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Filed Feb. 2l,_ 1945
Dec. 31,1946'.
Filed Feb. 21, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet@
Jolzzz @10222.25 Gil/27]@
Patented Dec. 31, 1946
.lohn rll‘lriomas Giliillan, Jr., Kenosha, Wis.
Application February 2l, 1945, Serial No. 579,006
(Cl. 1’78-26)
5 Claims.
It is an object of this invention to provide a
device capable of receiving manually transmitted
telegrap'nic code symbols and translating each
symbol into the typewritten letter or number
which the symbol represents,
The above and other objects will be made
clear from the following detailed description tak
en in connection with the annexed drawings in
Figure l is a diagram showing the apparatus 10
as a whole;
secutive letters and consecutive words, rather
than by shortening the interval between dots
and/or dashes, or the interval occupied by the
individual dot or dash itself.
In terms of absolute time, it is clear that the
incremental dirlerence between the length of a
dot transmitted by an operator of merely accept
able pro-ñciency and the length of a dot trans
mitted by the most skilled operator, is infini
tesimal. While the total duration of a dash is
considerably greater than that of a dot, and, ac
cordingly, the absolute time increment repre
Fig. 2 is a detail of the permutation bar restor
sented by a percentage difference is greater, it
ing means;
must be remembered that the actual formation
Fig. 3 is a side elevation of the rotary switch
15 of a dot impulse or a dash impulse represents
advancing means; and
purely the functioning of a conditioned reñex
Fig. 4 is an end elevation of the parts shown
and at the level designated as acceptable proli
in Fig. 3.
ciency such conditioned reflex is wholly divorced
The prior art añords many examples of the
from conscious intelligence and, therefore, any
combination of automatic transmission mth au
difference in the duration of dot or dash impulses
tomatic reception but in all such installations a
represent diilîerences in the physical coordination
synchronizing medium is provided so that trans
mission and reception are at all times positively
maintained in phase. Automatic transmission,
however, makes it essential that a given message
be manually transcribed upon a transmitting me
dium so that the transmitting medium may syn
chronize the transcribed message with the phase
requirements of the receiver. For many pur
poses, especially in military requirements, this
necessity oi' transcription at the point of origin 30
is a serious difficulty; first, because of the time
ci the individual operator and not to any great
extent the amount or degree of their training.
It is, therefore, safe to assume that variations
between a number of operators, all skilled at or
above the level of acceptable proficiency, will be
so slight that in terms of absolute increments of
time, differences in the duration of dots and in
the duration of dashes will be negligible.
The interval between dots and/or dashes in
the formation of the symbol of a, single letter
will be subject to slightly greater percentage
which must elapse between transcription and
between acceptable proficiency and
transmission; and second, because of the weight
maximum skill. This is because at the level of
and bulk of the apparatus for transcription and
35 acceptable proiiciency there may still be involved
an eiiort of the conscious intelligence in trans
This invention contemplates the automatic
lating the letters of the message into code sym
bols. This conscious eiîort tends to be replaced
of messages manually transmitted by means of
by conditioned reflex as the level of skill ap
the usual “key” The invention is based on the
fact that as the skill of the operato-r in the use 40 preaches maximiun. As will appear hereinafter,
however, the present apparatus requires less
of a telegraphic transmission lrey increases, all in
sensitivity in order to act on the interval between
dividual operators tend to approach a uniform
dots and dashes than it does on the duration of
“plateau” of speed, at which speed the following
the dots and dashes themselves.
time factors tend to become uniform.
Obviously, the selection of letters of the mes
These are:
sage will always involve a considerable degree of
reception and simultaneous printed transcription
conscious intelligence far less subject to replace
ment by conditioned reflex. The present ap
paratus, however. requires relatively little sensi
. The interval between consecutive dots and/or
A50 tivity with respect to pauses between letters, and
fl. The interval between consecutive letters; and
still less as to pauses between words.
5'. The interval between the end oi a word or
In the light of the foregoing, the principle upon
sentence, and the beginning of the next
which this apparatus is based may be summarized
. The length of a dot;
. The length of a dash;
as follows:
Eetween maxi-mum skill and what may be des 55 First, as between individual operators, variations
in the duration of individual dots and dashes
ignated as an acceptable degree of proficiency,
there may be a substantial range of overall speed
will be at a minimum;
Second, maximum variations between individual
oi transmission. lt will be found, however, that
operators will be encountered in the duration
this increase of speed is, attained to a far greater
of intervals between letters and words;
extent by shortening the interval between con 60
Third, sensing devices must be provided, which
devices will be responsive
(A) To the duration of individual dots and
(B) To the duration of the interval between
letters; and
ning of the transmission of each letter are
biased to the left in the position shown in Fig. l<
and the conductors on each bar are so arranged
that those contacts which are required to be op
erative for the transmission of a dot are in oper
ative position when the bars are in the position
shown in Fig. 1. If any of solenoids I-5 be en
(C) To the duration of the interval between
ergized, its permutation bar will be withdrawn to
The sensitivity of these sensing devices is ad
the right of the position shown in Fig. 1 and its
justed to allow for the difference in the percent 10 contacts will then be in dash transmitting posi
tion. A side bar 56 is provided as a guide for
of variations which may occur in each of the
permutation bar I and at the opposite side ofthe
three classes of intervals.
system a guide bar 6G is in sliding contact with
Before entering upon a detailed description of
permutation bar 5". Bars 50 and Gü have a num
the apparatus, it is necessary to point out that
all of the letters and numerals used in the Inter 15 ber of conductors extending transversely thereof.
Each conductor corresponds to a letter or digit.
national radio code are made up of from one to
Contacts of the bar 5I) are individually connected
five dotand/or dash symbols, Grouping these,
to the parallel leads of groups I through V. The
we ñnd that only two letters, E and T, comprise
a single symbol-these being respectively, a dot
contacts of the bar 60 are each connected to a
solenoid 62 and each solenoid operates or brings
and a dash. Only four letters comprise two sym
about the operation of a type bar or other suit
bols-these are A, I, M and N. Only eight let
able typing or printing means corresponding to
ters comprise three symbols-these are D, G, K,
a particular letter or digit. All of the solenoids
O, R, S, U and W. There are twelve letters com
62 are connected in parallel through lead 64 which
prised of four symbols--these letters are B, C, F,
is connected to contact ‘I6 of relay B.
I-I, J, L, P, Q, V, X, Y and Z. The ten digits, plus
When the leads of group I are grounded at 26.
the symbol AR (meaning the end of a message),
through contact II and arm 24 and the bars
and BT (meaning a break in transmission), each
I”-5" are in the position shown in Fig. 1, the
comprise iive symbols.
solenoid 62 corresponding to the letter E will be
In Figure 1, parallel connections are provided
for each letter or numeral within each group and
ready to be energized to type the letter. If, how
are respectively indicated by I through V. Each
group is in parallel with a solenoid designated
respectively I-5. These several solenoids are
ever, permutation bar I” were moved to the right,
to its dash position, and group I were grounded,
the solenoid 62 corresponding to the letter T
would be made ready to be energized to type that
letter. This is interpolated here in order to pro
I il which is connected to the key circuit by a
vide a clarifying example of the functioning of
lead lil’. The solenoids I-5 are connected with
the transverse conductors on the permutation
the parallel groups I-V by means of leads 5', 2',
bars. It is now necessary to describe the sensing
3', 4’ and 5’ respectively. The leads I’ through
devices which serve to differentiate between dots
5’ are connected to contacts II, I2, I3, I4 and I5,
respectively. A rotatably mounted disc 22 has 40 and dashes, the intervals between letters, and the
intervals between words.
formed in its perimeter a series of ratchet teeth
The sensing devices comprise relays B, C, and
II', I2', I3', I4’ and I5’. Aiiixed to the disc 22 is
D. Relay B is made up of a solenoid 'I0 grounded
a movable contact arm 24 which is electrically
at 12, a movable armature 74, and a contact 1E.
grounded at 26. A pawl 28 is mounted on one end
themselves in parallel to a common return lead
of a lever 3€! which rests on a fulcrum 32 and is 45 The armature 14 is biased so as normally to en~
counter the contact 78. Relay C is made up
of a solenoid 8B grounded at 82 and having an
ture of a solenoid H, and whenever the solenoid
armature 84 and a contact 88. The armature
H is energized, the lever 39 and pawl 28 are drawn
84 is normally biased to encounter the contact
downwardly thereby advancing the rotating con 50 8B. Relay D is made up of a solenoid 90 grounded
tact 24 `by onenotch. Solenoid H is grounded at
at S2 and having an armature 94 and a contact
2!) and connected to key circuit in parallel with
96. The armature 94 is biased so as normally to
biased by a spring 34 to hold the pawl 28 in up
ward position. ` The lever 30 constitutes the arma
solenoids I-5 by lead III’. It is clear, therefore,
encounter contact 96. Solenoids 1U, 88 and 90
that upon each closure of the key K the solenoid
are in parallel, through a lead IUI), with the
H will be energized.
55 key K and also with the disc actuating solenoid
When the key circuit opens at the end of each
H. The armatures 14, 84 and 94 are in parallel
dot or dash,»the solenoid I-I will be deenergized,
through a lead IIlZ with the opposite side of the
releasing the lever 3E) which will swing about the
key K. It is to be noted that the lead |82
fulcrum 32 under the pull of spring 34, thereby
connects to the positive side of the battery or
advancing the pawl 23 to the next ratchet tooth 60 other source of potential IIN. Each of the relays
thereabove. The disc V¿2 is connected with a
B, C and D is of the time delay type in which
torsion spring 38 (Fig. 3) which tends to move
the _armature will be drawn away from the con
the disc counter-clockwise and thus always to
tact instantly upon the solenoid being energized
return it to starting position. A supplemental
but a predetermined interval of time will elapse
pawl 48 isv pivoted at 42 and is impelled by a 65 after the solenoid is de-energized and before the
spring 44 to engage the ratchet teeth I I ’ through
armature returns to contact making position.
I 5’. The pawl 40 operates as a lock to prevent
When the key K is closed, current flows from
return of the disc 22 during the return move
the battery |04 through the key, through lead
ment of the pawl 28.
I 00 and simultaneously energizes solenoids 10,
A'series of permutation bars I ” through 5" are 70 80 and 90, thereby simultaneously drawing arma
provided corresponding respectively to solenoids
i-5. Each or" the permutation‘bars I" through
5" is slidable and bears a series of conductors
extending transversely thereof. By means pres
ently to be‘described, all lof the bars at the begin
turesy 14, 84 and ‘94 away from their respective
contacts. So long as the key is held down, the
armatures 14, 84 and 94 will continue to be
held out of contact making position. lTherefore,
75 whether the key be held down long enough to
form a dot or to form a dash, is immaterial,
since contacts 16, 85 and 96 must in all events
remain open.
It will be noted that solenoid H is in parallel
with relays B, C and D, and, therefore, is en
ergized simultaneously with .said relays when the
key is closed. Therefore, instantly upon closing
The operation of the apparatus in receiving
the letter X will now be considered as being a
more comprehensive example than the letter E.
The symbol for X is “- . . .._”. With the parts of
the position shown in Fig. l., key K is closed and
maintained closed for the duration of a dash.
The closure of the key immediately opens relays
B, C and D, energizes solenoid H, and advances
rotating contact 24 to position ii. The dura
of the key circuit, disc 22 and contact 24 are
rotated one notch. With the parts in the posi
tion of Fig. 1, closure of the key will open relays 10 tion 0f a dash is sufficiently long to energize sole
noid l to the extent of enabling it to withdraw
B, C and D, and will' advance contact 24 from
permutation bar i” from the position shown in
position l! to position il. rI‘his will ground sole
Fig. l to its alternative rightward position. A
noid i (on permutation bar l”) through the lead
member l5ll is provided to limit the move
Il, but solenoid i through lead l0 and closed
ment of the permutation bars under the eiîect of
key K is at the same time connected to the
their respective solenoids. At the conclusion of
positive side of battery iûá. Solenoids 1_5 are
the dash the key opens and in the very brief
proportioned and designed relative to the effort
pause before the beginning of the next symbol
necessary to move the permutation bars so that
there is not time enough for relays B, C and D
unless the key K remains closed for the dura
tion of a dash, solencids l-5 will not act to 20 to close their respective circuits. Two dots are
then transmitted by the key. Closure of the key
withdraw their respective permutation lbars to
re~energizes solenoids l0, 8G and 9€! of relays
dash position. Transmission of a dot, therefore,
B, C and D and thereby provides a new start
will merely advance the rotating contact 2li with
ing point for their time delay intervals. Each
out `moving the permutation bars from their
dot, by means of solenoid H, advances Contact
normal dot position.
25 from position ii to position I2 and then from
The letter E is represented in the code by a
single dot. As the key is depressed, relays B,
i2 t0 i3. Each dot, therefore, momentarily closes
the circuit of solenoids 2 and 3 respectively, but
C and D are opened; relay H advances contact
are of such short duration as not to alter the
24 so as to connect contact il to ground 2t; sole
noid i is momentarily energized but insui'liciently 30 leftward, or dot, position of permutation bars
2” and 3". To complete the transmission of
so to eii‘ect the position of permutation bay l".
the letter X a dash is now struck on the key.
The solenoid 62 corresponding to the letter E is
This advances the rotating contact 2li to posi
grounded via the conductors extending across
tion it closing the circuit of solenoid #i and,
bar t0, permutation bars I"-5", bar 5u, con
since it is a dash, maintaining the circuit closed
tact ll, and ground 2t’. Lead 54 which is in
long enough to draw permutation bar Li" to the
parallel with all of the printing solenoids is
right, or dash, position. rí‘here is now a substan
connected to contact 'iii of relay B. At the con
tial pause before the transmission of the next
clusion of the dot, there will be a distinct pause
letter. During this pause, armature i4 of re
before the beginning of the next letter. During
this pause, solenoid l0 or relay B is de~energized 40 lay B encounters contact 'it to energize the sole
noid 62 corresponding to the letter X and there
and the armature 'M goes back to encounter con
by to type the letter. Au instant after X has
tact 16 and complete the circuit of letter E
been typed, armature 8C. of relay C encounters
through lead m2 to the positive side of battery
Contact 86 and ysirmiltameously energizes solenoid
i042. Since E is a letter in itself, there will
be a longer pause before the key is closed again 45 E to restore permutation bar I" and 4” to their
original or dot position, and solenoid F to with
than would be the case in forming the con
draw pawls 2S and @,û, and to permit disc 22, under
secutive dots and dashes of a single letter before
the e?îect or torsion spring 38. to restore rotat
the key circuit is again closed. During this ad
ingcontact 24 to 0 position. If the pause fol
ditional pause and while solenoid Sil of relay C
is cle-energized, its armature fili, shortly after the 50 lowing transmission of the last dash in the let
ter X is only long enough to form a proper
closing of armature 'it of relay B, makes contact ,
pause between letters, the key will be closed again
with 36 and, through lead i612 and an additionaly
before armature 94 of relay D can encounter
lead I EG, energizes a solenoid E which is grounded
contact QS. Only a pause long enough to indi
at H4. This solenoid, by means described in
detail hereafter, actuates a restoring bar H6 55 cate the break between words will permit the
circuit of relay D to' be closed.
which on its downward movement -tends to move
It is to be noted that this apparatus will func
all the permutation bars to dot position. In the
example just considered, this is without effect
tion e?îectively only if the transmitting operator
is skilled above a certain minimum level of pro
because no bar is in dash position when the letter
ficiency. Above such level, the pauses between
E is transmitted.
letters becomes quite uniform as between vari
It is to be noted that a solenoid F is in parallel
ous operators, as do the pauses between words.
with the solenoid E and is grounded at IRQ.
and the difference in duration of the two types
Solenoid F is arranged to rock pawls 28 and
or" pauses also becomes uniform. It does not
40 out of engagement with the teeth of disc
matter how short the interval between consecu22, and torsion spring 38 then returns the rotat
ing contact 24 to the il position shown in Fig. l.
It E happens to be the end of a word, there
will be a still longer pause before the key K is
again closed. During this longer pause, solenoid
Sill of relay D is dewenergized and its armature 70
tive dots and/or dashes. It would, however, disn
rupt operations iî the pauses between consecu
tive dots and/ or dashes should become suiîiciently
long to permit operation of any of the relays B,
C and D. Fortunately, it is the interval between
@4 returns to meet its contact 95 and thus to enn
ergize a solenoid G grounded at dii. Solenoid G
consecutive dots and dashes which tends to
shorten more abruptly as the proficiency or the
operator rises from the level of merely accept
operates the spacer of the typing mechanism and,
able operation to the level of expert operation.
therefore, enters the proper spacing between
It will be understood from the foregoing that
the operation of relays B, C and D is completely
unalîected by variationsin the duration of the
impulseof individual dots and dashes. These
relays can only be affected by the duration of the
intervals during which the key circuit is open.
It is necessary that relay B shall resume closed
circuit condition within the interval between
consecutive dots and/or dashes. Assuming a
minimum level of acceptable proñciency in the
skill of the operator, there should never be any
confusion between such intervals, and the sole
noid B need only be designed for a time delay in
closing the circuit upon being de-energized,
which time delay will substantially‘exceed the
average interval between individual dots and
dashes, and which will be substantially shorter
than the average interval Abetween consecutive
letters. rFhis is an operation so far within the
range of measurable time as -not to impose an
symbol is a dash. , In the case of a dash, the key
remains closed long enough after the pointer
arrives at a station to permit the requisite sole
noid (i-E) to be energized. '
Fig. 2 is an enlarged view illustrating the mech
anism by which relay E is enabled t0 restore the
permutation bars from dash to dot position. The
rod i iii is biased by a spring 20B toward the posi
tion illustrated in Fig. 1 and is drawn down
wardly by solenoid E when the solenoid i-s ener
gized. The -rod H6 has a wedge HEY’ formed on'
one side for each permutation bar. -In Fig. 2
the permutation Ibar l” is illustrated as `having
a bellcrank 292 pivoted to its leftward extremity
by means of a pivot 204. One arm 266 of thebell crank 2%2 has at its extremity a roller 208
adapted to contact the inclined surface of the
wedge HS’. The arm 286 rests against a stop or
abutment 2i!) formed in the permutation bar I”.
undue burden of design in the actual layout of 20, The opposite arm 242 of the bell crank 202 has
relay B. The absolute time interval between let
a spring ¿It joining its extremity to the abut
ters is from two to live times the absolute time
ment 2id so as to bias the arm 2% against said
interval between individual dots and dashes (al
abutment. When the rod IIB under the pull of
ways assuming a reasonable minimum level of
solenoid E is drawn in the direction of the arrow,
skill on the part of the operator), and since the
the inclined surface of wedge IIS’ engages the
interval between letters is distinctly measurable,
roller 298, and since the abutment ZID prevents
it is relatively easy to time the action of relay
the arm 26E from swinging about the pivot 204,
B so as to fall short of the minimum interval
the wedge H6' forces the permutation bar l” to
between letters, while being distinctly greater
the left. The rod H6 is drawn down by the
than the maximum interval between individual 30 solenoid E until the upper edge H6” of the Wedge.
dots and dashes.
Hä’ clears the roller 208.,
Of the three relays B, C and D, relay B pre
Relay E can be energized only when armature
sents the most severe requirement of sensitivity.
8:3 of relay C encounters its Contact 86, but once
Relay C must be responsivein general to the same
the key K is in open position and armaturetll
intervals as relay B, but must always in its de
_ makes the circuit with contact 86, solenoid E will
laying action occupy a iinite rincrement of time
remain energized and the rod HS will, therefore,
in addition to the time occupied by the delay
remain in downward position until relieved as
ing action of relay B. This, for the reason that
hereinafter set forth.
the action of relay B in energizing the solenoid
It will be noted that the circuits controlled by
corresponding to a particular printed letter must 40
armatures and contacts of relays B, C and D
be complete before relay C can be permitted to
close the circuit of solenoid E.
will remain closed, so far as these relays are con
cerned, for so> long as the device is not in opera
tion. At the same time it i-s desirable that the
Relay D need be responsive only to the rela
tivelylong interval occurring between words. It
device be at all times ready for operation since,
particularly for military use, messages may arrive
must not close at the interval between consecu
tive dots and/or dashes, and it must lnot close
during the interval between letters. The inter
val between letters is, of course, shorter than the
interval between words, but as previously dis
cussed, the range of variations as between indi 5,0
vidual operators will be greater than such range
at any unpredictable time. In order to avoid a
power drainage upon a limited source of power
such as a battery, it is desirable to limit the~
amount of current drawn through the relay cir
cuits and in particular with respect to solenoid
it is desirable that this solenoid be de-energized '
of variation in the other interval.
before the start of a message -so that the pawls
The basic requirement is that relay D must
28 and d@ will be in their active position ready
never clo-se until after relay C has closed, but it
function within the extremely small time in'
must close before the key is again operated in 55
terval occupied by the reception of a dot. In the
order to provide word spacing in the typewritten
case of a relay F, this is accomplished by insert
ing in its lead line 582’ a relay L comprising an
The relayY I-l must perform a severe mechanical
armature 33t drawn by a spring 392 toward cir
job in advancing the point contact A,`and must
accomplish ~this advance within the absolute 60 cuit closing position and having a coil 301i, one
end of which is connected at 396 to the lead |02'
minimum of time in which its circuit is energized
intermediate the relay L and the relay C. The
by the key making contact. That is, the pointer
other end of the coil 304 is grounded at 398.
must advance, for example, from zero to 1, under
Relay L is a time delay relay opposite in phase
the influence of relay H, and thereby energize
solenoid i ,to withdraw its permutation bar from 65 to the type of time delay provided in relays C
and D, that is, it will not function to open the
dot to dash position in the duration of a single
through relay E' until current has ilowed
dash. Solenoid I must not, however, move its
through the coil 3M for a perceptible time. >The
permutation bar in the duration of a single dot
coil 3M is designed for extremely high resistance
Vsince this would disturb the basisof permutation.
as to .minimize the current flowing there
Sensitivity of relay I-I and solenoids i-âi must,
tbereforebe such that solenoid H will function. 70 through. W en the relay D is open, the circuit
of coil ¿ißt isV broken and the spring 3632 draws
to advance the pointer on an interval of a single
armature Se@ to a position where it completes
dot, and the time consumed by the advance of
the circuit of solenoid F. This will be the con
the pointer must be such that not enough time
dition of things so long as relay D is open.- When
remains Vto energize solenoids l-5, unless the
relay D closes, armature 30G at ñrst remains in
circuit closing position, but if relay D remains
closed more thana short interval, coil 30d which
is energized instantly on the closing oi relay D
will operate to withdraw the armature 3%?) and
thereby to de-energiae solenoid F, permitting
pawls 2S and ¿lil to return to active position and '
nected to a source of power, to said selector mech
anism and to all of said operating elements, and
means normally interrupting said return circuit
and responsive to the duration between successive
series of impulses for closing said circuit in re
sponse to the absence of an impulse for a prede
termined time.
3. In a telegraph printer apparatus, a plu
relay L will therefore remain energized until relay
D is again open. A similar' relay M is provided
rality of operating elements for character print
in the line i9 going to solenoid E, a similar relay
N is provided in the lead l lil’ going t0 solenoid G, 10 ers, a circuit connector mechanism, means con
necting each ci said operating elements to said
and a similar relay P is provided in the line of
connector mechanism for selective energization
solenoid B.
thereof, a selector mechanism movable in one di
When the typing machine is designed to operate
rection for sequentially connecting groups of op
on a continuous tape, there is no opportunity to
rewind a carriage feeding spring and, therefore,
the spacing is preferably accomplished electri
erating elements to a source of current, means re
sponsive to the duration of a code impulse for
controlling said connector mechanism, means re
sponsive to the number of impulses in a code series
cally.` For such an installation, an additional coil
G', grounded at Sii’ is wound on the armature of
for advancing said selector mechanism stepwise in
the spacing relay G and is connected by a lead 64’
to the lead 6G.. This means that the spacing relay 20 one direction, and means responsive to the dura
G is operated upon the typing of each letter, as
well as by relay D upon the conclusion of a word.
While a key has been shown for initiating the
dot and dash impulses, it is clear that any other
source could be used. The impulses, for example,
may be amplified radio signals. The apparatus is
designed only to translate groups of consecutive
impulses into the various letters, numerals and
symbols represented by each group of impulses.
The precise printing mechanism is, therefore, ir
relevant and is not here disclosed.
I claim:
1. In a telegraph printing apparatus, a plu- i
rality of type-bar operating elements, a series of
permutation bars bearing mutually engageable
contacts and arranged for sliding movement rela
tion between series of code impulses for complet
ing a circuit from said current source» through
said selector mechanism, said connector mech
anism and one of said operating elements, and
means responsive to the absence of an impulse
for a predetermined time for rapidly returning
said selectoi- mechanism to its original position in
the opposite direction.
4. In a telegraph printer apparatus, a plurality
of operating elements for character printers, a
common return circuit permanently connected to
all of said operating elements, a circuit connector
mechanism, means connecting each or said op
erating elements to said connector mechanism
for selective energization thereof, a selector mech
anism for sequentially connecting groups of op
erating elements to a source of current, means
tive to one another between two positions, fixed
responsive to the duration of a code impulse for
contact means mounted alongside an end bar of
controlling said connector mechanism, means re
said series and having a plurality of contacts each
sponsive to the number of impulses in a code series
connected to one of said operating elements, sec
for controlling said selector mechanism, and
ond ñxed Contact means mounted alongside the
means responsive to the duration between series
other end bar of said series and having a plurality
of code impulses for completing a circuit from
of contacts connected in parallel groups, multi
current sc-urce through one of said operating
contact selector mechanism, each of Said groups
being connected to one contact of said selector 45 elements, and for rapidly restoring said selector
mechanism with a minimum of delay to its con
mechanism, means responsive to the duration of
dition prior to the beginning of the said series
individual impulses of a code series for controlling
of pulses.
the positioning of said permutation bars, means
5. In a telegraph printer apparatus, a plurality
responsive to the number of impulses in a code
series for controlling the operation of said se 50 of groups of operating elements for character
printers, a common return circuit permanently
lector mechanism, and a return circuit connected
connected to all of said operating elements, con
to a. source of power, to said selector mechanism
nector means responsive to the length of each of a
and to all of said operating elements.
series of impulses for connecting one element only
2. In a telegraph printing apparatus, a plu
of each group to a respective circuit, a spring
rality of type-bar operating elements, a series of
permutation bars bearing mutually engageable
returned multi-contact selector switch operable by
each of said pulses for sequentially connecting
contacts and arranged for sliding movement rela
said circuits to a source of power, and means re
tive to one another between two positions, ñxed
sponsive to the absence of an impulse for a pre
contact means -mounted alongside an end bar o-Í
said series and having a. plurality of contacts each 60 determined time for completing a circuit from said
power source to all of said operating elements
connected to one of said operating elements, sec
and for restoring said connector means and said
ond fixed contact means mounted alongside the
selector switch rapidly to their normal positions,
other end bar of said series and having a plu
said selector switch having a dead or non-con
rality of contacts connected in parallel groups,
position to which it is operated by any
multi-contact selector mechanism, each of said 65 tacting
surplus non-significant impulse in excess of the
groups being connected to one contact of said se
maximum number of impulses per series in the
lector mechanism, means responsive to the dura
anticipated code, whereby such a surplus impulse
tion of individual impulses of a code series for
is ineffective to cause a connection from any of
controlling the positioning of said permutation
bars, means responsive to the number of impulses 70 said circuits to said power source.
in a code series for controlling the operation of
said- selector mechanism, a return -circuit con
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