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31, 1946.
F, PUENING
2,413,335
APPARATUS FOR OPERATING COKE OVENS WITH MOVABLE WALLS
Filed Jan. 18, 1943
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APPARATUS FOR OPERATING coxm OVENS WITH MOVABLE wALLé
Filed Jan. 18, 1943
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31, 1946.
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F. PUENING
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APPARATUS FOR OPERATING COKE>OVENS WITH moYABLE‘wALLs
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APPARATUS FOR OPERATING COKE OVENS WITH MOVABLE WALLS
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. 31, 1946.
F. PUENING
2,413,335
APPARATUS FOR OPERATING COKE OVENS WITH MOVABLE WALLS
Filed Jan. 18, 1943
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F. PUIIENING 1
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2,413,335
APPARATUS FOR OPERATING COKE OVENS WITH MOVABLE WALLS -
Filed Jan. 18, 1943
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7 Sheets-Sheet 6
31, 1946.
2,413,335
F. PUENING
APPARATUS FOR‘ OPERATING COKE OVENS WITH MOVABLE WALLS
Filed Jan. 18, 1943
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Patented Dec. 31, 1946 “
2,413,335 -
u no STATES2,413,335‘PATENT orrlca
are
‘
FOR OPERATING COKE OVENS
' at MDVABLE WALLS
Frans
u-r-w
Bethlehem, Pa.
Application January 18, 1943, Serial No. 472,886
15 Cla
(?aunt-195i)
3
2
The present invention relates to the coking of
coking walls working with thin coal charges and
peak quite destructive to the ovens. The precise
moment when the maximum pressure peak is
reached greatly depends upon the width of the
short coking times as shown in my United States
v chamber.
_
Patent No. 2,240,575 and in my co-pending appli
cation, Serial No. 389,302, now Patent No.
after 75% of the coking operation is completed.
coal in batteries of coke ovens having movable
2,311,349, granted February 16, 1943, ?led April
, 19, 1941, whichdescribe ovens in which each cok
On the average the peak is reached
Therefore, ma 6'' oven which cokes in 4 hours
the peak is reached after 3 hours; while in a 4"
oven which cokes in 2 hours it would be reached .
ing chamber formed between a pair of movable
after 11/; hours and in an 8" oven which cokes
walls is equipped with individual means for seal 10 in 6 hours it would "be reached in 41/2 hours.
ing the chamber separately from the atmosphere,
It is an object of this invention to provide
there being no enclosure common to the several
means which forestall damage due to excessive
walls. The oven walls are preferably built of
swelling peaks by making certain that at the be
?re-bricks and preferably are of‘ very large size,
ginning of the coking operation all chambers have
as for instance, 16 ft. by 30ft. and they are there 15 equal width ‘and by increasing the width of all
fore quite sensitive to hostile forces. They can
oven chambers in a battery uniformly, so that
easily be warped or buckled, which in case of
with absolute certainty every part of each cham
brick walls would cause cracks in the walls and
ber receives the same increment in width at the
gas-leaks between the heating flues on the one
same moment during the coking operation and
side and the coal chambers on the other hand, 2o, by thereafter, after the discharge of the coke, re
which is turn would destroy safety and economy
of operation. Such warping would also mean
that the width of some coal chambers is increased
while the width of the adjoining chamber is de
turning all walls to exactly their original posi
tion in the battery, so that all pressure peaks
in all chambers in the battery develop at the
same time and thereby neutralize each other, and
creased with the result that the thicker body of 25 are also reduced in height to avoid, during these
coal requires a longer coking time, resulting in
motions of the walls, any Jerking or vibrating of
loss of plant capacity and in uneven coke quality.
the walls in order to prevent disturbance of coke
Furthermore, such movable walls when suspended
formation and damage to the walls. '
on jointed or otherwise ?exible hangers or supports
A further object of thisv invention. has to do
30
are very sensitive to eccentric loads, and are eas
with the means for sealing the coking chambers. _
ily swayed out of their alignment by the weight
Since the new oven‘ is intended for operation'on
of eccentrically located inlets for heating gas and
the
largest commercial scale, it/ls absolutely nec
air and outlets for waste heat and by layers of
essary, in view of the value of the by-products,
insulating materials, and by eccentric attack of ' that
the chambers remain perfectly sealed against
the forces required to move the walls. ' The hy
drostatic pressure of the coal also tries to press the
top or the bottom portion of the walls apart and
, to make them assume wedge-shaped position.
It
is the intention of this invention to provide means
whereby buckling, warping and any other mis
alignment are absolutely avoided and by which
the walls are maintained exactly in their vertical
panes and alignment and to eliminate or coun
' teract all distracting forces that might interfere
the atmosphere, during the coking operation, also .
in case the width of the chambers is increased
during coking. Consequently sealing means are
provided, which permit the chambers of a block
40 to be expanded in width, for instance from 5" to
7"’, while the coking action proceeds, without
thereby unsealing the chambers, the sealing
means to be of a type adapted for commercial
simultaneous operation of many large coking
with the successful commercial operation of large 45. chambers in a battery, and adapted to operate
automatically and reliably and without loss of
brick oven batteries and thus forestall expenses
time, and to remain gas-tight in spite of the
and delays.
_
higher coal gas pressure in the chambers.‘ which
A further object of this invention has to do
results from the high coking speed.
with the well-known characteristic of low volatile
In order that the nature of the invention may
coals, to swell during coking operation and to ex- be more clearly appreciated, particular embodi
ert pressure against the oven walls. This pres
ments will now ‘be described with reference to
sure is fairly low during the ?rst and. major por
the accompanying drawings, in which: '
tion of the coking period until the last quarter of
Figure 1 is a sectional elevation through a bat
the period approaches, when the swelling in
creases more rapidly and may reach a pressure 55 tery of coking ovens, comprising four coking
2,413,385
-
3
4.
the line 2-2 of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a partial plan view upon the top‘
position of the buckstays and the coking walls
relative to girders ii is guaranteed by virtue of
these flanged rollers and the tilting bearings [1.
The outermost coking walls are protected
against heat losses by heavy blankets of insulat
ing brick-work 30, see Figures 1 and 4, ‘and by
sealing troughs, shown in Figures 1 and 2;
slabs of concrete 3| and by a strong gridwork of .
chambers, the section being taken on the line
i--i of Figure 2;
'
Figure 2 is a sectional elevation through one
of the coking walls, the section being taken on
Figure 4 is a partial horizontal section through
iron beams 32, which absorbs the pressure exerted
by the coal during carbonization and prevents
the battery taken on the line 4—4 of Figure 2;
Figures 5, 6,7 and 8 show details of the top 10 warping of the brick-walls. The insulating brick
work 30 and the concrete slab are held together
supporting truck and the means for moving it,
by means of iron frames 33 similar to those sur
shown also in the top right-hand corner of Fig
rounding each brickwall and these frames 33 also
ure 1;
extend upward and may be connected to their
Figure 9 is a sectional elevation through one‘gf
the spreading screws taken on line 9—9 of Figure. » 15 own top trucks but preferably they are connected
2,
'
Figure 10 is a sectional plan view taken on lines
ill-i0 of Figure 9;
Figure '11 is a sectional elevation taken on lines
‘ii-H of Figure 9;
Figures 12'and 13 show details of‘ the clutches
shown also in Figure 9;
Figure 14 shows the centralized drives for mov
to the outer top trucks I2--a which carry the
outer wall 3-4, these latter trucks being made
correspondingly longer, so that the outer walls
3‘—a move in common with their insulating
20 blankets and their iron gridwork 32. Frames 8,
3, l0 and H of the coking walls are firmly tied
to the frames of the insulating walls 33 for in
stance by tie plates 34 and 35, Figure 1.
For the purpose of forcing the walls to execute
ing the walls in end elevation, the view being
the
desired accurate motions and for holding
taken on the line ll—-l4 in Figure 1; and
25
them securely in their intended position, without
Figures 15, 16 andll'l show details of the seal
allowing their frames any other possibility but to
ing means, shown also at the upper right-hand
remain in their intended vertical position, there
corner of the coking wall in Figure 2.
have been provided six distance regulating
Two rigid supporting towers I, see Figure 1,
are set up at distances sufficient to permit be
tween them the construction and operation of
preferably only one battery of coking ovens com
prising from six to ten coking chambers 2, sand
wiched between movable walls 3, although only
four chambers are shown in Figure 1. The towers
l serve to support two strong girders l which
30 spindles 40 and l I, see also Figure 14, four of these ‘
spindles are connected'to the iron frames sur- '
rounding the walls 3 while two more are con
nected to the movable trucks l2. In the case of
the outer coking walls which are connected to the
iron grids 32 by tie plates 34, 35, the screw
spindles are preferably connected to these grids
32 and not to the wall frames Ill.
in turn serve to support the coking walls 3.
The right-hand ends of the four lower spindles
Coking chambers 2 formed between walls 3 are
40 are supported in tower I. Bearings 42,are
heated by burners 6, see Figure 2. Waste heat
may leave through exit ?ues 5 equipped with ?ex 40 provided to permit rotation of the spindles, see
also Figure 9,‘ while collars 43 are provided to
.ible Joints 1, permitting motion of the walls.
stop longitudinal movement of the spindles. The
Each of the coking walls 3 is held together by a
right-hand ends of the four spindles 40, see Fig
strong iron frame, having a horizontal bottom
ure 14, are equipped with worm-gear drives 45
beam 8 and a horizontal top beam 8 and-two
lateral vertical buckstays [0, these latter having 45 driven by shafts l6 and spur-gears l1 and 48
connecting to vertical shaft 49 connecting to
upward extensions H making connection with
motor 50. The two top spindles 4| are driven by
two movable trucks l2, composed of rollers l3,
similar worm drives 52, spur-gears 53, vertical
see Figures 5, 6, 7, 8, held together by chassis l4,
spindle 54 and spur-gears 55 connecting to shaft
roller plate l5 balancing plate l6, supported above
roller plate l5 by means of tilting bearing H 50 46 and to the same motor 50,
‘ The six screw spindles 40 and 4| are equipped
which prevents lateral motion between these
with screw threads of increasing pitches, so that
plates; the truck being further composed of
screw nut l8 held in its position by bolts 13 and _ in case of seven coking walls, those regulating
the position of the outer walls have, for instance,
brackets 20. Theupward extensions ll of the
buckstays are forked, see Figure 2, having a sec 55 a pitch of V4", those for the middle walls have .
ond branch-2| reaching upward and passing , a pitch of 1/2", those regulating the position of
the inner walls have a pitch of 1/4", while the
around the outside of the girders and being con
nected to the outer portion of said trucks. This ' position of the center wall is kept fixed by being
connected to the screw shafts by means of simple
outer branch of the forked extension can be
quickly disconnected from the stronger inner 60 bearing 56 located between collars 51, see Figure
9. The direction of the screw threads to the left
branch I l by removing bolts 22 and 23, whereupon
of the ‘center wall is opposite to the direction of
the coking wall with its frame can be lifted out
the screw threads to the right, so that upon rota
of its position and replaced by another. Addi
tion of the motor all coke chambers are jointly
tional operating rails 25 are provided above gird
ersl for the operation, for instance, of the coal 65 either widened or narrowed. The screw threads
for the inner walls may have a single thread,
'chargingimachinery, said operating rails being
those for next adjoining walls a double thread,
located above said spreading trucks and sup
and those for the next following walls‘a triple
ported by stools 26 built upon said girders in
thread. Upon their rotation the screws turn
positions between said buckstays. The top sup
porting trucks are thus linked to the walls by 70,_ toward each other so that their turning impulses
which would tend to rotate the walls in their
stiff bucl" tays. The rollers l3 are equipped with
vertical plane and which would, for instance,
round ?niges 21 which grip around the top
tilt the horizontal top sealing troughs and shed
?anges 21 which grip around the top ?anges 28
their water, are neutralized, see arrows in Figure
of girder d. The roller plates l5 are of the same
14. In vorder tov obtain minimum_travel motion
width as the top ?ange 28 so that the lateral
2,418,885
6.
a
for each wall, the center wall is made stationary.
The location of the top drives 52-53 for trucks
an electric limiting device of standard type is
provided in order to forestall that the walls are
I2 is in a vertical plane above the four lower
drives for the coking walls. In this manner with
the ends of all screw spindles located upon the 5
same supporting tower I, the accurate vertical
position of the walls and-the maintenance of their .
carried beyond their initial position and damaged.
vertical shape and position are guaranteed by
the rigidity and strength of the tower. Further
Such limiting device may, for instance, be con
nected to the top trucks or the screw spindles.
As already stated, it is intended to employ the
oven also for the mass carbonization of coal of
dangerously swelling type. For this purpose the
more, lateral or rotating motion of the walls 10.
within their vertical plane is made impossible
by the ?anged rollers i3, and the horizontal tilt
ing bearing i ‘8 between the balancing plate I6 and
following automatic pressure control is added.
The coal pressure is communicated fro'm\brick
wall to brickwall and ?nally from the outer walls
to the iron grids 32. The pressure is also at times
transferred by each well to its own surrounding
iron frame and from these through rotatable pins
of the buckstays, and by the rigidity of'the upper 15 62 and vertical set screws 83 and nut 60 onto
extensions ii of the buckstays and by the fact
the four screw spindles til. These spindles are
that the screw spindles are ?anking the walls.
preferably composed, see Figs. 9, 10, of separate
This con?nement of thewalls also has the ad
relatively short, hollow screw shells 8| threaded
vantage that the side sealing members remain
on their outsides for cooperation with nuts 60, and
in their intended alignment and gas-tight, see 20 also composed of unthreaded shell ‘II. All shells
Figures 2 and 16. g
ti and ‘ii are in contact with each other, and
The screw spindles are located substantially
each, at its point of contact with the other is
near the corners of the walls but more exactly
shaped in the form of a jaw clutch 13 so that the
at elevations where they are most effective in
rotation imparted by worm drive 65 to shell ‘H
carrying the pressure exerted against the iron 25 is communicated to all screw shells 6!. On the
grids 32. The free left-hand ends of the screw
inside of the screw shells is provided hollow ten
spindles may be centered in the left-hand tower
sion shaft 15, being ?rmly fixed in its longitudi
or may be left free as shown in Figures 1 and 9.
nal position relative to the screw shells by means
The connection between the spindles 60 and
of bolted on collars 63. lA further collar 44 is
the roller plate 85 which fix the lateral position '
- the iron frames is shown in Figures 9, 10 and 11 30 bolted onto shell ‘H thus ?xing the longitudinal
which show that nut 60 which surrounds screw
position of the entire screw spindle 40 relative
shell Si is rotatably attached to buckstays It by
pin 52 and screws t3, the advantage obtained
being that minor irregularities in the shape of
to bearings 62, worm drive 45 and-tower I. The
strength of this tension shaft 15 is so chosen, that
the coal
expansion forces are successful ‘ in
‘the frame members or minor differences in heat 35 stretching the shaft within safe elastic limits,
expansion of the,walls will not create binding
the increment in length of the shaft in case of
forces which resist the. operation of the spindles.
a big commercial battery being for instance $4;
The thickness of the body of coal in each ’
of one inch.
'
'
-
chamber is ?xed ?rmly by the screws, so that
On the inside of tension shaft ‘I5 is loosely
in case the speed of the coal charging opera 40 placed a reference rod 11, its longitudinal posi
tion varies and one chamber is ?lled before the
tion within tension shaft 15 being ?xed by nuts
other, the static pressure of the coal will not
‘I8. Two spools 19 are slipped over reference rod
distend that chamber, making that particular
coal body thicker thus delaying its pressure peak
while making the adjoining coal body thinner,
' thus advancing its pressure peak.
The screws‘
11 with pressure spring 80 between them, strong
enough to pull reference rod 11 as far as possible
out of tension shaft 15 without however stretch
ing the rod. The distance between the spools is
thus always a maximum and faithfully indicates
the tension in the four tension shafts ‘l5. and
guarantee that thickness of coal bodies in the
chambers may be varied during coking and that
it will always be equal in all chambers.
thereby the pressure of the coal. Assuming the
The provision of the two top screw spindles 4| 50 coal pressure were to be limited to 1 lb. per square
with their ?anged rollers I3 has another impor
inch of coking walls, and the coking surfaces in
tant advantage, as follows: The brick-work of
contact with the coal were 15' wide and 30' high,
then the total pull on each tension shaft would
a wall, when heated expands sidewlse and presses
against the buckstay. This force subjects the
side buckstays to a horizontal bending force par
allel to the coking surfaces. The coal pressure
also tries to warp the wall out of its vertical plane
in a direction normal to the coking surfaces. A
be 16,200 lbs., which can be safely carried by a
1" double extra strong pipe, thereby stretching
the pipe only about $4; inch. The distance be
tween spools 19 will therefore be'decreased by
% inch, which is ample for the operation of elec
portion of this force is at times transferred to the '
tric contact and control mechanism 82 and 83
side buckstays and subjects them to-another 60 which is connected directly or by relay with motor
bending stress normal to the coking faces. In
the new oven with its high walls,'these two forces
50. When contact points 83 touch each other
the motor 50 is started and, rotates all 6 screw
spindles with the result that the distance between
all the walls is increased until the contact points
would require heavy and expensive side buckstays.
However, by ?xing each top truck in its position,
by means of the two top screw spindles with their 65 83 have parted again, thus preventing the coal
?anged rollers and tilting bearing, and by extend
pressure against the brickwalls from rising above
ing the wall buckstays rigidly to these ?xed
the stipulated 1 lb. per square inch. This auto
trucks, the advantage is reached that each side
matic pressure limitation remains active during
the, entire coking time. Assuming that the width
buckstay is converted into a beam, the upper end
of which is fixed, with the result that its strength 70 of the coking chamber‘ in the beginning of the
to resist de?ection is more than doubled. Thus
operation when the chamber is filled with coal
also the use of very large brick-walls is facili
is 5 inches and that the coal chosen is of a type
which swells 30% during carbonization when kept
For the returning of the walls to their initial
under a load of 1 lb. per square inch, then the
closed position, the motor is started by hand and 75 described control mechanism will retract the walls
tated.
-
'
_
1*
9,413,885
springs I88 is advantageous.- They press all ele
ments of the side sealing devices upon each other
and they can quickly be unhooked and facilitate
erection and repair. The easy removal of the
metal members also facilitates inspection and re
pair of the brickwork behind them. Furthermore,
the distance between the walls can be still fur- ‘
ther increased, to obtain discharge of the coke,
after the coking operation is completed. , This
hand-control is also used for reversing the motor,
in order to reduce the chambers to their original
width.
The assurance that the automatic pressure con
8
have considerable thiclmess so that substantial
contact between them is secured. The use of
an the width of the chambers has been increased
to 6% inches. An additional hand-operated con
trol-not shown-is provided by means of which
shipping, storing and handling of the sub-divided '
10 sealing parts is much facilitated and cost re
trol prevents damage to the walls gives the plant
operator'the opportunity to raise the coking speed
in the walls to a high level thus increasing the '
thruput of the ovens and their revenue. The
15
reference rod 11 is needed in only one shaft.
duced. Also their subdivision into short pieces
permits the use of cast iron, which is corrosion re
giisting. an important feature in coking opera
on.
In order to facilitate the assembling of these
side members, projections may be provided on
them which can be gripped by pairs of tongues or
vises. This system of side sealing members per
. the walls. The door is hinged around the shaft
mits spreading of the walls during coking, while
85 attached to beam 8 of wall 8. The other side
of the door is supported by horizontal bolt 81 20 keeping the chambers gas-tight.
In order to seal the top opening of each coking
forming part of the bracket 88, which is rotatable
chambers! during coking, the chamber is sur
around fulcrum 88. When the walls are spread
rounded on top by a continuous water ?lled
apart, bracket 88 and bolt 81 follow the horizon
trough, see Fig. 3, the two longitudinal sections
tally receding door 85. If the coke is to be dis
charged, piston 88 belonging to the coke dis 25 of which I81 are slidably fastened to angles I88,
Figs. 15 and 1, which are ?xed upon the top frame
charge ma'chine, not shown, is pushed upward
plates I88 of the walls, while the gaps between
against buifer 8| of bracket 88, whereby the hori
the ends of the longitudinal sections I81 are
zontal bolt 81 is forced to the left and permits
The bottom door 85 and its supports; see Fig. 1,
are arranged to permit the spreading motion of
bridged by semi-circular ?exible bridging troughs
'
Provisions have been taken to keep the coking 30 II8. A removable bell-shaped cover II2, Figs. 1, .
2, is used in cooperation with the continuous
chambers gas-tight, while‘ the automatic spread
trough, dipping with its side skirts Ill into the
ing during coking operation takes place.
a
water ?lled longitudinal trough sections I81 and
The bottom opening of each coking chamber
dipping with its end skirts III into the bridging
is sealed with the aid of a tub-shaped water ?lled
door 85 shown in Figures 1 and 2 into which dip 35 troughs H8. The longitudinal trough sections
I81 pass through valleys H8, see Fig. 15, cut in
the bottom skirts 84 of the coking walls and the
the
upper ends of the side frame plates 85. The
lowest ends of theside'frame plates 85 and of
horizontal length of these valleys is increased by
the side seals 86 and 81. The bottom skirts 84
door 85 to drop.
vU-shaped extensionsyIIl Figures 15, 17, welded
extend laterally till they are in contact with and
?xed in gas-tight manner to the lowest ends of 40 onto the side frame plates. The space between
.the longitudinal sections and the U-shaped val
the side frame plates 85. The skirts are pressed
leys is made gas-tight by means of packing ma
against bottom frame plates 85, so that horizon
tal sliding is Possible and expansion bends 88
are provided in each bottom skirt, so that gas
tight continuity of the bottom sealing means is
assured in spite of heat expansion of the walls.
terial III.
' '
The bridging‘ troughs in Figures 15 and 1'7 are
' composed of metal links I I8 having trough shape
and ?tting together in the manner of swivel or
Coke-breeze may be ?lled in on top of the bottom
door thus keeping the coal away from the door'
as it is customary with intermittent vertical ovens.
Fig. '1 shows that the internal width of the door 50
tub is ample in comparison to the distance be
tween the two bottom skirts ,84 that there is lib
erty to increase the distance between the walls
ball joints. The links are pressed into water-tight
connection with each other and with .the longi
troughs I81 by means of tension springs
Metal members 98 and 81 stand upon each other
and due to their weight the horizontal joints I 85,
preferably is an in?ated tube which may be ap
Referring to Figure 2, water is maintained in’
reservoir I22 at level I28 by means of supply line
I24 and overflow pipe I25, and from the reservoir
it ?ows through hose I28 into the bridging trough
and the skirts, without collision between skirts
II8. These ?exible water ?lled troughs in con;
and door-tub.
I
junction with the bell-shaped cover permit
The sides of the chambers are sealed by side
spreading of the walls during coking, while keep
seals preferably composed of triple sets of seal
ing the chambers gas-tight.
ing pieces. Figure 16 shows the vertical side edges
The side sealing members continue upward to
of adjoining coking walls I which are permanent
ly and ?exibly sealed against each other by side 60 the height occupied by the top edges of the bridg
ing troughs. The semi-circle described by the
sealing members comprising three coacting rela
bridging trough is of ample diameter so that it
tively heavy metal members 88 and 81, pressed
surrounds the upper ends of .the side sealing
into continuously gas-tight pressure touch with
members 88, 81. To effect an elastic and gas-tight
each other and with the side frame plates 85
connection between the uppermost ends of the
by means of tension springs I88, which ' are
side sealing members and the members of the
hooked onto the side frame angles I8I. These
side sealing trough an elastic packing body III
side frame angles are preferably simply pressed
has been provided, which is concentrically lo
'upon the side frame plates 85 by means of runs
cated between these groups of sealing members.
, I81 fastened to the angles NH and by bolts I88
‘ and batten plates I84 belonging ‘to buckstays l8. 70 Figures 17 and 2 show the packing body. which
plied in several layers, although only one layer is
shown in the drawings. To effect the in?ation, a
Figs. 1'1 and 2, between them are pressed together
?uid. for instance, water or low pressure steam
and sealed. The pressure may be increased by
addition of springs. The metal members may 75 is pressed into the tube through pipe "I. The
2,413,335
10
. pressure is'regulated to create gas-tightness, but
a very low pressure is suilicient in view of the fact
the bridging troughs, so that they can expand
and contract freely in vertical direction without‘
that the gas pressure inside the coking chamber
is only about ‘A; of one inch of water column.
disturbing the, bridging trough. Motion'of the
tube shaped" in?ated gasket is a rolling one in
The‘ in?ated tube may be protected by layers of
stead of a gliding and stretching one.
insulating materials, which shield it against heat
'
Swelling of the coal during voperation is per
as well as the action of distillates.
To enable the bridgingtrough I ID to withstand -
mitted in commercial operation in entire batter-i
ies containing pluralities of huge chambers.
the pressure exerted by the in?ated tube I30,
Warping and buckling. of the walls is thus avoid.
springs I20 are chosen to have suflicie‘nt strength.
To enablethe' individual sections of the side seals
ed. . ‘The new arrangement safely guides each
wall. individually back to itsv original position.
to stand upon ‘each other, brackets I32, see Fig.
An undesired characteristic of low volatile
2, have been provided extending from side frame
coals is the heavy dense coke which'they make,
plates 95 and brackets I33 extending from side
which-is too dense for blast furnace coke. This
sealing members 91, said brackets being inter 15 quality can be avoided by setting the pressure
connected by adjustable hangers I34 which serve
to hold the lowest side sealing members in their
position, so that the superposed members can
limitation contact so that the spreading motion
of the walls begins at such a low swelling pres
sure, that a more porous coke is produced.
rest on them. Means are also provided for hold
A battery has been produced, which permits
the construction of huge plants, consisting of
independent batteries, each containing many
coking chambers of largest size. Each of the
batteries is safer than an equivalent number of
the chambers and to prevent their condensation I other ovens, due to its possibility of expansion,
ing the bridging trough in its position, consisting
of ribs I36 cast ontotrough member I I0 and guid
ing bolts I31 screwed into side frame plates 95.
In orderto expedite removal of by-products from
near the side seals, steam or tar-free gas may be K
blown into the space between the side sealing
rapidly and at a lower cost than normal ovens,~
members 96 and 91, -
and especially coals of dangerously swelling type.
and is therefore able to carbonize coals more
By sealing each coking chamber ?exibly and
by retaining the water in the top troughs and,
tub-doors during motion of the walls and by 30
permanently connecting the side seals to the top
troughs, spreading of the walls during coking
is made possible, while keeping the chambers
gas-tight, and also in case of non-swelling coals
The bottom seal
although it is interrupted when opening the bot
tom door is re-established in gas-tight manner 40
when closing thel'door and ?lling it‘ with water.
These advantages make it possible to operate '
not produce dangerous pressure peaks in ordinary
ovens. Such coals, however, when coked in the
new very narrow oven, at high coking speeds,
often develop unexpected pressurepeaks, and it
is the merit of the new‘ battery that damage. in these cases is forestalled.
All spreading screws are located in the open
and accessible. In case ‘of very‘small walls the 2
which do notv require spreading, the advantage.
is gained that the time lost in breaking and re
making the seals is avoided, and heat losses from
the chambers are reduced.
The new arrangements can of course be used
also for non-swelling coals, i. e., coals which do
top screws may be’ omitted. It is possible to
keep another wall than the centerwall stationary
if desired.
.
Only 4 chambers are shown in the drawings,
but it is intended to use at least 6, but also 8 or 10
very large coking plants with greatly improved
in one battery.
economy in labor and time.
The present improvement permits of an addi
tional improvement, which is important for badly
swelling low volatile coals. Due to the greater
height of fall, the density of the charge in the
The new spreading mechanism permits motion
of a large number of walls in a steady, vibration
less motion without jerking or shaking of the
walls, or of the coke while in statu nascendi._
This is of greatest importance because large
brick-walls of commercial size, for instance, 16'
width and 30' height are very vulnerable.
The screws give common guiding to all walls,
‘they have huge strength, producing a uniform
quiet motion and they have‘ simplicity. The ?ex
‘
coking chamber is higher near the bottom than
near the top. As a result the swelling pressure
of the coal is higher in the lower part of the.
oven, so that the coking speed of the entire oven
must be adjusted down to correspond to this 10
cally denser coal.
‘
-
This can be remedied in the new invention by
ibility of the jointed hangers is eliminated. ; .?rst charging the coal and then'immediately
Eliminated are also the side swaying and the
thereafter widening the chamber, giving the coal
tilting of the walls and their rotation caused by
eccentric load of Waste heat outlet, vapor o?
takes and insulating masses at times when the.
walls are out of contact with each other. The
equalized, the new densities, after the squatting
down, obeying the laws of the'behavior of solids
an opportunity to squat down in theoven, with
the effect that the variations in density are
screws rotate against each other so that their
in silos and thus being substantially equal over
impulse to rotate the walls is avoided.
The screw spindles do not interfere with the
accessibility of the walls or the side seals. The
the entire height, this method of equalizing the
charge densities being especially e?ective if dry
side seals are sub-divided so that they can be
‘_ of equal density from top to bottom, resulting in
removed in pieces without interference from the
spindles. This is important in the new oven
a uniformly porous coke, suitable for blast
furnaces and special purposes.
In special cases the coal may be compressed
between the walls after theinitial spreading mo
which has no common enclosure and in which
each of the chambers has its own individual
seals, which must be kept in good condition.
The seals are automatic and neither consume
time nor require manual labor. They do not
create friction which would resist spreading.
Sliding seals which may glue together are
avoided. The side seals pass up on the inside of
coal is used. Thus coking begins with a charge
tion has brought uniformity of density to the
charge.
.
.
.
Having thus described my invention, what I
claim as new and useful and desire to protect by
Letters Patent is:
'
1. A battery of coking ovens having a plurality
2,413,335
11
‘ of internally heated coking walls, which are mov
able with respect to each other and having a plu
rality of coking chambers interposed between said
walls, in which the position of each wall is con
trolled by screw spindles passing laterally of said
12
,
relative horizontal distances by means of hori
zontal screw spindles to which they are connected
by means of screw nuts, said screw spindles and
nuts having increasing pitches adapted upon ro
tation of the screw spindles to increase or decrease
the width of each coking chamber.
6. A battery of coking ovens having a plurality
walls and surrounding said spindles, said spindles
of internally heated coking walls, which are rela
having screw threads of opposite directions and
of rising pitches adapted to spread the walls
tively movable with respect to each other and
apart and to move them together again, the drives 10 having a plurality of coking chambers sandwiched
between said coking walls, in which each of the
of said spindles being centralized into one com
two coking walls occupying an end-position in
mon source of power, an automatic device for
the battery is equipped with an insulating wall
maximum pressure control being installed into
and an iron retaining grid, all said walls and the
cooperative position with one or more of said
screw spindles, said device being adapted to start 15 two grids being supported in their elevation on
movable trucks resting on top girders, all coking
the motor and widen all coking chambers uni
and insulating walls and grids being fixed in their
formly during the coking operation thus prevent
ing accumulation of excessive coal-pressure in
relative horizontal distances, by means of hori
zontal screw spindles to which they are connected
the chambers.
2. In a battery of coking ovens, having inter 20 by means of screw nuts, said screw spindles and
nuts having increasing pitches adapted upon ro
nally heated coking walls, which are relatively
tation of the screw spindles to increase or de
movable with respect to each other, means for
avoiding excessive coal-pressure consisting in
crease the wldth of each coking chamber, the
screw pitch of the center-wall being zero while
tension shafts for tying adjoining walls to each
other, a sensitive tension operated controller in 25 the pitches of the adjoining walls increase with
cooperation with at least one of said shafts, said
their distance from the center-wall, the direction
controller being actuated by the stretching of
of screws to the left of center-wall being opposite
to that of the walls to its right, all threads being
said shaft and means operated by said controller
for automatically relaxing the tension in said
adapted upon their simultaneous rotation to,
shafts by increasing the distance between said 30 spread all walls away from the center-wall and
walls and by screw nuts attached to each of said
walls byequal increments, and ?exible sealing
means adapted for keeping each chamber gas
tight while said distance is being increased.
3. In a battery of coking ovens, having a plu
rality of internally heated coking walls, which
are relatively movable with respect to each other
and having a plurality ‘of coking chambers inter
posed between said coking walls, ~.means auto
matically controlled by the pressure of the coal
in said chambers for equally expanding the width 40
increase the width of all chambers equally. '
7. A battery of coking ovens having a plurality
of internally heated coking walls, which are rela
tively movable with respect to each other, and
of which each is accessible on its narrow non
coking sides, all walls being assembled below a
portal-structure, comprisingtwo vertical towers
and two horizontal girders resting on top of said
towers, said walls being movably suspended from
said girders for horizontal motion at the same
elevation, the vertical position of the coking faces
of the chambers by motive power during the cok
of each of said walls being ?xed in its vertical
ing operation without breaking the gas-seals sur
plane by horizontal distance regulating screw
rounding said chambers, means controlled by the
‘spindle, means threaded into screw nuts attached
operator for widening thechambers still more
after conclusion of the operation adapted to 45 to said walls, said screw spindle means connect
ing each of said walls with at least one of said
facilitate discharge of the completed coke‘ and
towers.
means to return said walls to their initial operat
8. A coking .oven with internally heated walls,
ing position.
which are relatively movable with respect to each
4. A coking oven comprising internally heated
coking walls, which are relatively movable with 50 other, in which each of said walls is suspended
from two movable trucks, guided by and support
respect to each other, each wall being sur
ed on horizontal girders, resting on vertical sup
rounded by an iron frame comprising a lower
porting towers and adapted to maintain the walls
frame beam, an upper frame beam and two ver
at a constant height, the coking face of each wall
tical lateral buckstays, a pair of top girders being
located at a distance above said walls, said 55 being movably maintained in its vertical align
ment by at least four horizontal sets of screw
girders being adapted to support said walls, a
spindles, extending substantially from the four
pair of movabletrucks placed upon said girders,
corners of each wall and connecting to four driv
said trucks being adapted for being laterally
ing devices, fastened to one of the vertical sup
guided by said girders while moving on said
girders, said lateral buckstays having rigid up 60 porting towers and by two additional sets of screw
spindles, attached to the spreading trucks and
ward extensions fastened to said trucks in
extending from them to driving devices located
laterally ?xed positions, adapted to convert said
in positions above said driving devices fastened
buckstays into ?xed beams having higher
to said supporting towers, all said driving devices
resistance to de?ection.
5. A battery of coking ovens having a, plurality 65 being connected with each other and centralized
into one motor drive, located in one of said tow
of internally heated coking walls, which are rela
era.
tively movable with‘ respect to each other and
9, In a battery, of brick-coking ovens having
having a plurality of coking chambers sand
hollow internally heated coking walls, which are
wiched between said coking walls, in which each
of the two coking walls occupying an end-position 74 relatively movable with respect to each other,
each of said walls being surrounded by an indi
in the battery is equipped with an insulating wall
vidual iron frame, and having carbonizing cham
and an iron retaining grid, all said walls and the
bers, which are sandwiched between said walls
two grids being supported in their elevation on
and which are individually sealed by a continuous
movable trucks resting on top girders all coking
ring of sealing means which completely surrounds
and insulating walls and grids being ?xed in their
atlases
13
the outer narrow faces of the chamber, and in
which said frames as well as :said sealing ‘means
are'exposed to and accessible from the atmos
phere, and in which said sealing means comprise
a removable charging and a removable discharg
ovens, comprising a plurality of internally heated
brick-built coking walls, which are relatively
movable with respect to each other, and compris
ing a plurality of chambers sandwiched between '
said walls, each of said walls being accessible
ing door, means for varying the distance between
from the atmosphere on its outer narrow non
adjacent walls, said means consisting of screw , coking faces, gauging means responsive to the
spindles acting upon the iron frames surrounding
wall, pressure in said chambers, means actuated
the walls and of additional spindles acting upon
by said gauging means for causing said walls to
10
upper extensions of said frames, ,all' said screw
recede from each other during coking operation
spindles having a central drive, said drive being
upon increase of said coal pressure, and sealing
operable by an automatic coal-pressure limitin
means for keeping each of said chambers sealed
controlling device or by hand,‘
.
'
against the atmosphere during the recession of
10. In a battery of brick-built coking ovens
the walls, said sealing means being accessible
having hollow internally heated coking walls 15 from the atmosphere.
'
which are relatively movable with respect to each
i 14. A battery of coking ovens having a plurality
other, each or" said walls'being surrounded by an
of internally heated cokingwalls, which are mov- I
individual iron frame, means for varying the dis
able with respect to each other and having a plu~
tance between adjacent walls, said-means con
rality of coking chambers interposed between
sisting of screw spindles acting upon the iron 20 said walls, in which the position of each wall is
frames surrounding said walls, the connecting
controlled by screw spindles passing laterally of
link between said wall frame and each of said
said walls and by screw nuts attached tosaid
screw spindles comprising a threaded nut fas
walls and surrounding said spindles, said spindles
tened to said frame by means of a ?exible-cop'
having screw threads of rising pitches adapted
nection, adapted to permit irregularities in the
to spread the walls apart and to movethem to
shape and the heat expansion of the frames.
gether'again, the drives of said spindles, being
‘ 11. In a battery of coking ovens having inter
nally heated walls, which are relatively movable
with respect ‘to each other, side sealing devices,
means adapted to press said side‘ sealing devices
upon the heated walls in gas-tight connection,
top sealingidevices adapted to permit unobstruch
ed cleaning of said side sealing devices and com
prising flexible continuous water troughs sur
rounding the upper ends of the side sealing de
vices in gas-tight contact with said side-sealing
devices, and meansforming- gas-tight connections '
between said top sealing, devices and the heate
walls.
7
'
centralized into one common source of power,
an automatic device for maximum pressure con_
trol being installed into cooperative position with
one or more of said screw spindles, said device
being'adapted to start the motor and widen all
coking chambers uniformly during the coking op
eration thus preventing accumulation‘ of exces- V
sive coal-pressure in the chambers.
15. In a battery of brick-coking ovens having
hollow internally heated coking walls, which are
relatively movable with respect to each other,
each of said walls being surrounded by an indi
- vidual iron frame, and having carbonizing cham
12. In a baking oven comprising internally Gil bers, which are sandwiched between said walls.
heated walls, which are relatively movable with
and which are individually sealed by a continu
respect to each other and a coking chamber sand_
ous ring of sealing means which completely sur
wichedbetween said walls and means for spread
rounds the outer narrow faces of the chamber,
ing said walls apart, ?exible side sealing devices
and in which said frames as well as said sealing
and ?exible water-containing sealing troughs for 45 means are exposed to and accessible from the
I the top charging opening, comprising at their
atmosphere, and in which said sealing means
. extreme ends ?exible semi-circular return bends, ‘
comprise a removable charging anda removable
discharging door, means for varying the distance
between adjacent walls, said means consisting of
said side sealing devices extending upwardly to
the elevation‘ of the top-edges ‘of said return
bends, said return bends being of such ample ra 5'9 screw spindles acting upon the iron frame sur
dius that they surround said side sealing devices, ' rounding the walls, all said screw spindles having
and an elastic packing body, inserted laterally
a central drive, said drive being operable by an
between the ?exible return bends and the upper
automatic coal-pressure limiting controlling de_
ends of the ?exible side seals.
‘
vice or by hand.
13. A battery of narrow, high-speed coking 55 .
>
FRANZ PUE‘NING.
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