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Dec. 31, 1946.
Filed June 20, 1944 '
MLL/QM} E Mon/D 77-min
Patented Dec. 31, 1946
John J. Teige and William Raymond Thomas,
Baltimore, Md., assignors to The Black and
Decker Manufacturing Company, Towson, Md,
a corporation of Maryland
Application June 20, 1944, Serial No. 541,163
4 Claims.
(01. 279-64) '
The invention relates to a chuck, particularly ,
Fig. '5 is an outside elevation of one jaw-mem
ber removed.
Fig. 6 is an elevation of the chuck fully assem
adapted to use as a drill chuck but capable of
more general application to portable power driven
rotary tools and in other ?elds.
Having'particular reference to Figs. 1 and 2,
The majority of the chucks now in use are of
a type which is comparatively expensive to manu
the chuck as shown consists of a housing member
In having its lower half in the form of an inverted
facture because of complicated machine work
which is essential to the production of the ta
pered sleeve or housing and to the tapered boring
and. internal threading of the sleeve or housing.
The jaws also constitute a considerable item of
expense to which the tapered threading of the
jaws and the linking of the jaws to the operating
frusto pyramidal jaw chamber I4, a body or plug
member II which ?ts into and closes the top of
the housing above said chamber, downwardly ta
pered jaw members l2 which slide in the corre
spondingly tapered chamber l4, and jaw-operat
ing plate l5 shown as carried by the lower end of
plate contribute.
the spindle l6 which is threaded downwardly
' Another item of expense results from the rela
15 through the body or plug ll, all of said parts and
tively di?icult operation incident to assembling
the chucks of the older types referred to.
The chuck of the invention is simpler, easier to
manufacture, and therefore cheaper and is also
sturdier and of longer life than the standard
product referred to, and the parts because of their
features being subject to a degree of change and
modi?cation within the skill of the ordinary me
In the form shown, the housing I!) has a hollow
upper portion l‘l shown as cylindrical and open
upwardly to receive the correspondingly shaped
improved construction are much more easily as
body-member II. The hole l1’ within the said
sembled which is of importance in reducing the
upper portion l1 terminates at its lower end in an
over-all expense.
internal horizontal shoulder l8 on which the
' More‘speci?cally the clutch sleeve or housing 25 body-member l l rests in its assembled position.
of the invention can be readily formed by forging
The lower half of the housing or sleeve l0 as
or die-casting and its production involves no
viewed externally in Fig.6 is of downwardly re
drilling of holes and the jaws are not threaded
ducing'cross-section at Hi. This downwardly ta
and preferably they are not linked to the operat
pered portion l9 contains the jaw chamber I4 ex
ing plate or abutment and there are no tapered 30 tending downwardly from the shoulder I8. This
holes or internal tapered threads.
chamber I4 is of downwardly reducing taper, its
Because of the feasibility of manufacturing
these important elements of the chuck in this
inside wall section being of hexagonal or of other
suitable cross-section to correspond to the jaw
way, accuracy of construction and precision of
section, the inner surfaces of the walls being
operation can be attained and controlled by 35 plain, ?at and smooth as indicated at 20 in Fig. 4.
means of accurately made forging dies, or die
The jaws l2 shown separately in Fig. 5 and
casting dies, whereby the requisite precision is
combined in Figs. 1, 2, and 3, form when closed a
attained at considerably lower cost than in the
member of‘ downwardly reducing taper, similar
production of the earlier types of chuck in which
to that of the walls 20 of chamber l4, their exter
the parts to attain corresponding precision must 40 nal surfaces 2| being flat and the jaws being so
be individually machined to close tolerances.
formed that they ?t together in the form of an
In the accompanying drawing we have illus
inverted ,frustum of a pyramid of hexagonal or
trated a chuck embodying the features of our in
othersuitable crossésection as best shown in the
vention in what is at. present regarded as the pre
closed position in which they appear in Fig. 1.
45 These individual jaws l2 as shown also taper
In the drawing
' '
' inwardly in a horizontal plane to inwardly dis
posed or gripping edges 23. To admit and receive
Fig. 1 is a section on a plane of the spindle axis, a
the jaws being in advanced or closed position.
the shank of a relatively large drill, the inwardly
Fig. 2 is a similar view with the jaws open and
hence in the retracted position.
Fig. 3 is a top plan view of the chuck with the
body-member, which normally closes the top of
the housing, removed.
Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 3, the jaws also
- being removed.
disposed edges 23 of the jaws are spaced as
shown in Figs. 2 and 3. As the jaws are moved
toward closed position, the ?at vertical side sur
faces 23' and edges 23 approach and may ?nally
The combined top surfaces 24 0f the jaws I 2
55 are preferably ?at and adapted to be engaged
duction. The improvements herein described also
from above by the operating plate or abutment
give a better and sturdier product of increased
it which as shown may have upper and lower,
life and reduced expense as to its upkeep or main
horizontal ?at surfaces, and an upwardly pro
jecting central stud 26 which ?ts in a central 6 tenance.
We have thus described speci?cally and in de
vertical hole 28 in the bottom of the spindle I'B.
tail a single embodiment of our invention in order
A tendency on the part of the jaws I2 to move
that the manner of constructing, applying, oper
ating and using the same may be fully under»
stood; however, the speci?c terms herein are used
to open position is imparted by compression
springs 21 which span the openings between ad
jacent jaws l2, said springs having their ends
seated in aligned openings 2'!’ in the opposed sur
10 in a descriptive rather than in a limiting sense,
the construction shown being subject to modi
?cation within the skill of the average mechanic
In assembling the chuck, the body-member or
and the vscope of the invention being de?ned in
plug I i being of suitable size and shape would be
the claim-s. What we claim as new and desire to
forced into the cylindrical or otherwise suitably
by Letters Patent is:
formed straight sided opening IT’ in the top por 15 vsecure
1. A chuck having a housing with top open
tion ll of the housing I!) with a press-?t or it
ing and a body member permanently secured in
can if desired be otherwise secured. This body
closing relation to said opening, the housing com
member or plug H is ?rst threaded on the spin
prising a jaw chamber below said body member
dle as shown, the stud 26 of the operating plate
and of downwardly reducing taper, said chamber
i5 being thrust upwardly into the hole 28 ‘in the 20 having angularly joined ?at downwardly converg
bottom of the spindle, abutment or plate l5 being
ing and tapering side wall surfaces and a jaw
located in the chamber i4 and directly over the
assembly comprising a plurality of cooperating
jaws 12 as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. It is to be
jaws in said chamber, said jaw assembly having
noted that the hole [6’ in the body or plug H
correspondingly angular and plane downwardly
may be counter-sunk at its lower end at It" to
converging and tapering external back walls and
admit the actuating plate l5 in the wide open
means for forcing said jaw assembly downwardly
position of the jaws as best shown in Fig. 2.
in said ‘chamber to close the jaws.
This operating plate I5 is, in closing the chuck,
2. A chuck according to claim 1 in which said
pressed downwardly against the upper ends or
latter means comprises an abutment engaging
combined top surfaces 24 of the jaws l2, clos
the top ends of said jaws with a downward thrust
ing them by the wedge action which results from
only, thereby forcing them downwardly in said
contact of the outer jaw surfaces 2| with the in
chamber and closing them, and means for mov
clined inner surfaces 20 of the hex chamber [4.
ing the jaws upwardly and opening the jaws
It will be easily understood that by rotating
upon the upward withdrawal of said abutment.
the housing member or sleeve 10, which may be
3. A chuck for holding a tool, a body mem
externally knurled as at ll" to improve the grip,
her, a housing rigidly held at the top by said
the chuck may be engaged and/or released, 1. e.,
body member the inner walls of said housing
the jaws‘ being clamped or released by thus low
beneath said body member being angularly joined,
ering and/or raising the plate l5. This plate
downwardly and inwardly inclined plane sur
when lowered, forces the jaws downwardly in 40 faces, a cross section being a regular polygon,
chamber l4 toward the position Fig. 1 which is
a plurality of jaws each having correspondingly
the closed position‘ and when raised, permits them
angular and ?at inclined surfaces engaging two
to be raised to the position Fig. 2 in which po~v
of said walls which adjoin whereby their rota
sition they are opened by springs 21; vIt is im— 45 tion relative to said housing is prevented when
portant to note that both the jaws I2 and the
clamped upon a tool, and means for moving said
chamber M have cooperating external and inter
jaws lengthwise in said housing to close the jaws.
nal plain, flat downwardly tapering and down
4. A chuck for holding a tool, a body member,
wardly converging surfaces whereby the jaws are
a housing rigidly held at the top by said body
closed as they are forced downwardly from above. 50 member the inner walls of said housing beneath
faces 23'.
a It is of importance to note that the housing
said body member being angularly joined, down
Hi and the body member 5 l and the tapered jaws
wardly and inwardly inclined plane surfaces, a
l2 are so formed that they may be made by the
cross section being a regular polygon, a plural
use of suitable dies, i.‘e., by forging or die-casting,
ity of jaws each having correspondingly angular
the‘ features of the chucks as above referred to 55 and ?at inclined surfaces engaging two of said
which in production require machining to close
walls which adjoin whereby their rotation rela
tolerances being eliminated. Thus the chuck may
tive to said housing is prevented when clamped
be made with the required degree of accuracy at
upon a tool, a spindle threaded through said
a considerably reduced expense. Also the simpli
body member and adapted upon turning to force
?cation of these parts and the elimination of the 60 saidjaws downwardly in said vhousing to close
jaw threads'and the corresponding tapered in
the jaws, and means to expand and elevate said
ternal threads and other details, contribute not
only to a reduction of the cost of these parts, but
also‘ to the ease and convenience of assembly,
and hence areduction of the total cost of pro
jaws upon the retraction of said spindle.
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