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Dec. 31, 1946.‘
2,413,343
c. A. TOCE ET AL
MECHANICAL VAPOR FUEL INJECTOR FOR ENGINES
Filed Feb. 22, 1943
6 Sheets-Sheet 2
C/MRL'ES A. TocE
V/c ro/e Jf T005.
INVENTOR?
BY
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ATTnRNEY-S.
Dec. 31, 1946.
¢. A. TOCE ETAL '
2,413,343
MECHANICAL VAPOR FUEL INJECTOR FOR ENGINES
Filed Feb. 22,‘ 1943
6 Sheets-Sheet 3
#4215 ATOCE
heron I T005
DW- 31, 1945-
c. A. TOCE EI'AL
2,413,343
MECHANICAL VAPOR FUEL INJECTOR FOR ENGINES
Filed Feb. 22, 1943
6 Sheets-Sheet 4
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Dec. 31, 1946.
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2,413,343
c. A. Tool: ETAL
MECHANICAL VAPOR FUEL INJECTOR FOR ENGINES
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Filed Feb. 22, 1943
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31, 1946.
c. A. TocE ETAL
2,413,343
MECHANICAL VAPOR FUEL INJECTOR FOR ENGINES
Filed Feb. 22, 1945
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, VICTOR ITOCE
INVENTURS
$411L6.QQM1€/
ATTOR/WE y 5
‘ 2,413,343 '
UITED STATES PATENT OFFIC
2,413,343
'
MECHANICAL VAPOR FUEL INJECTOR
FOR ENGINES
Charles A. Toce and Victor J. Toce, Houston, Tex”
assignors to Federal Aircraft Engine Corpora
tion, Harris County, Tex" a corporation oi’
Texas
Application February 22, 1943, Serial No. 476,724
'18 Claims. _(c1. 123-10)
The invention relates to a mechanical vapor
injector for engines wherein it is desired to in
ject a rich charge of vapor and air into the com
bustion chamber.
,
vide a mechanical vapor fuel injector for engines
wherein there is a compression unit for each cyl
inder.
»
.
-
Another object of the invention is to provide a‘
The invention relates generally to the type of 5 mechanical vapor fuel injector which is powered
engine disclosed in our priorpatents, Nos. 2,278,
from the engine in order to provide a mixture of
038, issued on March 31, 1942, on Two-cycle en
fuel and air for supercharging the engine.
glue, and No. 2,295,978, issued on September 15,
Still another object of the invention is to pro
1942, on Two-cycle engine.
'
The engines of our prior patents are of a type
wherein air is pre-compressed and forced into
the combustion chamber so as to effect the scav
, enging action thereof and to be compressed for
the next combustion.
With an engine of this
vide a sleeve liner for mechanical vapor fuel in- v
Jector units wherein the air and fuel to be com
pressed are trapped in the compression cylinder
for injection into the engine.
Other and further objects of the’ invention will
be readily apparent when the following descrip
type a great deal of economy can be had because 15 tion is considered in connection with the accom
of the fact that no fuel is wasted in event some
panying drawings wherein:
_
I
'
of the scavenging air discharged from the ex
Fig.
1
is
a
transverse
vertical
sectional
view
of
haust port.
'
the vaporizer housing and compressor unit, taken
The present injector has been developed with
on the line I-i of Fig. 3, as applied to an engine.
a view of atomizing thefuel in a proportioned 20 Fig. 2 is an end elevation of the compressor ’
amount of air so that rather than liquid fuel be
unit with the vaporizer housing removed.
ing injected into the compressed air in the com
Fig. 3 is. a top plan view in part section look
bustion chamber, the present invention contem
ing down on the compressor unit vaporizer hous
plates that a rich mix of air and fuel will be in
ing and carburetor of Fig. 1.
'
>
->
.iected into the air being compressed in the com 25 Fig. 4 is a' section taken onthe line 4-4 of
mustion chamber.
Fig. 1.
‘
One of the advantages of the present invention
Fig. 5 is a broken sectional view of'the air in- is that the fuel and air are already mixed in va
let-for the vaporizer housing.
.
per form at the time the injection to the com
Fig. 6 is a top plan view looking down on a mul-y
bustion chamber occurs.
.
Another advantage of the present invention is
that by the injection of the vapor fuel into the
combustion chamber the volume of the injec
tion serves to increase the pressure and capacity
so tiple cylinder compressor unit.
Fig. '7 is a section taken on the line 'i-‘I of
Fig. 6.
Fig. 8 is a vertical sectional view taken on the
line 8-8 of Fig. 7 to illustrate the mainifold for
of the combustion chamber, or, in other words, to 35 the compressor units.
jsupercharge the combustion chamber after the
Fig. 9 is a section taken on the line‘9-9 of Fig.
maximum amount of ‘air has been introduced
8 to illustrate the arrangement of the multiple
thereinto by the pre-compression mechanism;
cylinders.
'
It is one of the objects of the present inven
Fig. 10 is a vertical section taken on the line
tion to provide a mechanical compressor unit for 40 l0—l0 of Fig. 11 and illustrating a v arrange
internal combustion engines.
,
Another object of the invention is 'to provide
a mechanical vapor fuel injector wherein the
fuel and air in a rich mix are introduced into
‘ment of the compressor cylinders.
'
Fig. 11 is a vertical section taken on the line
ii—il of Fig. 10 and'illustrating the manifold
and cranking arrangement for the compressor
the combustion chamber.
45 units.
I
Still another object of the invention is to pro
Fig. 12 is a vertical sectional view of a radial
vide a mechanical vapor fuel injector wherein the
arrangement of three compressor cylinders.
inlet of air e?ects the opening of the fuel inlet to.
Fig. 13 is a vertical sectional view thru the
facilitate the mixture of fuel and air.
center of the construction of Fig. 12.
Still another object’ of the invention is to pro 50 Fig. 14 is a sectional line thru' the head of the
vide a compression unit for mechanical vapor
cylinder as seen along the line of "-44 of Fig.
fuel injectors wherein a ported liner is provided
12.
to admit the fuel and air mix to the compres
There are many advantages of fuel injection
sion chamber.
in
the operation of an internal combustion en
Still another object of the invention is to pro»
55 gine over the conventional carburetion system
2,413,343
directly into the combustion chamber of a four
cycle engine, an incomplete atomization or.
breaking up of the fuel usually results so as to
seat‘ 2| normally covered by the valve 22.
_
seems obvious therefore that the air and the fuel
will be admitted simultaneously upon a su?lcient
reduction of pressure in the mixing chamber 24,
due to the suction of the piston 8. A. suitable
obtain the conventional 16_-1 air-gas ratio for
combustion.
4
sage 21, leading from the carburetor 28 which is
best seen in Fig. 3. This needle valve controls the
inlet passage.“ which leads to the fuel inlet .30
which it will'be particularly noted, opens into the
of fuel induction. When liquid fuel is ‘injected
The same is true of two-cycle en
gine operation, The present invention therefore
directs itself to the mechanical vaporization of
the fuel in air before it is injected into the com
bustion chamber. Such a mix, however, must be 10 chamber 3| is provided in the top of the vaporizer
housing to ‘stop the upward movement of the
accurately controlled and introduced at the
valve 22.
proper time so as to super-charge the compressed
air in the combustion chamber if e?lcient opera
tion is to be had.
It has been found in actual practice that where‘
the fuel is not properly injected, that a two-cy
cle engine may begin to operate on a four-cycle
basis until the proper air-gas ratio is readjusted.
' With two-cycle engines, however, the injection
of liquid fuel-results in an incomplete combus
mixing chamber 24 so that a charge of fuel and
air will alternately be drawn into the mixing
chamber intermittently. The rush of air past
the seat 2i will tend to take up the fuel from the
inlet 30, the turbulence in the mixing chamber
20 24, the arrangement of the manifold l6 and the
ports I5 will all serve to cause a mixing of the fuel
and air. It is intended for purposes of'illustra
tion that with a two-cycle internal combustion
engine of the type disclosed in our prior pat
tion so that it has been found that the fuel must
be introduced in vaporous form so as to obtain
complete dilution and a perfect 16-1 gas ratio
while obtaining a rapid expansion of the mixture
in the combustion chamber immediately upon the
mixture entering the chamber.
The present arrangement contemplates that a
ents. that the air-gas ratio will be approximately
5—1 in the mix which is forced thru the valve I3.
In other words, a very rich mixture will be pro
vided. This mixture in ‘turn is forced thru the
valve I3 and into the combustion chamber of the
mechanical system of fuel injection direct into '
the combustion chamber obtains complete ex
pansion of the rich mixture on entering the com
'
In operation as the piston reciprocates, alter
nate suction and compression will occur in the
bustion chamber, the amount'of fuel being used
internal combustion engine where the air has
been previously introduced after having been pre
can be more accurately controlled, the speed'of
injection can be obtained, which is necessary for
the particular engine, and a uniform fuel charge
Particular attention is drawn to this phase of
the mechanism because in the ?rst place the air
30
can be injected while tending to super-charge the
compressed by the engine operation.
is precompressed and introduced into the com
bustion chamber of the engine as shown in our
previously mentioned patents and is then addi
In Fig. 1 an engine body 2 has been illustrated
and attached to this is a compressor unit 3 which , tionally compressed by_the operation of the pis
ton so that the maximum compression is obtained
has a base. portion 4 affixed to theengine block.
A power shaft 5 extends from the engine and car 40 by this operation. The vaporized fuel is then in
troduced into the compression chamber in the
ries a crank 6 for operating the connecting rod 1.
same manner as the fuel was inducted in the
This rod in turn actuates a compressor piston 8
combustion cylinder of our previous patents. This
which is arranged to reciprocate in the liner 9
results in the addition of a rich mixture of vapor
disposed in the compressor cylinder in. It seems
obvious that rotation of the shaft 5 causes re 45 ized fuel. As an illustration, if the combustion
chamber has a capacity of ?fty cubic inches and .
‘ciprocation of the piston. An outlet ll is‘con
the compression unit has a capacity of five cubic
trolled by a check valve i3 which opens upon the
inches, then it can be said that the expansion
accumulation of a predetermined pressure in the
chamber has been supercharged 10% by the in
compression chamber i4 in the top of the hous
Jection of the vaporous fuel. In other words, the
ing I0.
,
- '
_
50
combustion chamber has taken all of its charge
As the piston 8 moves down a suction will be
of air and is then enriched by the introduction
created in the chamber l4 and a=series of ports
of the vaporous-fuel. The fuel and air are ?rst
15 in the liner 9 permit the entry of vapor from
proportioned so as to give an inJection mixture
the manifold Hi. This manifold may be in the
of 5-1 which is in turn proportioned so as to
form of an annular recess such as H, as best seen
give a 16-1 explosive mixture in the combustion
in Figs. 3 and 4 and extend all or part way around
chamber. the liner 9. It seems clear that as the piston
It seems obvious that the parts are capable of
moves down and uncovers the ports l5, that a
adjustment and the rate of rotation of the shaft
charge of vapor will be drawn into the compres
sion chamber and that on the upstroke of the 60 5 may be such as to provide an injection at the
engine.
piston, this charge of vapor will be compressed '
and forced .thru the valve iii.
proper time for the engine cylinder.
Figs. 6 to 9 inclusive show the same construc
' tion as previously described for a single compres
In order to provide a suitable vapor or mix
sion cylinder as applied to a multiple cylinder‘
ture for the compressor unit, a vaporizer housing I
compression unit where the cylinders are ar
20 is shown as connected to the compressor unit.
This vaporizer 20 includes a housing which'car
ries a valve seat 2i for receiving a valve 22, which
valve controls the air inlet 23. This valve is ar
ranged to open. upon the occurrence of a prede
termined reduction in pressure in the mixing
chamber 24 in the vaporizer unit. A plunger 25
may be provided to open this valve as desired.
A view of this construction is also seen in Fig. 5.
In order‘ to control the inlet of fuel an adjust
ment needle 26 is arranged in the fuel inlet pas
ranged in line. About the onlyv distinction is the
mixing manifold 35 seen in top elevation in Fig. '
6, in horizontal section in Fig. 9 and in vertical
section in Fig. 8. This manifold has the outlets
36 and 31 which lead to the two cylinders 38 and
39 of this multiple compression unit. The two
pistons in these cylinders will be driven by the
shaft 5 the same as disclosed in‘Fig. 1. In this
form, however, the control or butter?y valves 40
and 4i are provided to control the flow of vapor
2,418,348
5
into each of the compression units. so that each
cylinder can be adjusted if desired.
stroke of said piston, cushion stop means in said
chamber to receive said valve, 'a fuel inlet to. be
.
Figs. 10 and 11 show the compression unit ar
uncovered upon opening of said inlet valve so as
to draw in a charge of fuel and air.
5. , _An iniector for combustion engines compris
ing a reciprocating piston, a check valve to close
ranged with a V type of crank case 42 with the
compressor housings t3 and 44 arranged thereon
in a V con?guration. In this arrangement the
manifold 45 can be utilized to feedv both‘ of the
against inlet on the suction stroke of said piston,
cylinders from the single passage 46 which can
be similar to the dual construction of Fig. 6.
an inlet valve to open on the suction stroke of
said piston, cushion stop means in said chamber
A sleeve type of valve 50 has been provided 10 to receive said valve, a fuel inlet to be uncovered
in Fig. 10 and this valve is arranged for reciproca
upon opening of said inlet valve to as to draw
tion by a cam SI and a cam follower 52 which
in a. charge of fuel and air, said check valve open
may be operated from the crank shaft 5. This
ing in response to compression of the fuel and air
sleeve valve is held, in normally open position by
mixture by said piston so as to discharge such
a spring 53 arranged against the ported liner 15
mix to the combustion chamber of the engine.
54. The right hand compressor of Fig. 10 shows
6. In combination with a two-cycle internal
combustion engine, an ‘injector for inlet, mixing
the liner valve as open so as to admit the vapor
on the suction stroke; whereas, the left hand
cylinder shows the liner as closing the ports l5
so as to effect a greater compression so as to con
?ne the charge being compressed. The control
and compression of fuel and air which comprises 1
a, reciprocating piston, a combination air and
20 fuel inlet valve to open upon suction by said pis
of the manifold d6 may be had by a valve 56 best
'
seen in Fig. ll.
I
Figs. 12, 13 and 14 show the same arrangement
of structure as illustrated in Figs. 10 and 11 ex 25
cept that the-compressor units are arranged in
radial position so that at least three compression
units can be operated from a single shaft. These
ton, said inlet being proportioned to simultane~
ously‘ admit air and fuel by the opening of said
valve to provide substantially a five to one mix
of air and fuel, and a check valve between said
piston and the combustion engine so as to inject
such mix into the engine.
7
7. In combination with a two-cycle internal
combustion engine, an injector for inlet, mixing
compression units may serve to feed individual or
compression of fuel and air which comprises
multiple cylinders as the design may require. In 30 and
a reciprocating piston, a combination air and
this arrangement the inlet manifold til may be
fuel inlet valve to open upon suction by said pis
arranged as seen in Fig. 13 and controlled by
ton,
said inlet being proportioned to simultane
the valve 56.
.
‘ously admit air and fuel by the opening of said
Broadly the invention contemplates a mechani
valve to provide substantially a five to one mix
cal vapor fuel injector for, engines which. may 35 of air and fuel, and a. check valve between said
take different forms, depending upon the type
and size of engine to which it is to be connected.
What is claimed is:
1. A mechanical vapor fuel injector for two- -
. piston and the combustion engine so as to inject
such mix into the engine, said piston being timed
for operation from the engine.
8. In combination with a two-cycle internal
combustion engine, an injector for inlet, mixing
cycle combustion engines which comprises, a va 40
porizer housing, means for the inlet of fuel and
and compression of fuel and air which‘ comprises
air thereto upon a reduction in pressure therein
a reciprocating piston, a. combination air and
- below a predetermined value, a compressor unit
to which said housing is attached, a reciprocat
ing piston in said unit, a check valve in said compression unit to close and cause a suction in the
vaporizer housing on the downstroke of said pis
ton and to open and permit exhaust of a com
fuel inlet valve to open upon suction by said pis
ton, said inlet being proportioned to simultane
ously admit air and fuel by the opening of said '
valve to provide substantially a five to one mix
of air and fuel, and a check valve between said
piston and the combustion engine so as to inject
pressed mixture of vaporized fuel and air from ' such mix into the engine, said piston being timed
the unit, and means to set said inlets so that fuel
for operation from the engine and the volume of
and air will be in a ratio approximating one to 50 the mix being such that-substantially a ratio of
?ve upon the compression stroke of said piston.
sixteen to one of air and fuel occurs in the en- ‘
2. In a mechanical vapor fuel injector a vapor
gine.
izer housing, a mixing chamber therein, an air
‘9. In combination with a two-cycle internal
inlet adjacent the base of said housing and lead
combustion
engine, an injector for inlet, mixing
ing into said chamber, a 'valve normally closing 55 and compression of fuel and air which comprises
said inlet, cushion stop means in said chamber
a reciprocating piston, a combination air and fuel
to receive said valve, a seat in said housing for
inlet valve to open upon suction by said piston,
said valve, and a. fuel inlet entering at said seat
said inlet being proportioned'to simultaneously
so as to be closed upon closing of‘ said valve.
admit air and‘ fuel by the opening of said valve
60
3. In a mechanical vapor fuel injector a vapor
to provide substantially a, five to one mix of air
izer housing, a mixing chamber therein, an air
and
fuel, and a check valve between said piston
inlet adjacent the base of said housing and lead
and the combustion engine so as to inject such
ing into said chamber, a valve normally closing
mix into the engine so that the addition of the '
said inlet, cushion stop means in said chamber
mix into the engine tends to supercharge the
to receive said valve, :3. seat in said housing for 65 engine.
_
said valve, 9. fuel inlet entering at said seat so as
10. A mechanical vapor fuel injector for two
to be closed upon closing of said valve, and means
cycle combustion engines which comprises, a va
to alternately apply suction and compression to
porizer housing, means for the inlet of fuel and
said chamber to e?ect inlet, mixing and com
70 air thereto upon a reduction in pressure therein
pression of the fuel and air.
below a predetermined value, a compressor unit
4. An injector for combustion ‘engines com
to which said housing is attached, a reciprocating
prising a reciprocating piston, a. check valve to
piston in said unit and a check valve to close
close against the inlet on the suction stroke of
and cause a suction in the vaporizer housing on
said piston, an inlet valve to open on the suction 75 the downstroke of said piston and to open and
v$2,413,134.13
permit exhaust of a compressed mixture of va
porized fuel and air in a ratio approximating one
to five upon the compression ‘stroke of said piston,
said unit having an internally recessed area
therein leading to said housing and a ported liner
in said cylinder for entry of the mixture from
the vaporizer.
der, a ported liner to admit vapor fuel into the
cylinder upon suction created by said piston,
means to simultaneously admit ‘fuel and air to
saidrportswherein the fuel inlet is uncovered as
the air enters, said housing having a plurality of
cylinders therein.
‘ 14. A‘ vapor fuel mechanical injector of the -
_
character described comprising a housing, a cyl
11. A mechanical vapor fuel injector for two
inder therein, a reciprocating piston in said cyl
cycle/combustion engines which comprises, a va
pcrizer housing, means for the inlet of fuel and 10 linder, a ported liner to admit vapor fuel into the
cylinder upon suction created by said piston,
air thereto upon a reduction in pressure therein
means to simultaneously admit fuel and air to
below a predetermined value, a compressor unit _
to which said housing is attached, a reciprocat
said ports wherein the fuel inlet is uncovered as
the air enters, said housing having a plurality
ing piston in said unit and a check valve to close
and cause a suction in the vaporizer housing on 16 of cylinders therein arranged in line.
15. A vapor fuel mechanical injector of the
the downstroke of said piston and to open and ‘
character described comprising a housing, a cyl
permit exhaust of a compressed mixture of va
inder therein, a reciprocating piston in said cyl
porized fuel and air in a ratio approximating one
inder, a ported liner to admit vapor fuel into the
to five upon the compression stroke of said piston,
upon suction created by said piston,
said unit having an internally recessed area there 20 cylinder
means to simultaneously admit fuel and air to
in leading to said housing and a ported liner in
said ports wherein the fuel inlet is uncovered as
said cylinder for entry of the mixture from- the
the air enters, said housing having a plurality '
vaporizer, said unit having a plurality of said
_of cylinders therein arranged in V formation.
pistons, one for each engine cylinderr 16. A vapor‘ fuel mechanical injector of the
_ 12. A vapor fuel mechanical ‘injector of the d
character described comprising a housing, 9. cyl
character described comprising a housing, a cyli
inder therein, a reciprocating piston in said cyl
inder therein, a reciprocating piston in said cylin
inder, a ported liner to admit vapor fuel into the
to admit vapor fuel-into the '
der, a ported liner,
’
cylinder ‘upon suction created by said piston,
cylinder upon suction created by said piston,
means to simultaneously admit fuel and air to
‘means to simultaneously admit fuel and ‘air to 80 said ports wherein the fuel inlet is uncovered as
said ports wherein the fuel inlet is uncovered as v the air enters, said housing having a plurality of
the air enters.
I
,
-
I
13.,A vapor fuel mechanical‘ injector-of the
character described comprising a housing, a cyl
, inder therein, a reciprocating piston in said cylin
cylinders therein arranged radially.
_ CHARLES A. TOCE.
VICTOR. J. TOCE.
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