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Dec. 31’
LEAD CONNECTION
K. H_FOR ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Filed Sept. 1 ,_ 1945
Z7
2,413,539
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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FIGURE
KERMIT H. BALLARD
INVENTOR.
FIGURE 2
Arron/v5)’
Dec. 31, 1946‘
K. H. EALLARD
2,413,539
LEAD CONNECTION FOR ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Filed Sept. 1, 1943
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
FIGURE 3
KERMIT H. BALLARD
,
INVENTOR.
BY
‘ATTORNEY
Dec. 31, 1946..
K. H. BALLARD
2,413,539 -
LEAD CONNECTION FOR ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
Filed Sept. 1, 1943
32
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3 Sheets-Sheet 3
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FIGUQE 5
KERMIT’ H. BALLARD
INVENTOR.
BY
A TTORNEY
Patented Dec. 31, 1946
‘2,413,539
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,413,539
LEAD CONNECTION FOR ELECTRICAL
APPARATUS
Kermit H. Ballard, Perth Amboy, N. J ., assignor
to E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wil
mington, Del., a corporation of Delaware
Application September 1, 1943, Serial No. 500,807
1
9 Claims. (Cl. 173-324)
This invention relates to electrical capacitors
or condensers and, more especially, to a new and
improved terminal connection for attaching the
electrical lead wires to the electrodes of the
capacitor.
My invention is particularly adapted for use in
securing lead wires to electrical capacitors of the
type described and claimed in my copending ap
plications, Serial No. 461.302, ?led October 8, 1942,
and Serial No. 494,627, ?led July 14, 1943, wherein
the capacitor is formed with electrodes compris
2
I have now devised a new and improved at
tachment means which permits the attachment
of an electrical conductor or lead Wire to the
metallic layer electrodes of an electrical capacitor
in Such a manner that the resulting assembly is
more rugged and wear-resistant than previously
considered possible under circumstances wherein
a wire must be attached to a ceramic silver sur
face. The new and improved fastening method,
and the improved joinder means and electrical
capacitor resulting, is of such strength that when
ing alternate layers of metallic silver separated
the assembled capacitor is tested by applying ten
by dielectric layers comprising a vitreous compo
sion between the copper lead wires the failure
sition, the entire construction being formed on a
occurs by breaking of the lead wire when its ten
supporting block preferably of ceramic material. 15 sile strength is exceeded, rather than by the pull
However, it is not limited to utilization in con
ing away of the lead wire from the silver electrode
necting lead wires to electrical capacitors, but is
surface. The strength of my improved electrical
of general use wherever lead wires are to be
fastening construction, particularly adapted for
brought into electrical communication with me
use in attaching lead wires to electrical capacitors
tallic layers or surfaces on electrical apparatus 20 of the type speci?ed, will be appreciated when it
generally.
In fabricating electrical condensers of this type
wherein layers of ceramic metallic silver are
utilized as the electrodes considerable difficulty
is understood that the ordinary No. 18 copper
wire used as lead wires for such condensers will
resist a tension of from 30 to 45 lbs. without
breaking.
has been experienced in attaching in electrical 25 Accordingly, it is one of the objects of this in
communication with those electrodes lead wires
vention to provide fastening or connection means
which will possess satisfactory mechanical
for securing a lead wire to a ceramic silver sur
strength. In various constructions previously
face, more especially for securing a lead wire to a
utilized the lead wires or conductors have been
soldered to exposed portions of the silver layer
electrodes, but the soldered connections generally
become disconnected, breaking the electrical con
nection when the con-denser is subjected to even
relatively slight vibration or mechanical han
dling. In an effort to avoid this di?iculty lead
wires have been attached to the base on which
the condenser construction is supported in elec
ceramic silver surface in an electrical capacitor,
which fastening or connection means is of more
rugged construction and more resistant both to
wear and to tensile stresses than ever previously
attainable. It is another object of this invention
to render available a fastening means particu
larly suitable for use in manufacturing electrical
condensers of the type described in my previously
referred-to copending applications. which fasten
ing means possesses great strength and rigidity
when subjected to deforming or separating in
trical communication with the silver layer elec
trodes by means of a low-melting glass serving
as the cement. In another modi?cation of this 40 ?uences. A new and improved method for secur
construction the end of the supporting ceramic
ing these connections forms another object of
base or tile is provided with sawed slots wherein
my invention. These and still further objects of
a bent-in portion of the lead wire may be ?tted
this invention will be apparent from the ensuing
before bringing it into communication with the
disclosure of certain preferred embodiments
silver electrode by soldering or by means of a low 45 thereof.
melting glass cement. However, none of these
My invention is best explained with reference
methods of joining results in a construction pos
to the attached drawings wherein Figure 1 is a
sessing sui?cient mechanical strength and rug
diagrammatic view taken approximately on the
gedness to stand up when the capacitor is sub
line I—I of Figure 5, looking in the direction of
jected to severe twisting, when the lead wire is 50 the arrows, which view shows the tapered open
deformed in use, or even when it is subjected to a
ing in the ceramic block or tile member support
straight pull of moderate force. Under these cir
ing the glass or enamel dielectric and metallic
cumstances the conductor becomes disconnected
layer electrodes of the electrical capacitor, the
from the metallic electrode and the usefulness of
end
of the conducting lead wire (not shown)
the capacitor is destroyed.
55
being adapted for securement in this tapered
2,413,539
3
opening. Figure 2 is a diagrammatic view show
ing the end portion of the electrical conductor
4
able that the face edges l8 and IQ of tapered open
ing l I make an angle of from approximately 75° to
or lead wire, this end portion being suitably de
85° with the ?at edge 20 of the ceramic base 5, i. e.
formed or upset to permit of it being inserted in
with the horizontal. This angle (with surface ll
the tapered opening shown in Figure 1. Figure 3 5 generally parallel to ?at edge 20) is indicated in
is a diagrammatic view, taken approximately on
the line I—I of Figure 5 and looking in the direc
Figure 1 of the drawings. As illustrated, the en
tirejinside portions of tapered opening l2 may be
tion of the "arrows of .the complete assembly, this
coated with the metallic layer material forming
view showing the electrical conductor positioned
the electrode 7 so that electrical conductivity be~
in the tapered opening and so held in electrical 10 tween the two is provided.
communication with the silver layer electrode.
> Referring now to Figure 2, this view illustrates
Figure 4 is a plan view, some parts being cutaway 1 ‘the electrical conductor or lead wire which is to
and some parts being shown in section in order
be brought into communication with electrode
to illustrate the construction more clearly, of a
. layer 1' of the electrical capacitor. This conduct
complete electrical capacitor of the type shown 15 ing member 2| is formed with an enlarged or up
in my previously referred-to copending applica
set head portion 22 and a tapered connecting por
tions wherein the electrical lead wires are at
tion 23 extending between the two. This upset
tached to the silver layer electrodes as herein de
head portion 22 may have adiameter at the larger
scribed. In this ?gure the various letters A-—A,
end approximately twice that of the diameter of
IB-B, C—C, and D—D indicate the plane, indi- .
cated by the corresponding markings on Figure
5, where the particular section is taken, the un
shaded portion of Fig. 4 being in plan. Figure 5
the electric wire or conductor 2 I.
In forming the connection, as shown in Figure 3
the enlarged upset end 22 of the electrical con
ductor 2! is inserted ?rmly into the tapered open~
is a cross-sectional view, some parts being shown
ing H in ceramic block 5 in such a way that the
in elevation taken on the line 5-5 of Figure 4.
25 end surface 26 of the large end of the upset por
Referring speci?cally to Figure 1, 5 denotes a
ceramic base, tile or slab supporting member
whereon the elements of an electrical condenser
tion 22 is in close communicating contact with the
metallic layer on the large inner base ii of the
tapered opening II. In this way electrical com
are positioned. These may include, as a mini
munication‘ is provided between the conductor 2|
mum, electrode layers 1 and 9 separated by dielec 30 and the electrode 1.
. tric layer 8, this dielectric layer being preferably
In order to secure satisfactory electrical con
,aformed of a vitreous composition. In usual prac
ductivity and to hold the lead wire 2! securely in
tice other electrode layers and other layers of
position it is desirable to place a small amount of
separating dielectric may be present, but as they
solder in- the tapered opening surrounding the up
form no part of this invention and need not be 35 set or enlarged end portion 22. While I prefer to
described in order to explain it they are not shown
utilize solder for this purpose, it is also possible
in the drawings. This electrical capacitor or con
merely to dip or immerse the enlarged end portion
denser may be constructed as disclosed and
22 of the lead wire ii in a. conducting cement be
claimed in my above-identi?ed copending applica
fore introducing it into the tapered opening Ii,
tions.
40 thh conducting cement serving to provide for
As shown, at that portion of the ceramic base 5
electrical communication with the electrode 7
adjacent tapered’opening ll one of the electrode
through the metallic layer l2 positioned in the
layers 9 is spaced back from the opening to pre
interior of tapered opening H, reliance being
vent short-circuiting between electrodes. Of
placed on the insulating cement later to be placed
- course, either of the electrode layers 1 or 9 could
in the un?lled portions of the tapered opening II
to hold the lead wire securely in place therein.
Neither the solder or conductive cement, nor the
conductor or lead wire as shown in Fig. 3., In
insulating paste or enamel which is positioned in
practice one electrode layer will be spaced back at
the tapered opening around the enlarged head
the tapered opening I l for one lead wire connec 50 portion 22 of lead wire 2i in order to seal off the
tion at one end of the ceramic base 5, and the
entire construction, is shown in the drawings, as
other spaced back at a similar tapered opening I I
the arrangement of parts would be obscured
for the other lead wire connection at the other
thereby. This vitreous insulating enamel placed
end of the ceramic base 5.
in un?lled portions of the frusto-pyramidal open
The ceramic supporting block 5 is provided, as 55 ing,“ provides the necessary electrical insula
shown, with the previously referred-to tapered or
tion and also serves to consolidate the Joint and
be so spaced back, depending on which is to be
brought into electrical communication with the
wedge-shaped opening II which may be con
protect it from corrosion. The use of vitreous in
structed generally in the form of a slightly de
sulating enamel in this way is disclosed and
formed frustum of a pyramid. The larger base
claimed in the copending application of Deyrup,
l2 of this quasi-frustum of a pyramid (hereafter 60 Serial No. 479,156, ?led March 15, 1943, which ma
for convenience the opening I l is termed frusto
tured into Patent No. 2,398,176, on April 9, 1946.
pyramidal, or a frustum of a pyramid), is at the
Referring more especially to Figures 4 and 5,
inner end. As shown, this opening may be formed
the numeral 3| denotes one silver layer electrode
with a much narrower slit l1 extending from the
separated by dielectric layer 32 from another
bottom of the tapered opening ll proper down 65 silver layer electrode 33. As shown, the two
wardly through the ceramic base block 5. This
silver layer electrodes are not coextensive in area,
slit is not essential, but may be included for con
and are, of course, respectively positioned back
venience in manufacturing the block or for plac
from the tapered openings H except when Joined
ing the conductive metal layer or conductive ce
to an electrical conductor at that tapered open- I
menltlon the interior surfaces of the tapered open 70 ing as previously explained. A vitreous cover
ing
.
coat 35 as disclosed, for example, in the co
I have found that in order that the upset head
pending application of Deyrup, Ser. No. 474,679.
or end portion of the lead wire 2| (shown in Fig.
?ied February 4, 1943, may be applied over the
2) may be properly seated in the‘ tapered opening
entire assembly after the lead wires 38 and 38 are
II, as will .be subsequently explained, it is desir 75 positioned in identical tapered opening II in the
5
2,413,539
ceramic base 5 in electrical communication with
the electrodes 3| and 32 as previously described.
In these figures, for convenience in illustrating,
the insulating enamel cover coat is not shown
around the metallic lead wires 36 and 38, but
in practice the insulating enamel is also applied
around the tapered openings I l ?lled with the
lead wires. The enamel may also be of an or
ganic type as, for example, a wax or a resin
3
it is securely retained therein and is in electrical
communication with said conductive layer on
‘the interior surfaces of said receptor opening.
2. The method of securing electrical lead wires
to an electrical capacitor, said electrical capacitor
comprising a ceramic base member on which
there are mounted a plurality of layers of metallic
electrodes and a plurality-of interposed layers
of vitreous dielectric which comprises: providing
such as one of the alkyd type (“Glyptal”). The 10 a plurality of electrical lead wires, the terminal
cover coat may be applied to all parts of the elec
portions of said lead Wires being formed in gen
trical condenser before insertion of the electrical
erally frusto-conical form; providing a plurality
lead wires 36 and 38 by suitably masking the
of receptor openings in said ceramic base mem
tapered openings l l, which may be later sealed
ber, said receptor openings being generally of
off, if desired, after the electrical conductors have 15 frusto-pyramidal form; providing on the interior
been positioned therein.
'
surfaces of said frusto-pyramidal receptor open
In forming the electrical connections the upset
ings a plurality of metallic electrically conduc
or enlarged terminal portions 39 and 40 of elec
tive layers, each of said layers being in electrical
trical conductors 36 and 38 are positioned in the
communication with an electrode of said elec
tapered openings ll provided in the base plate 20 trical capacitor; positioning said enlarged frusto
5, said generally frusto-pyramidal openings being
constructed as shown in Figure 1 as described
above. As shown in the latter ?gure. the metallic
layer comprising the electrodes in each instance
is extended over onto the inner surfaces i2 of
tapered openings II, with which surfaces the
enlarged head or upset terminal portions 39 and
40 of the conductors 36 and 38 are brought into
conical head portions of each of said lead wires
in said frusto-pyramidal receptor openings; and
introducing an electrically conductive paste into
un?lled portions of said receptor openings where
by electrical communication is provided between
said enlarged head portions, said interior metallic
conductive layers, and each of said electrodes of
said electrical capacitor.
electrical communication by abutting directly
3. The method of securing an electrical lead
up against those surfaces or through a conductive 30 wire to one of the electrodes of an electrical
cement or solder, or by the use of both expedients,
capacitor, said electrical capacitor comprising 'a'
thus providing direct electrical communication
plurality of electrode plates separated by layers
between electrode 3| and lead wire 36. and be
of dielectric positioned on an insulating base
tween electrode 33 and lead wire 38. The solder
which comprises: providing an electrical lead
to provide electrical communication, or the con 35 wire with an enlarged head portion; forming in
ductive cement, may. as previously explained, be
said insulating base a generally tapering receptor
then incorporated in the un?lled portions of
opening, said opening being larger toward the
the tapered openings l I in order to provide bet
interior of said insulating base than it is ad
ter electrical communication between conductors
jacent the external surfaces thereof; providing
36 and 38 and the interior metal-coated surfaces 40 on the interior surfaces of said receptor open
l2 of tapered openings H, the latter being in
ing an electrically conductive layer in electrical
direct electrical circuit with the respective elec
communication with said electrode to be con
trodes 36 and 38.
nected; positioning said enlarged head portion
It is obvious that while I have described my
of said electrical lead wire in said tapering re
improved electrical connection and the method of 4. ceptor opening; introducing a conductive mate
forming this connection with particular refer
rial into un?lled portions of said receptor open
ence to electrical capacitors or condensers, it may
ing surrounding said enlarged head portions of
be used in other apparatus for other purposes,
said lead wire, whereby electrical communication
wherever lead wires or metallic conductors are
is provided between said lead wire and said elec
to be brought into electrical communication with
trode through the interior conductive layer of
metal surfaces or layers.
said receptor opening; and covering the resulting
Various changes may be incorporated in my
attachment with an electrically insulating mate
preferred embodiment as above described and
rial, whereby said electrical connection may be
these changes insofar as they come within the
electrically sealed from current leakage losses.
scope of my invention, are intended to be com
4. The method of securing an electrical lead
prehended in the claims.
wire to a metallic electrode surface which com
I claim:
prises: providing an electrical lead wire having
1. Securement means for securing an electrical
at its terminal portion an enlarged head portion
lead wire in electrical communication with an
generally in frusto-conical form; providing in
electrode surface which comprises: an electrical 60 the base member supporting said metallic elec
lead wire provided with an enlarged head portion
trode surface a generally frusto-pyramidal re
generally in the form of a frustum of a cone;
ceptor opening, the larger portion of said frusto
an insulating member provided with a receptor
pyramidal receptor opening being positioned to
opening, said receptor opening being generally
ward the interior of said base member; providing
in the shape of a frustum of a pyramid, the nar 65 on the interior surfaces of said frusto-pyramidal
rower end section of said frustum of a pyramid
receptor opening a metallic conducting layer, said
being adjacent the external surface of said in
metallic conducting layer being in electrical com
sulating member; an electrically conductive layer
munication with said metallic electrode; position
positioned on the interior surfaces of said re~
ing said frusto-conical head portion of said lead
ceptor opening in electrical communication with 70 wirein said frusto-pyramidal receptor opening;
the electrode surface which is to be brought into
?lling unoccupied portions of said frusto-pyram_
electrical communication with said lead wire;
idal receptor opening with solder, whereby elec
and means for positioning said generally irusto
trical communication is provided between said
conical head portion of said electrical lead wire
head portion of said lead wire, said interior con
in said receptor opening in such position that 75 ductive surface, and said metal electrode, and
2,413,539
7
'
8
\
placing in other unoccupied portions of said
"terior of said insulating base than it is adjacent
the external surfaces thereof; providing on the
frusto-pyramidal opening a vitreous insulating
I enamel, whereby said lead wire is securely re
interior surfaces of said receptor opening an elec
tained in position in said frusto-pyramidalopen
trically conductive layer‘ in electrical communi
ing.
cation with said electrode to be connected; then
dipping said enlarged head portion of said elec
trical lead wire in conductive paste, and then
5. The method of securing electrical leadwires
to an electrical capacitor, said electrical capaci
tor comprising a ceramic base member on which
there are mounted a plurality of layers of me
positioning said enlarged head portion in said
tapering receptor opening, said conductive paste
serving to establish electrical communication be
tween said lead wire and said electrode through
the interior conductive layer of said receptor
opening; and covering the resulting attachment
with an electrically insulating material, whereby
said electrical connection may be electrically
sealed from current leakage losses.
tallic electrodes and a plurality of interposed lay
ers of vitreous dielectric which comprises: pro
viding a plurality of electrical lead wires, the
terminal portions of said lead wires being formed
in generally frusto-‘conical form; providing a plu
rality of receptor openings in said ceramic base
member, said receptor openings being generally
of frusto-pyramidal form; providing on the in
8. The method of securing an electrical lead
- terior surfaces of said frusto-pyramidal receptor
wire to one of the electrodes of an electrical ca
openings a plurality of metallic electrically con
pacitor, said electrical capacitor comprising a
Q - ductive layers, each of said layers being in elec_
plurality of electrode plates separated by layers
trical communication with an electrode of said
of dielectric positioned on an insulating base
electrical capacitor; positioning said enlarged
which comprises: providing an electrical lead
frusto-conical head portions of each of said lead
wire with an enlarged head portion; forming in
wires in said frusto-pyramidal receptor openings;
said insulating base a generally tapering receptor
and introducing a mass of solder into un?lled 25 opening, said opening being larger toward the in
portions of said receptor openings whereby elec
terior of said insulating base than it is adjacent
trical communication is provided between said
the external surfaces thereof; providing on the
enlarged head portions, said interior metallic
interior surfaces of said receptor opening an elec
conductive layers, and each of said electrodes of
trically conductive layer in electrical communica
said electrical capacitor, and said lead wires are 30 tion with said electrode to be connected; then
securely held in position in said receptor open
dipping said enlarged head portion of said elec
ings.
trical lead wire in conductive paste, and then
6. The method of securing electrical lead wires
positioning said enlarged head portion in said
to an electrical capacitor, said electrical capacitor
tapering receptor opening, said conductive paste
comprising a ceramic base member on which
serving to' establish electrical communication be
there are mounted a plurality of layers of metallic
tween said lead wire and said electrode through
electrodes and a plurality of interposed layers of
the interior conductive layer of said receptor
vitreous dielectric which comprises: providing a
opening; positioning solder in un?lled portions
plurality of electrical lead wires, the terminal
of said tapering receptor opening to assist in
portions of said lead wires being formed in gen 40 holding said lead wire securely in position in said
erally frusto-conical form; providing a plurality
receptor opening.
of receptor openings in said ceramic base mem
9. The method of securing an electrical lead
ber, said receptor openings being generally of
wire to one of the electrodes of an electrical ca
frusto-pyramidal form; providing on the interior
pacitor, said electrical capacitor comprising a
surfaces of said frusto-pyramidal receptor open
plurality of electrode plates separated by layers
ings a plurality of metallic electrically conductive
of dielectric positioned on an insulating base
layers, each of said layers being in electrical com-I
which comprises: providing an electrical lead
munication with an electrode of said electrical
wire with an enlarged head portion; forming in
capacitor; positioning said enlarged frusto-coni~
said insulating base a generally tapering receptor
cal head portions of each of said lead wires in
opening, said opening being larger toward the in
said frusto-pyramidal receptor openings; intro
terior of said insulating base than it is adjacent
ducing a mass of solder into un?lled portions of
the externalsurfaces thereof; providing on the
said receptor openings whereby electrical com
interior surfaces of said receptor opening an elec
munication is provided between said enlarged
trically conductive layer in electrical communi
head portions, said interior metallic conductive , cation with said electrode to be connected; dip
layers, and each of said electrodes of said elecping said enlarged head portion of said electrical
trical capacitor; and ?lling other unoccupied por
lead wire in conductive paste, and then position
tions of said receptor openings with an insulat
ing said enlarged head portion in said tapering
ing vitreous enamel which serves to insulate and
receptor opening, said conductive paste serving
securely retain in place in said receptor openings
60 to establish electrical communication between
said electrical lead wires.
7
said lead wire and said electrode through the in
7. The method of securing an electrical lead
terior conductive layer of said receptor opening;
wire to one of the electrodes of an electrical ca
positioning solder in un?lled portions of said
pacitor, said electrical capacitor comprising a
tapering receptor opening to assist in holding
plurality of electrode plates separated by layers
said lead wire securely in position in said receptor
of dielectric positioned on an insulating base
opening; and ?lling other un?lled portions of
which comprises: providing an electrical lead
said receptor opening with a vitreous insulating
wire with an enlarged head portion; forming in
enamel which serves to insulate said connection
said insulating base a generally tapering receptor
and hold the members thereof securely in place.
opening, said opening being larger toward the in
.
,
,
KERMIT H. BALLARD.
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