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Dec. 31, 1946.
R. c. SCHMIDT
2,413,385
ELECTRON DISGH'KRGE DEVICE OF THE MAGNETRON TYPE
Filed March 23, 1945
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2,413,385
Patented Dec. 31, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2.413585
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE OF THE
MAGNETRON TYPE
Robert C. Schmidt, Newton, Masa. assignor to
Raytheon Manufacturing Company, Newton,
Masa, a corporation of Delaware
Application March 23, 1945, Serial No. 584,364
10 Claims. (Cl. 315—-39)
1
opposite end of the cathode. One of said con
This invention relates to electron-discharge de
ductors, the conductor ID, for example, may be
vices, such as magnetrons, for example, and more
connected to said outer conductive cathode sleeve
particularly to tuning means for such devices.
ll, the other conductor It being insulated from
One of the objects of the present invention is
to provide novel and eilicient means for varying C11 said sleeve. The cathode I2 is preferably sup
ported by a cathode and heater-wire lead-in con
the frequency of the oscillations generated by the
ductor 20, welded to the end of said conductor ii.
device.
A second lead-in conductor 22 has its inner end
Another object of the present invention is to
welded to the free end of said conductor l8.
provide novel and reliable electronic tuning
10 Said lead-in conductors 20 and 22, are connected
means for such a device.
to a suitable source of voltage, not shown, and are
These objects and such other aims and objects
of the present invention as may hereinafter ap
sealed
in
well-known
conventional
manner
through glass seals 24 and 26 at the outer ends of
conductive pipes 28 and 30. (See Fig. 1.) Light
description taken in connection with the accom
conductive shields 32, 34, herein conveniently in
panying drawings of embodiments of the inven
tegral with said cathode sleeve II, are provided at
tion herein presented for illustrative purposes.
opposite ends of the latter to prevent electron
In the drawings
beams from being projected outwardly toward
Fig. 1 is a vertical section taken substantially
said end caps l and 6.
through the center of an electron-discharge de
If such a device he placed between suitable pole
vice comprising one illustrative embodiment of 20
pieces 38 and 38 to produce a longitudinal mag
the invention;
netic ?eld within the device and said device be
Fig. 2 is a section on line 2-2 of Fig. 1 showing
energized, oscillations will be generated which
a top plan view of a concentric line through
may be led out of the device by a coupling loop Ill
which oscillations are led out of the device and of
a stub line comprising the tuning means, certain 25 (see Fig. 2), extending into the space between
two of said anode arms lli. One end of said cou
parts being broken away to show the interior con
pling loop “I is connected to the inner end of a
struction; and
conductive pipe 42 hermetically sealed through
Fig. 3 is a sectional elevation of another illus
the wall of said cylinder 2, substantially midway
trative embodiment of the tuning means.
In the drawings the invention is illustratively 30 between the ends’of the latter, and its other end
is connected to a conductor 44 which extends
shown in its application to an electron-discharge
through said pipe 42 and is sealed through a glass
device of the magnetron type, comprising an
seal 46 mounted at the outer end of said pipe 42.
envelope including a cylinder 2 closed at its ends
Each pair of anode arms It forms with the
by caps I and B, respectively, said caps being
portion of the projection 8 between them an oscil
soldered to the ends of said cylinder 2 to form
lating cavity or cavity resonator. A capacitance
an hermetically sealed enclosure. Said cylinder
exists between the cathode I2 and the end faces
2 and caps I and i may be made of copper or
of said anode arms l0 and also between the side
other suitable electrically conductive material.
walls of each resonator cavity 48. The conduc
A central annular projection B is formed upon
the inner surface of said cylinder, to which are 40 tive path around each cavity is afforded by the
side walls thereof and the portion of said pro
soldered a plurality of suitably spaced, radially
,iection 8 between them, constitutes an induct
disposed plates or arms l0. Said arms In, cylin
once. The anode structure is therefore so de
der 2 and caps 4 and 6 constitute the anode struc
signed and spaced relatively to the cathode that
ture of the device, and the inner ends of said arms
said inductances and capacitances constitute
ill form anode faces for receiving electrons from
tuned circuits. It is desired that these circuits
a cathode l2 supported centrally of said anode
shall be resonant at a de?nite, predetermined fre
faces. Said plates may conveniently be stamped
quency at which the device is to operate.
from a plate of highly conductive copper.
I shall now describe one illustrative embodi
Said cathode I2 is preferably of the indirectly
heated. thermionic type provided with an outer 50 ment of means in accordance with my invention
for varying the frequency of the oscillations gen
electrically conductive sleeve l4 coated with elec
erated by the device. A coupling loop 50 extends
tron-emissive oxides or other electron-emissive
into one of the cavity resonators 48. One end
material. It contains a heater-wire of conven
of said loop is connected to the inner end of an
tional construction, not shown, of which the end
f?t pear will be best understood from the following
conductors l8 and I8 project centrally from the
outer tubular conductor 52 having a reduced end
auasea
3
4
£3 sealed through the wall of the envelope, and
upon the cathode 62. an electron ?ow will radiate
from the latter’s electron-emissive surface ll
across to the surrounding inner wall of the tubu
lar member conductor 52. Such an electron ?ow
constitutes a, relatively low impedance which
blocks the progress of the oscillations along said
tubular conductor and thus limits the length of
the concentric conductive line.
Referring more particularly to Fig. 2, means
the outer end of said loop‘ is connected to the
inner end 01' a conductor I‘ extending axially
of said tubular member. The conductor 5' to
gether with members capacitatively coupled
thereto and forming a high frequency extension
of said conductor 58, as described below, con
stitute with the tubular member 52, a coaxial
line. The outer section El of the central con
ductor of the coaxial line is sealed through a 10 are therein diagrammatically illustrated for mov
glass seal 51 carried in said tubular member 52.
ing the contacts 82 and 94 alOl'ig the resistances
Said coaxial line is closed on’ by 9. Partition 68
88 and 88, respectively, said means herein illus
at its outer end, so that it forms a stub line.
tratively comprising a handle 98 on an insulating
Said central conductor has incorporated therein
bar ill attached to the two conductors 82 and
electron-emissive means, said means herein con 15 84. Assuming that the contacts 92 and 84 are
sisting of two tubular cathodes comprising con
at the extreme left end (viewing Fig. 2) of their
ductive sleeves 80 and 82. The sleeve 82 is in
respective resistances 8i and 88, if said bar 88
sulated from the end of conductor 50 and from
be moved to the right (viewing Fig. 2), more and
a central hollow conductor 85 by insulating rings
more of the resistance 88 will be cut out of the
84 of glass or other suitable insulating material. 20 energizing circuit of the cathode 60 and more
The sleeve 62 is also insulated from the con
and more of the resistance 85 'will be thrown into
ductors 65 and 5| by similar rings 84. The ca
the energizing circuit of the cathode B2. The
pacities which exist through the rings 84 form
electron flow from the cathode B0 to the tubular
low impedances for the high frequency currents
conductor 52 will thus gradually increase while
and thus cause the members 56, 62, 65, B0 and Ii 25 the electron ?ow from the cathode 62 to said
to act as the center conductor of the coaxial line.
tubular conductor will gradually decrease, until,
The outer surface of each cathode sleeve may be
when the contact 98 reaches the right end of re~
provided with a coating 58 of electron-emissive
sistance 86 (view Fig. 2), and the contact 94
material, such as the oxides of alkaline-earth
reaches the right end of the resistance 88. the
metals. Preferably said coating will be in the 30 electron ?ow from the cathode 60 will be at its
form of a band encircling each of said sleeves Bil,
maximum and the electron flow from the cathode
62. Herein, the cathodes are of the indirectly
62 will be at its minimum. Displacement of said
heated. thermionic type, heaters 88 and ‘I0 being
contacts 92 and 94 from the right ends respec
connected in series by conductors ‘l2 and ‘I4 with
tively to the left ends of said resistances 86 and 88
a battery 16. Energy is supplied to the two cath 35 respectively will gradually decrease the electron
odes from a potential divider 18, one negative pole
?ow from the cathode 60 from its maximum to
of which being connected to said cathode sleeve
its minimum and gradually increase the electron
52 by conductor 82 through a resistance 88, the
flow from the cathode 62 from its minimum to
other negative pole being connected to said cath
its maximum. It is my present understanding
ode sleeve 60 by conductor 84, through resistance 40 of the operation of my invention that as. by the
88, the positive poles being connected by con
adjustment of said contacts 92 and 8| the elec
ductor 90 to said tubular conductor 52 acting as
an anode. Contacts 92 and 94 engage resistances
86 and 88. respectively, and serve to vary the
voltage as will be hereinafter more fully ex 45
plained.
The coaxial line described above constitutes
a reactance coupled to the oscillating circuit of
the electron~discharge device by said coupling
loop 50. Herein, when the cathode sleeves ill and
B2 are energized, the maximum length of said
coaxial line terminates at a: (see Fig. 2) and the
minimum length terminates at 1/, the distance d
between the points a: and 1/ being equal to
that is to say, to one-quarter of a 'wave length
when n is equal to one.
tron emission from one cathode is caused to pre
dominate more and more over the electron emis
sion from the other cathode, the coaxial line is
lengthened or shortened according as the adjust
ment is such as to cause the predominating elec
tron emission to come from the cathode ill or
from the cathode 62. It will thus be seen that
the adjustment described furnishes an eil’ective
50 and simple means for shifting the location of the
terminating impedance produced by the electron
flow from the line a: to the line 11 and vice versa,
thus to vary the length of the coaxial line and
correspondingly to vary the frequencies of the
55 oscillations generated by the device throughout
the adjustment range of said coaxial line.
In the illustrative embodiment of the invention
shown in Fig. 3, a tubular conductor i?ll is her
metically secured in the wall I02 of a magnetron
In accordance with my understanding of the 60 which may and preferably will'be identical with
operation of my invention, the oscillations gen
the one illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2. A central
erated in the device generate a standing wave
conductor IIM extends axially of said tubular
in the tubular conductor 52 and a reactive im
conductor Ill and an extension I 05 thereof is
pedance is re?ected back into the tube which may
sealed through a glass seal "l6 closing the other
be either inductive or capacitive, dependent upon
end of said tubular conductor. The other end
the length of the conductive line, and it is by
oi’ said conductor IM terminates in a. loop I08
varying the magnitude of the inductive or ca
located in one of the cavity resonators I III of said
pacitive impedance by varying the length of the
magnetron, the free end of said loop I" being
coaxial line, that the tuning of the device is ef
connected to the inner end of said tubular con
fected.
-
When voltage is impressed upon the cathode
Gil, an electron ?ow will radiate outwardly from
the electron-emissive coating 88 encircling said
cathode to the inner wall of said tubular con
70 ductor Hill, said conductor Hi4, its extensions and
said tubular conductor lllil forming a concentric
line. A cathode H2 is mounted on said central
conductor I“ as an extension thereof and is in
sulated therefrom and from the hollow conductor
ductor 52. Similarly when voltage is impressed 75 III! by insulating rings I I3. Here likewise the
w.
5
‘6
capacities through the rings III cause the mem
bers Ill, “2 and III! to act as the central con
ductor of a coaxial line. Said cathode is pref
and said tubular conductor for impressing a volt
age therebetween, whereby said coaxial line may
be effectively terminated at said electron-emissive
erably of the indirectly-heated, thermionic type
provided with an outer, electrically conductive
means.
sleeve Ill coated with electron-emissive oxides
or other suitable electron-emisslve material, pref
erably in the form of a band lit encircling said
sleeve Ill. A heater coil III is contained within
said cathode “2, one end of said coil being con 10
nected by a conductor I20 with one pole of a
battery I22. the other end of said coil being‘
connected by a conductor I24 with the other pole
of said battery- Said conductors I20 and I24
are hermetically sealed through an insulating 15
button I28 of glass forming the outer end wall
of said central conductor I05. Said cathode is
energized by a battery I28 or other suitable source
of energy. The positive pole of said battery is
connected by a conductor Ilil to the wall of said 20
tubular conductor ltlil. The battery has con
nected across it a potentiometer I32. An ad
iustable contact I“ on said potentiometer is con
nected to the inner wall of said cathode M2
by a conductor I36 sealed through said insulat 25
ing button I26. Said tubular conductor I00 and
the inner assembly of the coaxial line are closed
oil’ by a partition I38 at the outer end so as to
form a stub line. The maximum length of said
coaxial line terminates at a: and the minimum 30
length terminates at u, the distance d between
the points a: and 1! being equal to
2. An electron-discharge device comprising a
cathode, an anode structure spaced from said
cathode and incorporating a cavity resonator. a
tubular conductor, a second conductor extending
axially through said tubular conductor and con
stituting a coaxial line therewith, said coaxial
line being coupled to said cavity resonator, elec
tron-emissive means mounted in said second con
ductor and connected thereto through means
having a low impedance to high frequency cur
rents, and means connected intermediate said
electron-emissive means and said tubular con
doctor for impressing a voltage therebetween,
whereby said coaxial line may be eil’ectiveiy ter
minated at said electron-emissive means.
3. An electron-discharge device comprising a
cathode, an anode structure spaced from said
cathode and incorporating a cavity resonator, a
tubular conductor, a second conductor extending
axially through said tubular conductor and con
stituting a coaxial line therewith, said coaxial
line being coupled to said cavity resonator, and
electron-emissive means mounted in said second
conductor and connected thereto through means
having a low impedance to high frequency cur
rents, and means connected intermediate said
electron-emissive means and said tubular con
ductor for impressing a variable voltage there
between, whereby said coaxial line may be eil’ec
tively terminated at said electron-emissive means.
4. An electron-discharge device comprising a
35
cathode, an anode structure spaced from said
which is one-quarter of a wave length when n is
cathode and incorporating a cavity resonator, a
equal to one. Said coaxial line constitutes a re
tubular conductor, a second conductor extend
actance coupled to the oscillatory circuit of the
ing axially through said tubular conductor and
electron-discharge device by said coupling loop
I08.
40 constituting a coaxial line therewith, said coaxial
line being coupled to one end of a loop in said
Referring to Fig. 3, it will be apparent that
cavity resonator, the other end of said loop being
movement of the adjustable contact ill to the
right in said Fig. 3 will gradually increase the
electron flow from the cathode to said tubular
conductor 52 while movement oi.’ said contact
along said resistance in the opposite direction will
gradually decrease the flow of electrons from said
cathode to said tubular conductor 52. These
changes in the magnitude of the electron ?ow
connected to said anode structure, electron-emis
sive means connected to said second conductor
through means having a low impedance to high
frequency currents, and means connected inter
mediate said electron-emissive means and said
tubular conductor for impressing a voltage
- T therebetween, whereby said coaxial line may be
effectively terminated at said electron-emissive
vary the re?ected inductive or capacitive imped
ance in the tubular conductor I00 and thus either 50 means.
5. An electron-discharge device comprising a
increase or decrease the length of the coaxial
cathode, an anode structure spaced from said
line according as said electron ?ow is increased
cathode and incorporating a cavity resonator. a
or decreased. This, in turn, through said cou
tubular conductor, a second conductor extending
pling loop I08 produces corresponding changes
axially through said tubular conductor and con
in the frequencies of the device.
stituting a coaxial line therewith, said coaxial
I am aware that the present invention can be
line being coupled to said cavity resonator, two
embodied in other specific forms without depart
cathodes spaced longitudinally of said conductor
ing from the spirit or essential attributes there
and connected thereto through means having a
of, and I therefore desire the present description
‘20 be considered in all respects as illustrative and 60 low impedance to high frequency currents, and
means intermediate said two cathodes, respec
tively, and said tubular conductors for impressing
a variable voltage therebetween, connected
whereby said coaxial line may be e?ectively ter
What is claimed is:
_ l‘. .ltn electron-discharge device comprising a 65 minated at either cathode.
6. An electron-discharge device comprising a
cathode, an anode structure spaced from said
cathode, an anode structure spaced from said
cathode and incorporating a cavity resonator, a
cathode and incorporating a cavity resonator, a
tubular conductor, a second conductor extending
axially through said tubular conductor and con
tubular conductor, a second conductor extending
axially through said tubular conductor and con
stituting a coaxial line therewith, said coaxial
stituting therewith a coaxial line coupled to said
line being coupled to said cavity resonator, elec
lot restrictive, reference being had to the ap
pended claims rather than to the aforesaid de
scription to indicate the scope of the invention.
tron-emissive means connected to said second
conductor through means having a low imped
ance to high frequency currents, and means con
cavity resonator, electron-emissive means con
nected to said second conductor through means
having a low impedance to high frequency cur
nected intermediate said electron-emissive means 75 rents, means connected intermediate said elec
7
2,418,885
8
tron-emissive means and said tubular conductor
line, and including means for varying relativeli
for impressing a voltage therebetween to create
to each other the voltages impressed between sak
an impedance across said coaxial line, and in
two cathodes respectively and said tubular con
cluding means for varying the eii’ectlve position
ductor to vary the eil'ective position of said im
of said impedance lengthwise of said tubular
pedance lengthwise oi’ said tubular conductor
conductor to vary the length of said coaxial line
and the frequency of the device.
and the frequencies of said device.
9. An electron-discharge device comprising a
7. An electron-discharge device comprising a
cathode, an anode structure spaced from said
cathode, an anode structure spaced from said
cathode and incorporating a cavity resonator, s
cathode and incorporating a cavity resonator, a 10 tubular conductor, a second conductor extending
tubular conductor, a second conductor extending
axially through said tubular conductor, said
axially through said tubular conductor, said
tubular conductor and said second conductor con
tubular conductor and said second conductor con
stituting a coaxial conductive line coupled to said
stituting a coaxial line coupled to said cavity
cavity resonator, a cathode mounted in said sec
resonator, a cathode connected to said second
ond conductor and connected thereto through
conductor through means having a low imped
means having a low impedance to high frequency
ance to high frequency currents, means con
currents, means connected intermediate said
nected intermediate said eiectron-emissive means
cathode and said tubular conductor for impress
and said tubular conductor for impressing a volt
ing a voltage therebetween to create an imped
age therebetween to create an impedance across
ance across said coaxial line. and including means
said coaxial line, and including means for vary
for varying the voltage impressed between said
ing the voltage impressed between said cathode
cathode and said tubular conductor to vary the
and said tubular conductor to vary the e?'ective
eitective position of said impedance and the fre
position of said impedance lengthwise of said
quency of the device.
tubular conductor to vary the length of said co
10. An electron-discharge device comprising a
axial line and the frequency 01' the device.
cathode, an anode structure spaced from said
8. An electron-discharge device comprising a
cathode and incorporating a, cavity resonator, a
cathode, an anode structure spaced from said
transmission line, including a pair of conductors,
cathode and incorporating a cavity resonator, a
coupled to said cavity resonator, one of said con
tubular conductor, a second conductor extending 30 ductors being provided with an electron-emissive
axially through said tubular conductor, said
portion, and means, connected intermediate said
tubular conductor and said second conductor con
electron-emissive portion and the other of said
stituting a coaxial line coupled to said cavity
conductors, for impressing a voltage therebe
resonator, two cathodes connected to said sec
tween, whereby a flow of electrons may be insti
ond conductor through means having a low im
tuted between said electron-emissive portion and
pedance to high frequency currents, means con
said last-named conductor to short circuit said
nected intermediate said cathodes and said tubu
transmission line.
lar conductor for impressing a voltage therebe
tween to create an impedance across said coaxial
ROBERT C. SCHMIDT.
Certi?cate of Correction
December 31, 1946.
Patent No. 2,413,385. '
ROBERT C. SCHMIDT
It is hereby certi?ed that errors appear in the grinted speci?cation of the above
numbered patent requiring correction as follows: olumn 6, line 61, claim 5, after
the word "means” insert connected; line 63, strike out “connected”; and that the said
Letters Patent should be read with these corrections therein that the same may con
form to the record of the case in the Patent O?ice.
Signed and sealed this 25th day of March, A. D. 1947.
[M]
LESLIE FRAZER,
First Assistant Omission” of Patents.
7
2,418,885
8
tron-emissive means and said tubular conductor
line, and including means for varying relativeli
for impressing a voltage therebetween to create
to each other the voltages impressed between sak
an impedance across said coaxial line, and in
two cathodes respectively and said tubular con
cluding means for varying the eii’ectlve position
ductor to vary the eil'ective position of said im
of said impedance lengthwise of said tubular
pedance lengthwise oi’ said tubular conductor
conductor to vary the length of said coaxial line
and the frequency of the device.
and the frequencies of said device.
9. An electron-discharge device comprising a
7. An electron-discharge device comprising a
cathode, an anode structure spaced from said
cathode, an anode structure spaced from said
cathode and incorporating a cavity resonator, s
cathode and incorporating a cavity resonator, a 10 tubular conductor, a second conductor extending
tubular conductor, a second conductor extending
axially through said tubular conductor, said
axially through said tubular conductor, said
tubular conductor and said second conductor con
tubular conductor and said second conductor con
stituting a coaxial conductive line coupled to said
stituting a coaxial line coupled to said cavity
cavity resonator, a cathode mounted in said sec
resonator, a cathode connected to said second
ond conductor and connected thereto through
conductor through means having a low imped
means having a low impedance to high frequency
ance to high frequency currents, means con
currents, means connected intermediate said
nected intermediate said eiectron-emissive means
cathode and said tubular conductor for impress
and said tubular conductor for impressing a volt
ing a voltage therebetween to create an imped
age therebetween to create an impedance across
ance across said coaxial line. and including means
said coaxial line, and including means for vary
for varying the voltage impressed between said
ing the voltage impressed between said cathode
cathode and said tubular conductor to vary the
and said tubular conductor to vary the e?'ective
eitective position of said impedance and the fre
position of said impedance lengthwise of said
quency of the device.
tubular conductor to vary the length of said co
10. An electron-discharge device comprising a
axial line and the frequency 01' the device.
cathode, an anode structure spaced from said
8. An electron-discharge device comprising a
cathode and incorporating a, cavity resonator, a
cathode, an anode structure spaced from said
transmission line, including a pair of conductors,
cathode and incorporating a cavity resonator, a
coupled to said cavity resonator, one of said con
tubular conductor, a second conductor extending 30 ductors being provided with an electron-emissive
axially through said tubular conductor, said
portion, and means, connected intermediate said
tubular conductor and said second conductor con
electron-emissive portion and the other of said
stituting a coaxial line coupled to said cavity
conductors, for impressing a voltage therebe
resonator, two cathodes connected to said sec
tween, whereby a flow of electrons may be insti
ond conductor through means having a low im
tuted between said electron-emissive portion and
pedance to high frequency currents, means con
said last-named conductor to short circuit said
nected intermediate said cathodes and said tubu
transmission line.
lar conductor for impressing a voltage therebe
tween to create an impedance across said coaxial
ROBERT C. SCHMIDT.
Certi?cate of Correction
December 31, 1946.
Patent No. 2,413,385. '
ROBERT C. SCHMIDT
It is hereby certi?ed that errors appear in the grinted speci?cation of the above
numbered patent requiring correction as follows: olumn 6, line 61, claim 5, after
the word "means” insert connected; line 63, strike out “connected”; and that the said
Letters Patent should be read with these corrections therein that the same may con
form to the record of the case in the Patent O?ice.
Signed and sealed this 25th day of March, A. D. 1947.
[M]
LESLIE FRAZER,
First Assistant Omission” of Patents.
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