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Dec. 31, 1946.
2,413,559
‘R. c. GREENLEES
DYEING OF FILMS POSSESSING LOW WATER IMBIBITION
Filed 001;. 14, 1944
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RAYMOND CRAWFORD GREEN LEES
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3y his ailarney;
Patented Dec. 31, 71946
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2,413,559
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
DYEING OF FILMS POSSESSING‘L'OW
WATER IMBIBITION
'
Raymond Crawford Greenlees, Coventry, Eng
land, assignor to Courtaulds Limited, London,
England, a company of Great Britain
‘Application October 14, 1944, Serial No. 558,729
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In Great Britain December 13, 1943
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3 Claims.
1
2
This invention relates to the dyeing of ?hns
pzsssessing low water i'mbibition‘ and is particu
lrly' concerned with the dyeing of such ?lms in
polymerised alkyl substituted acrylic esters such
»
a ‘lie (or jigger) dyeing machine, or a dyeing
,machine using the same principle.
When dyeing material suchras fabric in a jig,
the fabric, which has been-wound up on to one of
the rollers ?xed above the‘ dyebath, is passed
under a guide roller immersed in the dyebath
'1
and rewound on to the second roller ?xed above
the dyebath, the fabric being run forwards and
' - backwards from one roller to the other until the
dyeing has proceeded to the desired extent. It
is a characteristic of jig dyeing that as part of
the dye liquor is taken up by the fabric during
its passage through the dyebath, most of the
dyeing takes place, not in the dyebath but whilst
as polymerised methyl methacrylate. The proc
ess of this invention is applicable to ?lms which
in addition to any one or more of the above
materials also contain plasticising or softening
agents of the usual type such as dimethyl phthal
ate, diethyl phthalate, dimethoxy'ethyl phthalate,
dibutyl vphthalate, methyl and ethyl phthalyl
ethyl g-lycollates, dimethyl, tartrate, diethyl tar
trate,_'triphenyl phosphate, tricresyl phosphate,
diacetin, tri'acetin and trichlorethyl phosphate..
,1 Thefabric 'shouldpreferably be one which has
very little or no a?inity for the ,dyestuif being
employed in any particular instance. For exam
ple, when dyeing cellulose acetate ?lm with a
dispersed dyestuff such as Duranol Violet 2 R 300
(Imperial Chemical Industries Limited) a cotton
the fabric is Wound up on the rollers, When jig
or a viscose rayon fabric is suitable.
dyeing is applied to ?lms of a thermoplastic ma
When dyeing cellulose acetate ?lm according
terial such as cellulose acetate, the Water im 20 to this invention, it has been found that in order
bibition of the ?lm is so low that little or no
to prevent the ?lm blushing permanently, it is
liquor is taken up with the result that the dyeing
desirable to dye at a temperature of about 65°
operation is very time consuming,
to ‘70° centigrade which is lower than usual for
I have found that the dyeing of ?lms possessing
cellulose acetate fabric,‘ and further the ?lm
low water imbibition, such as cellulose acetate
should not be allowed to dry in the air at ordi
?lms, on a jig or like machine is considerably
nary temperatures but should be dried immedi
expedited by associating the said ?lm through
ately at 80° to 110° centigrade.
out its length with a fabric capable of taking up
In the accompanying drawing
the dye liquor. The ?lm is preferably associated
Figure 1 shows the assembly of the ?lms with
with two fabrics. one on each side of the ?lm. 30 two fabrics, one on each side,
Generally speaking, ?lms of thermoplastic ma
Figure 2 is a section on the line II—]I of ‘Fig
terial possess a low water imbibition.
ure 1, and
According to a preferred embodiment of the
Figure 3 is a diagrammatic end view of a jig
invention, a ?lm of cellulose acetate is placed
dyeing machine suitable for use in carrying out
between two lengths of a fabric, for example of 35 the process of the invention.
cotton, and the whole is then woundlon to one
The ?lm l to be dyed is covered on both sides
of the rollers ?xed above the dyebath. The ?lm
with the fabrics 2,1 2. The assembled ?lm and
and the fabrics are passed through the dyebath
fabrics are then wound on the roller 3 to form
and wound up on the second roller and the pas- ’
the roll 4 comprising contacting layers of ?lm I
sage from one roller to the other is repeated as 40 and fabric 2. To dye the ?lm, the assembly 5
desired in the usual manner of jig dyeing. The
of ?lm and fabric is led from the roller 3 into
cotton fabrics serve to take up dye liquor so that
dyeing of the ?lm takes place while it is wound
up on the rollers, the dyeing operation being
thereby considerably expedited.
Although the process of this invention is par
ticularly advantageous in the dyeing of ?lms of
cellulose acetate, it may also be applied to the
vdyeing of ?lms of other organic derivatives of
cellulose such as for example, cellulose propio
nate, cellulose butyrate, cellulose acetate-butyr
ate, cellulose acetate-propionate, ethyl cellulose
contact with the roller 6, under the guide roller
1 immersed in the dye liquor 8 in the bath 9, into
45 contact with the roller Ill and Wound up on the
roller ll. When the assembly 5 has passed com_
pletely through the bath 9 and is wound up on
the roller II, it is passed through the bath in
the opposite direction and is rewound on roller
3, the assembly being run backwards and for
wards from roller 3 to roller II and back again
until dyeing has proceeded to the desired extent.
This invention is illustrated by the following
examples, the parts and percentages being by
merised Vinyl acetate, polyvinyl chloracetate and 65 weight.
acetate, ethyl cellulose and benzyl cellulose, or
of other thermoplastic materials such as poly
2,413,559
3
4
Example 1
cal Industries Limited), 0.83 per cent of Duranol
Red X 3B 300 (Imperial Chemical Industries
Limited), 0.2 per cent of Turkey red oil and 1
per cent sodium hexametaphosphate. The ?lm
is immediately dried at 100° centigrade and is
found to be dyed to an amber shade.
In general the above-mentioned liquor to ?lm
A ?lm 0.01 inch thick and 24 inches wide pre
pared from a composition containing 100 parts
of cellulose acetate (57 per cent acetyl content
calculated as acetic acid) 20 parts vof dimethyl
phthalate and v9 parts of triphenyl phosphate is
placed between two lengths of cotton fabric and
'' ratio of 3:1 will be su?icient for dyeing purposes
but in cases where the cotton fabric is of such
The whole is then jig-dyed in the
10 a nature as to absorb all the dye liquor in the
wound onto a roller, such as the roller 3 shown in
the drawing.
manner described, at 65° centigrade with the
usual ratio of weight of liquor to weight of ?lm
of 3:1 in a dyebath consisting of an aqueous dis
persion containing 2 per cent of Duranol Violet
2 R 300, 0.2 per cent of Turkey red oil as dispers
ing agent, and 1 per cent of sodium hexameta
phosphate. After dyeing, the ?lm is immediately
dye-bath, it will be necessary to use a greater
proportion of dye liquor in order to maintain a
surplus supply thereof in the dyebath.
What I claim is:
1. A process of dyeing a ?lm possessing low
Water imbibition comprising covering a side of
the ?lm with afabric so that the fabric and ?lm
are in face to face contact throughout the length
dried at 100° centigrade and will be found to pos
sess a much deeper shade than a similar cellu
of the ?lm, and then dyeing the ?lm by passing
lose acetate ?lm treated under identical condi
the
?lm and fabric through a bath of a selected
20
tions, but with the omission of the two sheets of
dye color, and winding the ?lm and fabric into
cotton fabric.
a roll comprising contacting layers of ?lm and
Example 2
fabric, whereby the fabric acts as a reservoir of '
absorbed dye liquor for the ?lm and the ?lm
A length of cellulose acetate ?lm of the same
composition and dimensions as in Example 1 is 25 absorbs the dye from the dye liquor by virtue of
its greater af?nity for the dye.
placed between two lengths of a cotton fabric
2. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the
and then wound onto a roller and dyed on a jig
?lm is associated with two fabrics, one on each
dyeing machine in the manner described, for
side.
one hour at 65° centigrade with the same liquor
3. A process as claimed in claim 1 wherein the
to ?lm ratio of 3:1 in a dyebath consisting of 30
?lm is cellulose acetate.
an aqueous dispersion containing 1.66 per cent
RAYMOND CRAWFORD GREENLEES.
of Dispersol Fast Yellow A 300 (Imperial Chemi
Certi?cate of Correction
December 31, 1946.
Patent No. 2,413,559.
RAYMOND CRAWFORD GREENLEES
It is hereby certi?ed that error appears in the printed speci?cation of the above
numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 4, line 21, claim 1, for the
word “color” read liquor; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this
correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent
O?ice.
Signed and sealed this 4th day of March, A. D. 1947.
[um]
LESLIE FRAZER,
First Assistant Commissioner of Patents.
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