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Dec. 31, 1946.
E. C. BIERMAN -
2,413,600 '
METHOD OF MAKING RETICLES
Filed June 25, 1942
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2,413,500
Patented Fee. 31, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,413,600,
METHOD oF MAKING RETICLES
Everett 0. Bierman, Charlotte, N. 0., assignor to
Semagraph Company, Charlotte, N. C., a cor
poration of Delaware
Application June 23, 1942, Serial vNo. 448,114
2 Claims. (01. 95-5)
1
My invention relates to reticles and more par
ticularly to an improved, photographic, method
of producing reticles on glass. Such reticles are
adaptable for use in telescopes, gun sights and
2
to enable subsequent positive photographic repro
duction onto the ?nal glass plate or glass disks.
This multiple photographing to produce the mas
ter negative, is done by means of a photocom
posing machine having the conventional means
to move the machine laterally and vertically in
stepwise manner and thereby produce a large
number of photographic negatives in proper
various optical instruments.
The most common present method of making
reticles involves the time consuming and meticu
lous task of engraving the design in metal, by
spaced relationship.
hand or machine, or the etching of the design
When desired, the reverse photographic pro
with hydro?uoric acid. My invention avoids all 10
cedure may be used; that is, the original negative
of the disadvantages and limitations of these prior
rather than the original positive may be em
practices by eliminating entirely the engraving
ployed in the photocomposing machine to pro
and etching procedures.
duce the reticles on the master plate as photo
One of the characterizing and commercially ad
graphic positives.
vantageous features of my invention is the exclu
The details of construction and mode of opera
sively photographic method for producing the
tion will be understood from the following de
reticles on glass without the necessity of etching
soription taken in conjunction with the accom
or engraving the glass. The reticle lines photo
panying drawing, in which:
graphed on the glass are markedly resistant to
Fig. 1 is a top plan view of an illustrative form
handling. Also, they are resistant to a number
of reticle holder, showing transparent, pres'haped,
of optical cleaning agents including denatured
circular, reticle blanks placed in the holder cavi
alcohol.
ties preparatory to having the reticles photo
Another valuable feature of my invention is the
manufacture of reticles in multiple from a master
photographic plate that enables quantity produc
tion of the reticles in a relatively very short time.
This procedure constitutes a marked improvement
over the prior methods of making individual reti
cles in such a manner that each reticle requires
- graphically produced thereon, one of the cavities
.- being vacant to show more clearly the form there
of ;
.
Fig. 2 is a view partly in side edge elevation and
partly in longitudinal section on the line 2-—2 of
Fig. 1;
>
Fig. 3 is a top plan view of a glass plate having
repetition of the complete process.
30 a multiplicity of ?nished reticles photographed
In‘accordance with my invention, I produce the
reticles by making or obtaining a photograph of
thereon;
,
Fig. 4 is a side edge elevation of the glass plate
the original reticle design and then by relatively
shown in Fig. 3;
rapid, consecutive, photographic exposures I make
~ Fig. 5 is an isometric detail View of a ?nished
a number of photographic reproductions on glass
or ?lm, to produce a master, photographic nega
reticle; and,
Fig. 6 is a plan view of a modi?ed reticle design.
Referring now to the drawing, the numeral l0
designates one type of suitable holder for indi
vidual circular glass disks I I on which the reticles
of positive prints on a single glass plate or upon 40 are to be photographed. The holder, as shown,
is rectangular, preferably made of metal, al
a plurality of separate glass disks. The separate
though any other suitable material may be used,
glass disks may be previously cut and ground to
and provided with a multiplicity of circular, bev
the size and shape necessary for ultimate use in
eled recesses l2. The recesses are of proper size
the optical device. Where a single glass plate is
used the reticles produced thereon in spaced re
and shape to receive the respective individual
lationship are subsequently out out to form indi
disks l I with a snug lit. The holder 10 is of sub
vidual disks.
stantially the same thickness as the glass disks
In preparing the ?rst single photographic neg
1 I so that the inserted disks will be approximately
ative from the original drawing or other illustra
flush with the top face of the holder. Adhesive
tion of the reticle, a process camera or contact
strips, shown at l3, may beused to retain, releas
printing may be used. This original negative
ably, the disks in the recesses.
may then be printed to make a positive on ?lm
' tive, having a plurality of the reticles located in
spaced relationship. This master negative may
then be used for producing simultaneously by
photographic contact printing, a duplicate series
or glass. To produce a master negative this pOSiq
tive is photographed a number of times onto a
The photographic method, referred to above
and now to be described more in detail, which
glass or film and the negatives spaced properly 56 produces“ the reticle design on the disks, is both
£2,413,600
3
4
expeditious and economical and enables accurate
Various types of materials may be used to
render the surface of the reticle body light sensi
tive, but for the speci?c purpose of making reti
reproduction in large quantities.
In carrying out this method, the original mas
ter negative or positive is placed in direct con
cles, in accordance with my present invention, I
tact and in registry with the disks H and the
reticles are photographically reproduced simul
taneously onto the plurality of glass disks II in
have found it of advantage to use a material
made according to the following formula:
Formula
the holder it. When a master negative is used
Water _________________________ __ounces__ 32
it may have the same number of reticles and in
__
dn
5
the same group arrangement as the disks H 50 10 Glue ____
Gelatin _________________________ __grains__ 60
that they will register with the disks l I which
Ammonium bichromate __________ __ounces__ 3/1
are placed in the several receptacles l2 and have
been previously coated on their top faces with
some suitable light sensitive photographic mate
rial.
An illustrative but non-limiting example of the
reticle design is shown in Fig, 3 photographically
produced on a glass plate M. It comprises ascale
The procedure which I advantageously follow
sighting through a telescopic sight in a gun or in
binoculars. However, any additional lines or de
signs may also be used such as parallel lines
shown generally at [6. The reticles shown in
multiple in this Fig. 3 are produced from a cor
responding master negative as described above.
When the photographic process has been com
glass.
Following this, the plate is submerged in a dye
solution comprised of the following:
for preparing and using the above formula is as
follows: The glass plate or disks, is covered
with the above solution, then exposed to light
and then developed in the usual way.
Next, a solution of acetic acid and Water is
generally indicated at l5. In some instances this
?owed over the developed plate. This hardens
may constitute the entire reticle design used for 20 the photographieally produced image on the
Du Pont Negrosine W. S. P. Powder
Dye ___________________________ __ounces__ 6
pleted the reticles produced thereby on the glass
Du Pont Orange II Dye (conc.) ____ __do____ 6
Du Pont Negeria Black CX _________ __do____ 6
plate It may then be cut out to form individual
Acetic acid __________________________do____ 2
reticles, as shown in Fig. 5. The peripheral edges 30 Distilled water __________________ "gallons" 1
of the reticle may be ground to obtain the desired
During this dye treatment the photographic
reticle size.
plate is rocked or agitated to give uniform treat
My invention is not limited to the speci?c
ment of the photographic image. This requires
reticle design shown in Fig. 5 but is applicable
about 30-45 minutes depending upon the tem
generally to any and all types of design, which
perature of the dye solution which may be from
are subject to photographic reproduction. An
about room temperature or up to about 100° F.
example of another design is shown in Fig. 6. It
Following this, the photographic plate is re
comprises a scale ll extending across the reticle
moved from the dye and placed in a solution of:
disk I! parallel with and below the horizontal
Ounces
diameter thereof.v This scale, as shown, is inter
Water __________________________________ __ 24
sected by a right-angular scale l8 at the right of
Potassium alum _________________________ __ 1A1
the vertical diameter of the disk II. The divi
sions of the horizontal scale‘ ll are equal, but the
for a few minutes time. This increases the hard
divisions of the vertical scale l8 progressively
ness of the photographic image.
increase in size from top to bottom. As shown,
The plate is then rinsed with water and dried
the divisions of the scales I‘! and H; are respec
tively numbered as at l9 and 2B. In the same
and then baked slightly by application of heat
manner, the scale id of the reticle shown in Figs.
may be used to bake the photographic image more
uniformly and reduce the risk of glass breakage.
Various modi?cations and changes may be
made in the above described materials and meth
ods without departing from the scope of my in
3 and 5 may be characteristically numbered or
otherwise marked. In the reticle shown in Fig.
either in the open or in an oven. Infra red light
6 there are provided short horizontal parallel
lines 2! coincident with the vertical diameter of
the disk H and middle division line of the scale
vention, some of the novel features of which are
l1, while at the left end of said scale there is
de?ned in the appended claims.
another series of short parallel lines 22.
I claim: 7
The reticle body disks H may be of any con
1. A method of making an article suitable for
ventional or approved shape, other than circular
use in an optical instrument comprising coating
as shown;_ and the holder l0 accordingly modi
an article of glass or similar material with an
?ed to conform to and accommodate the disks.
aqueous solution of glue, gelatin and ammonium
Instead of glass other transparent material may 60 bichromate, exposing said coated article to light
be used, provided it possesses the necessary re
projected through a photographic negative of a
fractive and other optical properties required for
reticle to produce a photographic positive of said
reticles. some of the high quality transparent
reticle on said article, developing said photo
plastics, such as for example “Lucite” may pos
graphic positive, andremoving all other deposit
sibly be used.
65 of said light sensitive coating, washing said arti
The light sensitive coating material used on
cle with an aqueous solution of acetic acid to
the disks H or plate 43 is of such character that
the portions of the coating unaffected by the
light, during the photographic exposure and de
harden the photographic positive, subjecting said
photographic positive to a dye solution for a sub
stantial length of time to dye or darken said pho
veloping process, is removable by water‘ or some 70 tographic positive, then washing it with alum to
other suitable solvent, but the portions that have
been affected, and thus constitute the reticle de
sign remain in permanent form on the glass and
are markedly resistant to handling, even to the
effects of heat, certain chemicals, and abrasion.
increase the hardness of the photographic posi
tive, again Washing with water, and ?nally heat
ing the article to bake the photographic positive
reticle to’ a permanent, non-soluble, abrasion ‘re
sistant‘ form, while‘ leaving the‘ entirev remainder
2,413,600
5
6
and glue composition, exposing the coating to a
body, removing the unexposed areas of the coat
ing, washing said transparent body with an acetic
acid solution to effect hardening of said lines,
and heating the acetic acid hardened lines to
effect further hardening thereof, whereby a pho
tographic positive reticle resistant to abrasion
light projected image of ?ne lines to effect a
and solvents is produced on the transparent body.
of the article uncoated and in clean transparent
form.
2. A photographic method of producing reticles
comprising coating a transparent body with a
light sensitive, ammonium bichromate, gelatin,
reproduction of said lines on said transparent
'
EVERETT C. BIERMAN.
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