ends of 40 onto the side frame plates. The space between .the longitudinal sections and the U-shaped val the side frame plates 85. The skirts are pressed leys is made gas-tight by means of packing ma against bottom frame plates 85, so that horizon tal sliding is Possible and expansion bends 88 are provided in each bottom skirt, so that gas tight continuity of the bottom sealing means is assured in spite of heat expansion of the walls. terial III. ' ' The bridging‘ troughs in Figures 15 and 1'7 are ' composed of metal links I I8 having trough shape and ?tting together in the manner of swivel or Coke-breeze may be ?lled in on top of the bottom door thus keeping the coal away from the door' as it is customary with intermittent vertical ovens. Fig. '1 shows that the internal width of the door 50 tub is ample in comparison to the distance be tween the two bottom skirts ,84 that there is lib erty to increase the distance between the walls ball joints. The links are pressed into water-tight connection with each other and with .the longi troughs I81 by means of tension springs Metal members 98 and 81 stand upon each other and due to their weight the horizontal joints I 85, preferably is an in?ated tube which may be ap Referring to Figure 2, water is maintained in’ reservoir I22 at level I28 by means of supply line I24 and overflow pipe I25, and from the reservoir it ?ows through hose I28 into the bridging trough and the skirts, without collision between skirts II8. These ?exible water ?lled troughs in con; and door-tub. I junction with the bell-shaped cover permit The sides of the chambers are sealed by side spreading of the walls during coking, while keep seals preferably composed of triple sets of seal ing the chambers gas-tight. ing pieces. Figure 16 shows the vertical side edges The side sealing members continue upward to of adjoining coking walls I which are permanent ly and ?exibly sealed against each other by side 60 the height occupied by the top edges of the bridg ing troughs. The semi-circle described by the sealing members comprising three coacting rela bridging trough is of ample diameter so that it tively heavy metal members 88 and 81, pressed surrounds the upper ends of .the side sealing into continuously gas-tight pressure touch with members 88, 81. To effect an elastic and gas-tight each other and with the side frame plates 85 connection between the uppermost ends of the by means of tension springs I88, which ' are side sealing members and the members of the hooked onto the side frame angles I8I. These side sealing trough an elastic packing body III side frame angles are preferably simply pressed has been provided, which is concentrically lo 'upon the side frame plates 85 by means of runs cated between these groups of sealing members. , I81 fastened to the angles NH and by bolts I88 ‘ and batten plates I84 belonging ‘to buckstays l8. 70 Figures 17 and 2 show the packing body. which plied in several layers, although only one layer is shown in the drawings. To effect the in?ation, a Figs. 1'1 and 2, between them are pressed together ?uid. for instance, water or low pressure steam and sealed. The pressure may be increased by addition of springs. The metal members may 75 is pressed into the tube through pipe "I. The 2,413,335 10 . pressure is'regulated to create gas-tightness, but a very low pressure is suilicient in view of the fact the bridging troughs, so that they can expand and contract freely in vertical direction without‘ that the gas pressure inside the coking chamber is only about ‘A; of one inch of water column. disturbing the, bridging trough. Motion'of the tube shaped" in?ated gasket is a rolling one in The‘ in?ated tube may be protected by layers of stead of a gliding and stretching one. insulating materials, which shield it against heat ' Swelling of the coal during voperation is per as well as the action of distillates. To enable the bridgingtrough I ID to withstand - mitted in commercial operation in entire batter-i ies containing pluralities of huge chambers. the pressure exerted by the in?ated tube I30, Warping and buckling. of the walls is thus avoid. springs I20 are chosen to have suflicie‘nt strength. To enablethe' individual sections of the side seals ed. . ‘The new arrangement safely guides each wall. individually back to itsv original position. to stand upon ‘each other, brackets I32, see Fig. An undesired characteristic of low volatile 2, have been provided extending from side frame coals is the heavy dense coke which'they make, plates 95 and brackets I33 extending from side which-is too dense for blast furnace coke. This sealing members 91, said brackets being inter 15 quality can be avoided by setting the pressure connected by adjustable hangers I34 which serve to hold the lowest side sealing members in their position, so that the superposed members can limitation contact so that the spreading motion of the walls begins at such a low swelling pres sure, that a more porous coke is produced. rest on them. Means are also provided for hold A battery has been produced, which permits the construction of huge plants, consisting of independent batteries, each containing many coking chambers of largest size. Each of the batteries is safer than an equivalent number of the chambers and to prevent their condensation I other ovens, due to its possibility of expansion, ing the bridging trough in its position, consisting of ribs I36 cast ontotrough member I I0 and guid ing bolts I31 screwed into side frame plates 95. In orderto expedite removal of by-products from near the side seals, steam or tar-free gas may be K blown into the space between the side sealing rapidly and at a lower cost than normal ovens,~ members 96 and 91, - and especially coals of dangerously swelling type. and is therefore able to carbonize coals more By sealing each coking chamber ?exibly and by retaining the water in the top troughs and, tub-doors during motion of the walls and by 30 permanently connecting the side seals to the top troughs, spreading of the walls during coking is made possible, while keeping the chambers gas-tight, and also in case of non-swelling coals The bottom seal although it is interrupted when opening the bot tom door is re-established in gas-tight manner 40 when closing thel'door and ?lling it‘ with water. These advantages make it possible to operate ' not produce dangerous pressure peaks in ordinary ovens. Such coals, however, when coked in the new very narrow oven, at high coking speeds, often develop unexpected pressurepeaks, and it is the merit of the new‘ battery that damage. in these cases is forestalled. All spreading screws are located in the open and accessible. In case ‘of very‘small walls the 2 which do notv require spreading, the advantage. is gained that the time lost in breaking and re making the seals is avoided, and heat losses from the chambers are reduced. The new arrangements can of course be used also for non-swelling coals, i. e., coals which do top screws may be’ omitted. It is possible to keep another wall than the centerwall stationary if desired. . Only 4 chambers are shown in the drawings, but it is intended to use at least 6, but also 8 or 10 very large coking plants with greatly improved in one battery. economy in labor and time. The present improvement permits of an addi tional improvement, which is important for badly swelling low volatile coals. Due to the greater height of fall, the density of the charge in the The new spreading mechanism permits motion of a large number of walls in a steady, vibration less motion without jerking or shaking of the walls, or of the coke while in statu nascendi._ This is of greatest importance because large brick-walls of commercial size, for instance, 16' width and 30' height are very vulnerable. The screws give common guiding to all walls, ‘they have huge strength, producing a uniform quiet motion and they have‘ simplicity. The ?ex ‘ coking chamber is higher near the bottom than near the top. As a result the swelling pressure of the coal is higher in the lower part of the. oven, so that the coking speed of the entire oven must be adjusted down to correspond to this 10 cally denser coal. ‘ - This can be remedied in the new invention by ibility of the jointed hangers is eliminated. ; .?rst charging the coal and then'immediately Eliminated are also the side swaying and the thereafter widening the chamber, giving the coal tilting of the walls and their rotation caused by eccentric load of Waste heat outlet, vapor o? takes and insulating masses at times when the. walls are out of contact with each other. The equalized, the new densities, after the squatting down, obeying the laws of the'behavior of solids an opportunity to squat down in theoven, with the effect that the variations in density are screws rotate against each other so that their in silos and thus being substantially equal over impulse to rotate the walls is avoided. The screw spindles do not interfere with the accessibility of the walls or the side seals. The the entire height, this method of equalizing the charge densities being especially e?ective if dry side seals are sub-divided so that they can be ‘_ of equal density from top to bottom, resulting in removed in pieces without interference from the spindles. This is important in the new oven a uniformly porous coke, suitable for blast furnaces and special purposes. In special cases the coal may be compressed between the walls after theinitial spreading mo which has no common enclosure and in which each of the chambers has its own individual seals, which must be kept in good condition. The seals are automatic and neither consume time nor require manual labor. They do not create friction which would resist spreading. Sliding seals which may glue together are avoided. The side seals pass up on the inside of coal is used. Thus coking begins with a charge tion has brought uniformity of density to the charge. . . . Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and useful and desire to protect by Letters Patent is: ' 1. A battery of coking ovens having a plurality 2,413,335 11 ‘ of internally heated coking walls, which are mov able with respect to each other and having a plu rality of coking chambers interposed between said walls, in which the position of each wall is con trolled by screw spindles passing laterally of said 12 , relative horizontal distances by means of hori zontal screw spindles to which they are connected by means of screw nuts, said screw spindles and nuts having increasing pitches adapted upon ro tation of the screw spindles to increase or decrease the width of each coking chamber. 6. A battery of coking ovens having a plurality walls and surrounding said spindles, said spindles of internally heated coking walls, which are rela having screw threads of opposite directions and of rising pitches adapted to spread the walls tively movable with respect to each other and apart and to move them together again, the drives 10 having a plurality of coking chambers sandwiched between said coking walls, in which each of the of said spindles being centralized into one com two coking walls occupying an end-position in mon source of power, an automatic device for the battery is equipped with an insulating wall maximum pressure control being installed into and an iron retaining grid, all said walls and the cooperative position with one or more of said screw spindles, said device being adapted to start 15 two grids being supported in their elevation on movable trucks resting on top girders, all coking the motor and widen all coking chambers uni and insulating walls and grids being fixed in their formly during the coking operation thus prevent ing accumulation of excessive coal-pressure in relative horizontal distances, by means of hori zontal screw spindles to which they are connected the chambers. 2. In a battery of coking ovens, having inter 20 by means of screw nuts, said screw spindles and nuts having increasing pitches adapted upon ro nally heated coking walls, which are relatively tation of the screw spindles to increase or de movable with respect to each other, means for avoiding excessive coal-pressure consisting in crease the wldth of each coking chamber, the screw pitch of the center-wall being zero while tension shafts for tying adjoining walls to each other, a sensitive tension operated controller in 25 the pitches of the adjoining walls increase with cooperation with at least one of said shafts, said their distance from the center-wall, the direction controller being actuated by the stretching of of screws to the left of center-wall being opposite to that of the walls to its right, all threads being said shaft and means operated by said controller for automatically relaxing the tension in said adapted upon their simultaneous rotation to, shafts by increasing the distance between said 30 spread all walls away from the center-wall and walls and by screw nuts attached to each of said walls byequal increments, and ?exible sealing means adapted for keeping each chamber gas tight while said distance is being increased. 3. In a battery of coking ovens, having a plu rality of internally heated coking walls, which are relatively movable with respect to each other and having a plurality ‘of coking chambers inter posed between said coking walls, ~.means auto matically controlled by the pressure of the coal in said chambers for equally expanding the width 40 increase the width of all chambers equally. ' 7. A battery of coking ovens having a plurality of internally heated coking walls, which are rela tively movable with respect to each other, and of which each is accessible on its narrow non coking sides, all walls being assembled below a portal-structure, comprisingtwo vertical towers and two horizontal girders resting on top of said towers, said walls being movably suspended from said girders for horizontal motion at the same elevation, the vertical position of the coking faces of the chambers by motive power during the cok of each of said walls being ?xed in its vertical ing operation without breaking the gas-seals sur plane by horizontal distance regulating screw rounding said chambers, means controlled by the ‘spindle, means threaded into screw nuts attached operator for widening thechambers still more after conclusion of the operation adapted to 45 to said walls, said screw spindle means connect ing each of said walls with at least one of said facilitate discharge of the completed coke‘ and towers. means to return said walls to their initial operat 8. A coking .oven with internally heated walls, ing position. which are relatively movable with respect to each 4. A coking oven comprising internally heated coking walls, which are relatively movable with 50 other, in which each of said walls is suspended from two movable trucks, guided by and support respect to each other, each wall being sur ed on horizontal girders, resting on vertical sup rounded by an iron frame comprising a lower porting towers and adapted to maintain the walls frame beam, an upper frame beam and two ver at a constant height, the coking face of each wall tical lateral buckstays, a pair of top girders being located at a distance above said walls, said 55 being movably maintained in its vertical align ment by at least four horizontal sets of screw girders being adapted to support said walls, a spindles, extending substantially from the four pair of movabletrucks placed upon said girders, corners of each wall and connecting to four driv said trucks being adapted for being laterally ing devices, fastened to one of the vertical sup guided by said girders while moving on said girders, said lateral buckstays having rigid up 60 porting towers and by two additional sets of screw spindles, attached to the spreading trucks and ward extensions fastened to said trucks in extending from them to driving devices located laterally ?xed positions, adapted to convert said in positions above said driving devices fastened buckstays into ?xed beams having higher to said supporting towers, all said driving devices resistance to de?ection. 5. A battery of coking ovens having a, plurality 65 being connected with each other and centralized into one motor drive, located in one of said tow of internally heated coking walls, which are rela era. tively movable with‘ respect to each other and 9, In a battery, of brick-coking ovens having having a plurality of coking chambers sand hollow internally heated coking walls, which are wiched between said coking walls, in which each of the two coking walls occupying an end-position 74 relatively movable with respect to each other, each of said walls being surrounded by an indi in the battery is equipped with an insulating wall vidual iron frame, and having carbonizing cham and an iron retaining grid, all said walls and the bers, which are sandwiched between said walls two grids being supported in their elevation on and which are individually sealed by a continuous movable trucks resting on top girders all coking ring of sealing means which completely surrounds and insulating walls and grids being ?xed in their atlases 13 the outer narrow faces of the chamber, and in which said frames as well as :said sealing ‘means are'exposed to and accessible from the atmos phere, and in which said sealing means comprise a removable charging and a removable discharg ovens, comprising a plurality of internally heated brick-built coking walls, which are relatively movable with respect to each other, and compris ing a plurality of chambers sandwiched between ' said walls, each of said walls being accessible ing door, means for varying the distance between from the atmosphere on its outer narrow non adjacent walls, said means consisting of screw , coking faces, gauging means responsive to the spindles acting upon the iron frames surrounding wall, pressure in said chambers, means actuated the walls and of additional spindles acting upon by said gauging means for causing said walls to 10 upper extensions of said frames, ,all' said screw recede from each other during coking operation spindles having a central drive, said drive being upon increase of said coal pressure, and sealing operable by an automatic coal-pressure limitin means for keeping each of said chambers sealed controlling device or by hand,‘ . ' against the atmosphere during the recession of 10. In a battery of brick-built coking ovens the walls, said sealing means being accessible having hollow internally heated coking walls 15 from the atmosphere. ' which are relatively movable with respect to each i 14. A battery of coking ovens having a plurality other, each or" said walls'being surrounded by an of internally heated cokingwalls, which are mov- I individual iron frame, means for varying the dis able with respect to each other and having a plu~ tance between adjacent walls, said-means con rality of coking chambers interposed between sisting of screw spindles acting upon the iron 20 said walls, in which the position of each wall is frames surrounding said walls, the connecting controlled by screw spindles passing laterally of link between said wall frame and each of said said walls and by screw nuts attached tosaid screw spindles comprising a threaded nut fas walls and surrounding said spindles, said spindles tened to said frame by means of a ?exible-cop' having screw threads of rising pitches adapted nection, adapted to permit irregularities in the to spread the walls apart and to movethem to shape and the heat expansion of the frames. gether'again, the drives of said spindles, being ‘ 11. In a battery of coking ovens having inter nally heated walls, which are relatively movable with respect ‘to each other, side sealing devices, means adapted to press said side‘ sealing devices upon the heated walls in gas-tight connection, top sealingidevices adapted to permit unobstruch ed cleaning of said side sealing devices and com prising flexible continuous water troughs sur rounding the upper ends of the side sealing de vices in gas-tight contact with said side-sealing devices, and meansforming- gas-tight connections ' between said top sealing, devices and the heate walls. 7 ' centralized into one common source of power, an automatic device for maximum pressure con_ trol being installed into cooperative position with one or more of said screw spindles, said device being'adapted to start the motor and widen all coking chambers uniformly during the coking op eration thus preventing accumulation‘ of exces- V sive coal-pressure in the chambers. 15. In a battery of brick-coking ovens having hollow internally heated coking walls, which are relatively movable with respect to each other, each of said walls being surrounded by an indi - vidual iron frame, and having carbonizing cham 12. In a baking oven comprising internally Gil bers, which are sandwiched between said walls. heated walls, which are relatively movable with and which are individually sealed by a continu respect to each other and a coking chamber sand_ ous ring of sealing means which completely sur wichedbetween said walls and means for spread rounds the outer narrow faces of the chamber, ing said walls apart, ?exible side sealing devices and in which said frames as well as said sealing and ?exible water-containing sealing troughs for 45 means are exposed to and accessible from the I the top charging opening, comprising at their atmosphere, and in which said sealing means . extreme ends ?exible semi-circular return bends, ‘ comprise a removable charging anda removable discharging door, means for varying the distance between adjacent walls, said means consisting of said side sealing devices extending upwardly to the elevation‘ of the top-edges ‘of said return bends, said return bends being of such ample ra 5'9 screw spindles acting upon the iron frame sur dius that they surround said side sealing devices, ' rounding the walls, all said screw spindles having and an elastic packing body, inserted laterally a central drive, said drive being operable by an between the ?exible return bends and the upper automatic coal-pressure limiting controlling de_ ends of the ?exible side seals. ‘ vice or by hand. 13. A battery of narrow, high-speed coking 55 . > FRANZ PUE‘NING.