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Dec. 31, 1946.
2,413,431
S. W. BRIGGS
FILTER UNIT AND METHOD OF MAKING- SAME
Filed llarqh 31, 1942
09
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3 Sheets-Sheet 1
Den-31,1946.
'
v s. w. BRIGGS
‘ '
2,413,431
FILTER UNIT AND METHOD OF IAKING SAIE '
Filed March 31, 1942
j“ -' W ‘I
25h v J '
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.
_3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Dec. 31, 1946.
2,413,431
s. w. BRIGGS
FILTER UNIT AND METHOD OF’ MAKING SAME
Filed March :1, 194g
5 Sheets-Sheet s
(‘7629. '
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hwawe/
Fatented Fee. 331946 I
4 2,413,433
' um» .s'rA'rEs PATENT OFFICE.
Southwick w. at... Washington, 1). 0.
Application March 31, 1942, Serial No. 431,051
'
'
11 Claims.
(01. 210-204) -
2
This invention relates to ?ltration, and more
especially to a ?lter unit which is especially suit
able for the ?ltration of oil.
ding described in my co-pending application, Sea
rial No. 237,553, ?led October 28, 1938, onwhich
' Patent No. 2,321,985‘was issued June 15. 1943, dif
While efforts have been made to ' provide a
fering therefrom in that in a roll of the material
prior to cutting into sheets the ribs extend lon
gitudinally of the rolled material instead of trans-'
?lter made of cellulose, the ?lters hitherto avail
able have not been entirely satisfactory. This has
been partly due to failure to stand up in actual
operation, and to the fact that their emciency
versely thereof as in the aforesaid application. In ,
the manufacture of ?lters, a plurality of these
sheets are evenly stacked or piled and are per
has not been as high as is desirable.
One of the objects of the present invention is 10 manently joined together at one edge. This stack
of leaves or sheets is then bent into the form
ous -"cellulosic ?lters.
,
of a cylindrical tubular body with the joined
Another object of the present invention is to
edges defining the inner surface of thetubular
provide a ?lter composed of stacked or piled sheets
body. The two outermost ends of the pile are
1 of ribbed cellulosic material which is e?icient in 16 then joined at their fastened‘edges in such a
operation, inexpensive to construct, and which
manner as to_ maintain the tubular form of the
possesses 'a longevity in excess of the cellulosic
body permitting the unattached edges of the in
to overcome the disadvantages inherent in previ~ -
- ?lters hitherto available.
dividual leaves or sheets to extend radially out
Still another object of this invention is to pro~
vide a ?lter cartridge in the form of a cylindrical
wardly. from the joined edges. The tubular body
is then consolidated by effecting a relative ro
tation between the» inner and outer surfaces of
' tubular body and composed of a plurality of sheets.
of ribbed cellulosic material arranged circumfer
the thus formed body, causing the radially ex
entially ‘of the body with the individual strips
extending from the inner to the outer peripheral
tending leaves or sheets to partially wrap together
and lie in contact with adjacent leaves throughout
surfaces of the tubular body.
‘ ‘
their extent from the inner to the outer surfaces
Yet another object of this invention is to pro
of the tubular body. The body is then wrapped
vide a ?lter cartridge in the formof a cylindrical
to retain the leaves or sheets in their thus formed
tubular body and composed. of a plurality of
shape.
'
sheets of ribbed cellulosic material arranged ,cir-.
Alternatively, after stacking the leaves or sheets '
cumferentially of the body with the individual 30 they may be considerably compressed before join
strips extending from the inner to the outer pe
ing them together at one edge. When the pres
ripheral surfaces of the tubular body, and in
sure is relieved, the unjoined portions of the
which the ribs of the stacked sheets extend from
leaves or sheets expand to their original thick
the inner to the outer peripheral surfaces 01' the _
tubular body.
A further object of this invention is to provide
ness and the stack tends to curve with the surface
35 formed by theassembled joined edges of the .
sheets shorter than the surface formed by the
unjoined edges of the sheets. When the thus
bular body and composed of a plurality of sheets
deformed stack is further bent and secured to
' of ribbed cellulosic material arranged circum
form a cylindrical tubular body, the leaves or
ferentially of the body with the individual strips 40 sheets will extend radially outwardly and will, due
extending from the inner to the outer peripheral
to the compressed condition of their inner ends,
surfaces of the tubular body, and in which the
lie in contact with each other throughout their
sheets are curved intermediate their outer and
extent from they inner to the outer surfaces of the
a ?lter cartridge in the'form of a cylindrical-tu
inner ends.
.
.
A still further object of this invention is to
provide a method of manufacturing ?lter ele
ments as embraced in the preceding objects.
To accomplish the above and other important
objects, the invention in general embraces the
45
‘ concept of providing a ?lter composed of sheets
or leaves of cellulosic wedding which comprises '
a number of loosely interlocked plies of webs of >
. cellulosic ?bers and which are embossed with
parallel ribs running transversely of the leaves
'or sheets. This material is similar to the vwad- 55
body.
~
The ?nished ?lter body may be inserted within
a wrapping or within a cage and forms a replace
able unit which may be employed in a clarifying
device.
'
In the accompanying drawings, in which cor- -
responding numerals refer to the same parts:
_ Figure -1 is an elevational view partly in sec
tion of a ?lter unit constructed in accordance
with the invention.
'
I
Figure 2 is a top plan view of the ?lter unit
partly in section.
_
.
2,413,431
3
.
Figure 3 is a perspective view of one of the
sheets or leaves of cellulosic material employed
'
4
cated in Fig. 3 of the drawings. By providing
the sheets with the grooves ii, the sheets form
between them, when assembled, passages for the
?ow of the liquid to be filtered, and the filtering
Figure 4 is a perspective view showing how a
action in ?owing through the passages is effected
plurality of these sheets or leaves are stacked in
by adsorption of the material to be separated on
a pile, some of the'intermediate sheets being
the walls of the passages.
omitted to better illustrate the stacking.
'
As clearly shown in Fig. 1 of the drawings, the
Figure 5 is a similar View of the pile of sheets
grooves l2 extend from the inner to the outer
or leaves shown in Figure 4 in which the leaves
of the pile are fastened together with an adhe 10 edges of the sheets so that the channels for the
?ow of the liquid to be ?ltered will extend from
sive strip.
the outer periphery of the cylindrical tubular
Figure 6 is a top plan view of the celluloslc ?l
body to the inner periphery thereof.
ter after the ends of the pile of sheets or leaves
In the» form of invention shown in Figs. 1 to 7
have been fastened together by means of the ad
of the drawings, the sheets or leaves ll of cel
15
hesive strip.
lulosic material are curved intermediate the
Figure 7 is a top plan view of the cellulosic ?l
edges thereof forming the inner and outer pe
ter element shown in Figure 6 after it has been
ripheries of the tubular body, and in this con
struction the passages or channels for the flow
Fig. Sis a top plan view showing a modi?
of liquid which are formed by the grooves l2 in
cation of the invention.
the surfaces of the sheets will likewise be curved
in the ?lter.
consolidated.
-
»
,
_
Figure 9 is a side elevational view partly in sec
in the same manner as are the sheets. In a
tion of the ?lter element shown in Figure 8.
?lter element so constructed, the ?ow of the
As shown in the drawings, the present inven
liquid to be ?ltered will primarily be along the
tion comprises a ?lter unit generally designated
by the numeral A which comprisesa shell I and 25 channels which provide a comparatively unre
stricted passage for the flow of the ?uid as in
a cellulosic ?lter element 2. The shell is formed
dicated by the arrow to which reference char
of an outer perforated tube 3, an inner perfo
acter l3 has been applied. In addition to this
rated tube 4 which is concentric with the outer
?ow of the‘ oil or liquid to be ?ltered through
' tube and ring shaped top and bottom closures
the ?lter element 2, there will be a truly radial
5 and 6.
,
, 30
?ow of the liquid from the outer to the inner
Closures 5 and 6 are formed with a stiffening
surface of’ said tubular body. This flow of liquid
corrugation ‘I which surrounds and forms an
will penetrate through the surfaces of the sheets
~ annular gasket, seat 8. The outer rim ?anges 9
II as indicated by arrow ll. The flow of the
of the closures 5 and 6 are sealed respectively to
liquid to be ?ltered along the direction indicated
each end of the outer tube‘ 3 by forming an in
by the arrow l4 will result in what may be
terlocking seam between the ?anges 9 and the
termed a true ?ltering action inthat the liquid
ends of the tube 3. The ends of the inner tube
will actually ?ow through pores in the ?lter ma
4 are sealed to the closures 5 and 5 by ?anging
terial. Thus liquid’ passing through this ?lter
said ends over cork or other suitable gaskets
element may be subjected to two types of clari
40
it] which are positioned in the gasket seats 8.
fying actions.
'
Other' types of sealing the ends of the ?lter ele
A method of constructing the ?lter element
ment 2 may be Substituted for the speci?c clo- _
2 as illustrated in Figs. 1 to '7 of the drawings is
sure means here disclosed.
another feature of the present invention. In
The cellulosic ?lter element 2 is of cylindrical
the manufacture of the ?lter element according
tubular formation and is assembled in the ?lter‘
unit between the outer cylindrical ‘tubular wall
3 and the inner cylindrical tubular wall 4.
As
is clearly shown in Figs. 2, 6 and '7, one tubular '
?lter element 2 is formed of a plurality of sheets
or leaves I I of cellulosic material. This mate
rial is similar to the wadding described in my co
pending application, Serial No. 237,553, ?led
October 28, 1938, differing therefrom in that in
a roll of the material prior to cutting into sheets
the ribs extend longitudinally of the rolled ma‘
terial instead of transversely thereof as in the
aforesaid application. The sheets ll of cellu
losic material are assembled with one of their
to this method, a plurality of sheets or leaves H
of the ribbed cellulosic wadding of a desired
number of plies is selected and are assembled in
a pile or stack‘ as illustrated in Fig. 4 of the
drawings-that is. with the ribs in the surface
of one sheet in alignment with the ribs in the
surface of an adjacent sheet, ‘so as to provide the
?ow channels hereinbefore
mentioned. The
sheets II are of a length equal to the axial length
of the tubular ?lter body 2 and are of a width
greater than the radial thickness of said body
with the ribs extending across the width of the
sheets. After the required number of sheets to
form a stack or pile ‘of a length greater than
edges forming the inner surface of the tubular
the
circumference of the inner tube 4 are assem
60
body 2 of ?lter material and with the opposite
bled, as [illustrated in Fig. 4,'the pile or stack of
edges thereof forming the outer surface of said
assembled sheets is slightly compressed with an
cylindrical tubular body.
_
‘
even pressure which serves to evenly distribute
Sheets H of the cellulosic wadding are formed
the several sheets through the pile. While subof a plurality of plies, the exact number of which
jected to this slight pressure, a strip of open
will depend upon the particular purpose to which
weave fabric l5, such as, cheese cloth, or similar
the ?lter is to ‘be applied, and may be, for in
material, is placed over one open surface of the
stance, 4-ply, 6-ply, S-ply, 10-ply, 12-ply, etc.
stacklas shown in Fig. 5, which surface is formed
To facilitate the ?ow of the liquid to be ?ltered
of aligned edges of the sheets II.’ A suitable
through the cellulosic material, the sheets as
adhesive, such as, sodium silicate, is sprayed over
shown in the drawings are provided with parallel
the fabric and serves to cement each of the
grooves I!‘ on each surface thereof which give
the corrugated appearance to the sheets. The '
grooves l2 on one side of the sheet are aligned
with those on the opposite side thereof so that
the sheet has the general appearance as indi
‘ sheets or leaves II to the ?exible backing IS. AS
illustrated in Fig. 5, the strip of ?exible backing
material I! is allowed to extend beyond one end
of the pile or stack of sheets H to form a tab
'
2,418,481
IS, the purpose of which will be’ explained here
inafter.
'
After the ?exible backing or binding strip I!
has been applied to the edges of the several sheets
or leaves II, as hereinbefore described,v and the
attachment is secure, the pile‘ of sheets is bent
into the form of a cylindrical tube, as shown in
Fig. 6 of ‘the drawings, with the backing strip ll
.
slightly greater than the circumference of the
cylindrical tubular ?lter body.
_4
A ?lter element In constructed as Just de
scribed and as shown in Figs. 8 and 9 will re
tain its shape after securing the tab lid in place
and will not require external wrapping.‘
Flow of liquid to be ?ltered will be radially
through the channels or passages formed by the
grooves I2a.
forming the inner surface of the tube and the
' free unattached edges of the sheets I I forming the 10
In this form of the ?lter the sheets of cellu
losic material are of wedge shape form as appears
outer peripheral ‘surface-of the tubular member.
After being bent to this form, adhesive is applied
from Fig. 8. Since the portions of the sheets
or leaves of cellulosic material .between the
to the tab I8 which in turn‘ is secured to the other
grooves III: are easily compressible it is these
end of the backing strip It to maintain the pile
of sheets in the tubular form to which it has been 15 portions which are compressed. This causes the
passages formed by registering grooves I 2a in two
bent.
"
adjacentsheets to be tapered and be of ‘gradually
At this stage of the process, the ?lter element
will appear as shown'in Fig. 6 with the sheets
reduced cross section from the outer to the'inner
‘ extending radially outwardly from the strip I5
peripheral portions of the tubular ?lter element.
and with the outer portions of the sheets spaced 20 As a liquid such as 'oil ?ows from the outer to
the inner periphery of the ?ltering element
from each other to provide the open structure.
through the channels formed by the grooves I2a,
In order to compact or consolidate the filter. ele
resistance .to its ?ow increases as the cross sec
ment 2, a relative rotation is effected between
tional area of the channels I2a decreases. This
the inner and outer surfaces of the tubular body
resistance to its ?ow causes a portion'of the oil to
which tends to wrap the several sheets I I against
be forced through the walls of the channels and
each other about the inner joined ends of the
into the leaves Ila where its solid impurities are
leaves and the binding strip I5 as a core. This
trapped by the ?brous structure. Since-the chan
action curves the sheets. I I'as illustrated in Fig. '7
nels permit a free ?ow of oil over substantially
of the drawings. ‘When the tubular body is con
the entire surface area of the leaves Na and >
solidated as illustrated in Fig. '7, it mayv be
since the channels constrict continuously over
wrapped with a suitable net-like material or it
their entire length, virtually‘ the entire body of the .
may be inserted directly into the outer perforated
element 2a is utilized as a ?ltering medium. It
tube 3 which will retain the ?lter element in its
has been found that this action improves the
'- consolidated condition.
‘
In some instances, it may be desirable to con
struct a ?lter in which the sheets of cellulosic ma
terial extend in a truly radial direction, such as is
illustrated in Fig. 8 of the drawings. It will be
noted in this instance that the sheets of cellu
losic material are of wedge-like formation in that _
they are of greater thickness adjacent their outer
peripheral portions than at the ends forming the
inner periphery of the tubular body. To con
struct a tubular ?lter element of'this type,. a
number of sheets or leaves Ila of a ?lter mate
rial such as illustrated in Fig. 3 are assembled into
a stack or pile in the same manner as illustrated
in Fig. '4. Su?icient sheets are included in the
stack to make the length of the stack slightly -
clari?cation result, and also greatly increases the
usefullife of the ?1ter.-_
‘
,
,
Filter elements as herein described are very
ei?cient in operation and may be easily con
structed so that the replacement cost of ?lter
units will be low.
I claim:
-
1. A ?lter unit comprising a tubular body of '
assembled sheets of ?lter material, the sheets ex- ’
tending generally radially from the inner surface .
r of the body and being juxtaposed with one edge
of each sheet lying in the inner surface of the
tubular body and the opposite edge of each sheet
lying in the outer surface of the tubular'body,
both of said edges being parallel ‘to the axisof
the body said sheets having a plurality of parallel
greater than the outer circumference of the tubu 50 trough-shaped
depressions extending from the
lar ?lter body to be made. In this instance, the
inner
to
the
outer
surface ofthe tubular body,
sheets I Ia are of a length equal to the axial length
of the tubular ?lter body but'the width is equal - and means Joining together the edges of the
sheets lying in the inner surface. of the body.
to the radial thickness of the tubular ?lter body.
2. A ?lter unit comprising a tubular body of
The stack or pile of sheets is then subjected to
assembled sheets of ?lter material, the ‘sheets ex
a pressure considerably greater than that em
tending generally radially from the inner surface
ployed in constructing the ?lter illustrated in
of the body and being juxtaposed with one edge '
Figs. 1 to 7, and, while under this great pres
of each sheet lying in the inner surface of the
sure, a backing strip I5a similar to the strip I5
shown in Fig. 5 is applied. ‘ Due to the great pres (in tubular body and the'opposite edge of each sheet
lying in the outer surface of the tubular body,
sure exerted on the sheets of ?lter material.
they are compressed to a considerable extent and
after the strip of backing material I5a has been
applied thereto, and the pressure released, the
sheets Ila of the ?lter material other than the
edges Joined to strip I5a-will tend to expand to
substantially their normal thickness. The de
gree of compression of the stack necessary to con
struct the ?lter such as shown in Figs. 8 and 9 is
such that the length of the backing strip will
be approximately equal to that of the inner pe
riphery of the tubular element to be constructed,
and the length of the pile or stack of sheets or
leaves IIa prior to and after compression will be 75
- both of said edges being parallel to the axis of
the body, said sheets being curved intermediate
their edges lying in the inner and outer surfaces
of the tubular body having a plurality of parallel
trough-shaped depressions extending from the
inner to the outer surfaces of the tubular body,
and means joining together the edges of the‘
sheets lying in the inner surface of the body..
3. A ?lter unit comprising a tubular body of
assembled sheets of ?lter material, the sheets ex- '
tending generally radially from‘ the inner surface
of the body and being juxtaposed with one edge
of each sheet lying in the inner surface of the
tubular body'and the opposite edge of each sheet '
E /
,
2,413,431
lying in the outer surface of the tubular body, said
sheets having a plurality of equally. and axially
spaced radially extending trough-shaped depres
edge of each sheet lying in the inner surface of
- the tubular body and the opposite ‘edge of each
sheet lying in the outer surface of the tubular
in adjacent sheets to form a pluralityiof chan
body, both of said edges being parallel to-the
axis of the body, said sheets being curved inter
mediate their edges lying-in the innerand outer
surfaces of the tubular body, said sheets having a
plurality of equally and axially spaced, parallel
nels extending from the inner to the outer sur
.trough-shaped depressions on each side there
sions on each side thereof extending from the in
ner to the outer surfaces of the tubular body, the
depressions on both sides of each sheet being ,
aligned with each other and with the depressions
faces of the tubular body for'the free flow of 1iq-,
of extending, from the inner to the outer sur
faces of the tubular body, the depressions on con
uid through the channels with the deposition of
tacting surfaces of adjacent sheets being aligned
to form a plurality of channels extending from the
inner to the outer surfaces of the tubular body.
,8. A ?lter unit comprising a tubular body of
assembled sheets of ?lter material, the sheets be
solids contained therein on the walls of said '
channels.
‘.
\
4. A ?lter unit comprising a tubular body of
assembled sheets of ?lter material, the sheets ex
tending generally radially from the inner surface
of the body and being juxtaposed with one edge
_ ing juxtaposed and extending radially of the
tubular body with the inner and outer edges
tubular body and the opposite edge of each sheet
thereof lying parallel to the axis of the body.
lying in the outer surface of the tubular body, 20 the portion of the sheets adjacent the inner sur
both of said edges being parallel to the axis of
face of the body being circumferentially com
the body, said sheets having a plurality of equally
pressed whereby the cross section of the sheets
and axially spaced parallel trough-shaped de
tapers from the outer edge to the inner edge
pressions on each side thereof extending from
thereof, said sheets having a plurality of equally
the inner to the outer surfaces of the tubular 25 and axially ‘spaced parallel trough-shaped de
of each sheet lying in the inner'surface of the I
body to. form a plurality of channels extending
from the inner to the outer surfaces of the tubular
body, and means joining together the edges of
pressions on each side thereof extending from the
inner to the outer surfaces of the tubular body,
the depressions on contacting surfaces of adjacent
- the sheets lying in the inner surface of the body.
sheets being aligned to form a plurality of chan
5. A ?lter unit comprising a tubular body of as 30 nels extending from the inner to the outer sur
sembled sheets of ?lter material, the sheets being
1 juxtaposed with one edge of each sheet lying in
. faces of the tubular body.
_
9. A method of constructing tubular .filtér
I the inner surface of the tubular body and the '
‘bodies comprising assembling a plurality of sheets
opposite edge of each sheet'lying in the outer
‘ surface of the tubular body, both of saidedges
v'of ?lter material in a pile, with one edge of each
being parallel to the axis of the body, said sheets
extending radially outwardly from the inner sur
sheet aligned with the corresponding edges of
the other sheets,~joining said aligned edges to
gether, and bending thepile of joined sheets
face of the tubular body and then curving cir
into tubular form with the joined edges forming
cumferentially throughout the rest of their
‘the inner surface of said tubular body.
length, said sheets having a plurality of equally 40
10. A method of constructing tubular ?lter
and axially spaced parallel trough-shaped de
lbodies comprising assembling a plurality of sheets
pressions on each side thereof extending from the
of ?lter material in a pile, with one edge of each
inner to the outer surfaces of the tubular body, ‘ sheet aligned with the corresponding edges of the
the depressions on contacting surfaces of adja
cent sheets forming a plurality of channels ex
tending from the inner to the outer surfaces of
' the‘ tubular body for the free flow of liquid
other sheets, compressing the pile of sheets, join
ing said aligned edges together, and bending the I
pile of joined sheets into tubular from with
the joined edges forming the inner surface of said
through the channels with the deposition of solids
tubular body, the‘compression of the pile-of sheets
contained therein on the walls of said channels.
being such that after joining the sheets together
6.‘ A ?lter unit comprising a tubular body of 50 and bending the pile into tubular form, the face
assembled sheets of ?lter material, the sheets be
portions of the sheets adjacent the outer edges
ing juxtaposed, and extending radially of the
thereof will contact similar portions of adjacent
tubular body with the inner and outer edges
sheets.
.
thereof lying parallel to the axis of the body, said
.11. A method of ‘constructing tubular ?lter
. sheets having a plurality of equally and axially 55 bodies comprising assembling a plurality of sheets
. spaced parallel trough-shaped‘ depressions on
of ?lter material in a pile, with one edge of each
each side thereof extending ‘from the inner to
the outer surfaces of the tubular body, the de-.'
sheet aligned with the corresponding edges of
the other sheets, joining said aligned edges to
pressions on contacting surfaces of adjacent
gether, bending the pile of joined sheets into
’ sheets being aligned to form a plurality of chan 60 tubular form with the joined edges forming the
> nels extending from the inner to the outer sur-.
inner surface of said tubular body. and rotating
faces of the tubular body.
~
the outer surface of the tubular body to wrap
7. A ?lter unit comprising a tubular body of
the sheets together and thereby consolidate the
assembled sheets of ?lter material, the sheets
extending generally radially from the inner sur 65
face of the body and being juxtaposed with one
SOUTHWICK W. BRIGGS.
body.
'
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