Dec. 3l, Í94È _|_ HI HAMMOND, JR 2,4Í3,621- RADIO CONTROLLED ROCKET Filed March 22,1944 .b axPLoswa I3 w TIB œ9nI9 .I 0a Racen/¿R |04 409 s sheets-sheet 1 Déc. 31, 1946. „L H, HAMMQND, JR 2,413,621 RADIO CONTROLLED ROCKET \- Filed March 22, 1944 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 24 76 Recs :VER lNvENroR - JoHN HAvYs HAMMoND, JR. BY " f / 2,413,621 Patented Dec. 31, 1946 "f¿~UNiTED» vsrnria‘zs PATENT orifice 2,413,621 'RADIO .CONTROLLED ROCKET John Hays Hammond, Jr., Gloucester, Mass., as signor to Radio Corporation of America, New York, N. Y., aïcorporartion of Delaware Application March 22, 1944,’Serlal No.' 527,536 ' y1 I 6 claims. (ci. 1oz-_50) vThe invention relates to the radio-dynamic. control of rockets and more particularly to a radio control system whichV can selectively steer the rocket inany one of a pluralityof directions. The invention provides means for controlling Y‘the path of night of a rocket in connection with gyroscopic or other stabilizing means in" which the rocket may be caused to travel on a definite. course under -gyroscopic control, this course, ' 2 and I'I.Y Thev propulsion compartment I5 (Fig. 2) is connected at its lower end to a discharge tube I8. Mounted on the discharge tube I8 are fins _ 20. The explosive compartment I3 is filled with a high explosive I9 and the propulsion compart ment l5 is ñlled with sticks of slow burning pow der 2I or other suitable material for rocket pro pulsion. ` ' In the control compartment I4 are located two however, being cap-able. of being changed by 10 gyroscopes 22 and 222, a radio receiver 24 and means of radio control.` Y Y ’ a ,rudder operating mechanism 25. The gyro The invention also consists in certain new and scope 22 comprises a rotor (not shown) mounted original features of construction and combina for rotation in a rotor casing 26 (see Fig. 3) which i .tions of parts hereinafter set forth and claimed. is pivoted in a gimbal ring 21. The gimbal ring - ;- Although the novel features which are believed 21 is pivoted inv a cross member 28 and is pro „to'be characteristic of `thisinvention will be par vided with a shaft 2s which is rotatably mounted ticularly pointed out in the claims appended vin a control box 30. To the end of the shaft 29 hereto, the invention itself, as to its objects and (see Figs. 4 and 5) is attached a contact arm advantages, :the mode of its operation and the 32 which co-operates with two semi-circular con 20 ~ma`riner of its organization may be better under ducting segments 33 and 34 which are-mounted 'stood -by referring to the following description on `but insulated from a disc 35. The disc 35 is taken in 2 connection with the accompanying rotatably mounted in line with the shaft 29 and drawings forming a part thereof, in which is provided with two sets of ratchet teeth 36 Fig. 1 is a’ iongitudinai section of the forward and 31 and a set of detent teeth 38. I portion of a rocket embodying the present/in 25 Mounted in the control box 3U are two solenoids vention.` Y . 4I and 4Ia which are provided with cores 43 ,_ Fig. 2 isa longitudinal section of the after por Ä and 43a which reciprocate in brackets 44 and ` g ' Y ’ ' 44a respectively. The cores 43 and 43a are pro Fig. 3 is a section taken on line 3-'-3 ofFig. 1; videdwith shoulders 45, 45a and 46, 46a, respec 30 tively, the latter Anormally engaging the brackets vFig'f‘l` is an enlarged Vview vof the control box; >-tion ofthe rocket; Figfâ isla plan view of the control'box; *_Fig..6 illustrates diagrammatically the receiv- A -ing' circuits located on the rocket.; . ' Figf’! is a section taken on line 'I-1 of ¿F-ig. î2; Fig. 8 is a section taken on line 8-.8 of Fig. 2; f Fig. 9 isa _block diagram ofthe transmitter: and ' ' I ` ’ , y Q Fig. 10 is alongitudinal section of the forward portion'of the rocket showing amodiñed form of the invention. " ' ' Q .Like reference characters denote like parts in the several figures of the-drawings. `144, 44a. Between the »shoulders 45, 45a and the solenoids are mounted compression springs 47, 41a. Pivotally mounted on the cores 43, 43a are pawls 48, 48a against which press hat springs 49, 35 49a. The pawls 48 and'48a cooperate with the _ ratchets 36 and 31, respectively, but are normally held out of engagement withthese ratchets. A detent 40 is secured to the end of a ñat spring 50 and engages the teeth 38. 40 - VThe gyroscope 222 is similar to the gyroscope 22 and is provided with a shaft 229 rotatably mounted in a control box 23D. The correspond inthe, fonowmg "descriptionparts -Win be iden-> ing parts have been given theîsame reference characters as those -described above Vbut with the are intended to be as generic in theirapplication 45 numerals increased by 200. In order tohold the gyroscopes 22 and 222 in to . `Referringto similar Ypartsthe as lthe accompanying art will permit. drawings andy ' ñxed positions until the rocket II is ready to be tiíiedbyspeciiic names for convenience, -but they ñred L shaped arms 5I and 215i are provided more particularly to Figsnl and 2 a rocket II is shown as resting in a ñring` tube I2 Iwhich may 50 which are pivoted to brackets 52 and 252 secured to the shell of the rocket II. Engaging the be mounted in any suitable manner, not shown, for projecting the rocket I I in any desired direc tion.v The> rocket II is divided into explosive, control, and propulsion compartments I3, I4 and I 5l respectively by two transverse partitions .I6 small ends of the arms 5I and 2.5I are'Z-shaped` members 53 and 253 which are pivoted in brackets 54 and 254. Flat springs'55 and 255 tend to hold one end of the respective members 53 .and 55 253 against the inside surface of the tube-cl2. 2,411.8;621 3 4 means of two solenoids |09 and H0. l'fe'i'ísîtm springs 56 and 256 are connected to the Balanced compression springs ||2 and 3|2 are provided to maintain the valves |05 and |06 in a central arms ‘5l-and 25| and to brackets 51 and 251 and tend to pull the arms 5| and 25| respectively away from the gyro casings 26 and 226. The outer ends of brackets 51 and 251 engage the casings 26 and 226. The inner ends of the arms Y5| and. 25| are provided with contacts 58 and position when the solenoids |01-I I0 are de-ener gized. The windings of the solenoids |09 and || 0 are connected by conductors ||3 and ||4 to two brushes H5 and H6 which are mounted on a 258 which engage contacts 59 and 259 connectedv to the windings 6| and 26| respectively of the block of insulation ||1 in the control box 30 gyro rotors. The contacts 58 and 258Tare con- 10 and which make contact with the contact seg ments 33 and 34 respectively. The return leads nected by ñexible conductors 62 and 262 to con tacts 63 and 263 respectively which are mounted in blocks of insulation 64 and 264 in the shell of the rocket |I. The contacts 63 and 263 nor mally engage contacts 65 and 265 respectively 15 mounted in blocks of insulation 66 and 266 in the tube l2. The contacts 65 and 265 are con of the windingsof the solenoids |09 and ||0 are connected by a conductor ||8 to a battery ||9 which is connected by a conductor |20 to the con tact arm 32. The solenoids |01 and |08 are connected in a similar manner to brushes ||5a and ||6a in control box 230. The conductors H3, ||4 and |20 together with the conductors from the radio receiver 24‘ to control box v30, pass nected in parallel across a source of electrical energy 61 through a switch 66. Fig, 6 is a diagrammatic illustration of the re 20 thru a protective sleeve |2| under the gyroscope 222. ' ceiver 24 which may be similar in design to the For igniting `the propulsion powder sticks 2| an igniter |22 is provided which is mounted ad jacent tothe powder sticks 2| and is connected by two conductors |23 to two contacts |24 mount receiver depicted in Fig. 3 of my co-pending appli cation 458,938 and is connected to a directional antenna system 1 | _12, 13-14 which is mounted at the tail of the rocket || (see Fig. 8). The axes of the antennas 1|-12 and 13--14 are located4 ed in a block of insulation |25. The contacts |24 engage contacts |26 which are mounted in a block of insulation |21 and which are connect ed in series with a battery |28 and a switch |29. in planes at right angles to each other and preferably in the planes of the vanes 20. The antennas are shown as comprising wave Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic illustration of the receiving members 15--16 and 11-18 and direc 30 transmitter which may be similar in design to tional members 8|--82 and 83--~84. The direc~ the transmitter depicted in Fig. 2 of my copend tional members are suited to make the receiving ing application. Serial Number 458,938. The elements receptive to signals, received from the rear and to shield the receiving members from waves propagated from other directions, so that : possibility of interference with the control beam is eliminated. A The receiver 24 is -connected thru ñve ñlters 85-89 to the input circuits ofnve ampliñers transmitter is of a. type to generate a short wave carrier modulated by a control frequency. Five modulators |30--I34 are connected to vary the control frequency when individually operated to. produce the “A,” “~B,” “C,” “D” and “E” control frequencies respectively. Thefmodulators |30 BSc-89a the output `circuits of which are con 40 |34 are controlled by five keys |35-|39. The transmitter is connected to the antenna |4|` by nected to the solenoids 4| and 4|a in control box means vof the line |42. / 30, the solenoids 24| and 24m in the control box 230, and to a relay 90 respectively. The contacts l of the relay 90 are connected thru a battery 90a (Fig. l) to a detonator 90b which is located in the explosive charge I9 in the explosive compart ment |3. ' .. The rudder operating mechanism 25 controls two sets of rudders 9| and92 pivotally mounted in the vanes 20. The two ‘rudders 9| are con nected together by a curved rod 93 and the two rudders 92 are connected together by a curved rod 94. ~ , , The two sets ol“ rudders 9| and 92 are con Operation A> few minutes before it is desired to .fire the rocket || the switch 68 is closed which closes a circuit from the generator 61 thru the contacts 65 and 63, conductors 62, contacts 58 and 59 to the Vwindings 6| ofthe gyroscopes 22 and 222. This causes the rotating elements of the gyro 50 scopes 22 and 222 to be brought up and main tained at speed. The gyroscopes 22 and 222 are*v held in the positions shown by means of the arms 5| and 25|. . .. . nected by links 95 and 295- respectively to piston 55 _Y When it is desiredto flre the rocket || >the switch |29 is closed thus completing aicircuit . rods 96 and 296,L attached to pistons 91 and 291 from the battery |28 to the igniter |22 .which which reciprocate in cylinders 98 and 99. Bal ignites the powder sticks 2 I. As these commence anced compression springs |0| and 30| are pro to burn the products of combustion will be forced vided for normally holding the> pistons 91 and 291 respectively and therefore therudders 9| and 60 out of the discharge tube I8 and will cause the rocket || to be propelled out of the tubel‘l2. As 92, in a central position. ' ~ the rocket Vl | leaves Ythe tube I2 the supplyof The pistons 91 and 2.91 are actuated by air power‘to the gyroscopes 22 and 2227Wi11 be cut off, under pressure which is supplied from a tank but» their rotors will continue to rotate for a long |02. This. tank is shown being connected by a pipe |03 to a. funnel shaped opening in the nose 65 period of Vtime due to theirmomentum. As the rocket || leaves the tube |2 the members 53 and 'of the rocket ||. A ñask containing air under 253 will no longer press against the inside' of the pressure may also be used as a source- of com. tube I2 but will be free to rotate slightly under pressed air if desired. The tank |02 is connect the action of the springs 55 and ¿255 thus releas ed to the cylinders 98 and 99 by means of con ing the arms 5| and 25| which„under the action duits |04 and 300 and the supply of air to the ofthe springs 56 and 256 will be Vmoved away from interior ol the cylinders 98 and 99 is controlled the gyroscopes 22 and 222, thus leaving them free by two piston valves |05 and |06 respectively. to turn in the rocket. , The valve |05 is operated in opposite directions As long `as the rocket | | travels in the'direction by means of two solenoids |01 and |08 and the in which it Was headed the contact arms 32 and valve |06 is operated in opposite directions by 75 232 in the control boxes 30 and 230 will remain 2,418,621 . 5 _ . on the insulation between the segments 33--34 and 233-234 andV all the solenoids |01-I I0 will remain de-energized and the rudders 9| and 92 will remain centered. . « If the rocket H should deviateto the right as seen in Figs, l and 4 the gyroscope 22 would re main fixed in space and the disc 35 would be ro tated with‘the rocket in a clockwise direction relative thereto. This would cause the arm 32 'to engage the'segmentï 33 which would clojse a circuit from the battery H9, conductor |20,?arm V32, segment 33, brush H5, conductor H3, sole noid |09, and conductor H8 back tothe battery H9. This will cause the energization of the sole . noid |09 which in turn will cause the piston valve |06 to move upward which will allow air under pressure to pass from the tank |02 thru pipe |04 to the upper end of the cylinder 99. This will cause the piston 91 in this cylinder to move down ` l 6 n The rotation‘of the disc 35 will carry with it the y’ segments 33 and 34 so‘that the arm 32 will en gage the segment 33. This, as previously de ` scribed will cause the energization of the'solenoid |09 which in turn will cause the rudders 92 to be deilected to the left to steer the rocket Il to the left. This de?lecting movement will continue un til the rocket | | has been deflected sufficiently to the left to cause the insulation between the seg - ments-33 and 34 to move under the arm 32. At this time the rocket II will again assume a straight course and will continue to travel on the sameuntil another radio impulse is sent. If it is desired to deflect the rocket’ll to the right the key |35 of the transmitter is depressed causing the “A” frequency to be transmitted. This as already described actuates theamplifier 85a and energizes the solenoid 4| in control box 30. The energization of this solenoid causes the ward which by means of the piston rod 96:.and 20 rotation of the disc 35 one step in a counter link 95 will cause the rudders 92 to be moved in clockwise direction, whichin a manner similar to a clockwise direction to steer the rocket H to that already described, causes the energization the left. The rocket will continue to turn to the of the solenoid H0 which, in turn deilects the left until it is again on its original course at which time >the insulation between the segments 33iand 34 will have moved under the arm 32 and; the circuit to the solenoid |09 will be broken, thus allowing the piston valve |06 to be returned to a‘central position under the action of the springs H2. The piston 91 together with the rudders 92 . will then be returned to a central position under the action of the springs I0 I_. If the rocket II deviates to the left or up or rudder 92 to the right and steers the rocket |I to the right. In a similar manner the depressing of the keys |31 or |38 of the transmitter will cause the rocket I| to be deflected either down or up thru a given angle. If it is desired- to. deflect the rocket Il further inY any given direction a second or third impulse of the required type is sent and the disc 35 will be rotated two or three steps as desired. It is thus seen that a system is provided which down a similar action Nwill take place energizing will normally maintain‘the rocket on a straight the solenoids H0, |01 or |08. respectively. Itis thus seen that in this way the rocket is main 35 course. By sending suitable impulses the rocket may be deflected thru predetermined angles yin tained on a predetermined straight course which any one of four directions at right angles to is a prolongation of the direction in which it was each other. YAfter being so'l deilected the rocket headed when it was iired. . If it is desired to deflect the rocket I | from its course, the radio control mechanism is operated under the control Yof Ythe transmitter shown in Fig. 9 which may be located on the ground ad jacent to the ilring tube I2 or at any other suit able location as on an airplane which may con trol the direction of the rocket from the air. In the operation of the transmitter of Fig. 9 a radio frequency is generated which is modulated frequency by ‘KA’I’ when UB,” any‘IC7’ one of the HD!) keys |30, HEI’ |3|, |32, will maintain' the new course until further im pulses are sent to deflect it in a diiierent direc tion. ‘ . ` If »it is desired to explode the rocket when it reaches the vicinity of the target the key |39 at the transmitter is depressed causing the “E” fre quency to be transmitted. This is receivedfby the antenna system 14 and receiver 24 and oper ates the amplifier 89e which in turn causes the energization of the'relay 90. This will close a circuit from the battery 90a to the detonator 90b will> cause the detonation of the explosive |33 or |34 is depressed. In this way when any 50 which charge I9. one of the keys |30-I34 is depressed aplane A modification of the invention is shown in Fig. polarized Wave is radiated from the antenna ¿|4I, 10 in which the explosive charge I9 is replaced this wave being modulated at a diiîerent prede by a parachute |45, so that when the rocket is termined frequency for each key. ¿ The modulated radio wave transmitted from 55 used for experimental purposes it may be recov ered undamaged. the antenna |34 is received by the antenna sys In this modiiled form of the invention a portion tem 1I-14 of the rocket || and selectively oper of the shell of the rocket I I is formed with a door ates the amplifiers 85a-89a. The ampliñers |46 which is hinged at |41. A locking mecha 85a-89a will in turn energize the solenoids 4I--4Ia of control box 30, the solenoids 24|, 24| a 60 nism |48 is provided which is operated by a sole noid |49 which takes the place of the detonator of control box 230, or the relay 90 respectively. ‘ 90b, shown in Fig. 1, and is controlled by the re If, for example, it is desired to deflect the rocket lay 90. A spring |5I is secured to the inside of H to the left, as seen in Fig. 1, the key |36 of the casing of the rocket I| and presses against the transmitter is depressed which causes the ‘.‘B” frequency to be transmitted` The radiated wave 65 the door |46 tending to force it open.> The para chute I 45 is attached to one end of `a. cord |52 is picked up by the receiving antenna 'll-_14 on the rocket H and actuates the amplifier 86a: the other end of which is secured to a lug |53 at tached to the bulkhead I6. This amplifier is connected to the solenoid 4Ia in control box 30 where is thereby energized. [Operation of Fig. 9 Theenergization of the solenoid 4Ia causes the 70 core 43a to be moved downward which allows the At the end of an experimentall flight when the pawl 48a to engage one of the teeth 31. As the velocity of the rocket is nearly zero the “E” fre core 43a continues to move downward the disc quency is transmitted and, as previously de 35 will be rotated in a clockwise direction until scribed, causes the operation of the relay 90 which the detent 40 has dropped into the next tooth 38.' 75 in turn causes the energization of the solenoidV 2,413,621 7 . 8 , |49 which releases the locking mechanism |48. This causes the door |46 to be opened under the >action of the spring 15| and allows the parachute |45 to drop out and bring the rocket unharmed to‘earth. ' , - Y spective rudders to maintain a given course, a. radio receiver having circuits selective to control signals of different characteristics, relay means connected to said circuits to be actuated by the respective signals and step-by-step mechanism actuated by each relay to shift said control. ele Although only a few of the various forms in ment for steering the rocket in a given direction. which this invention may be embodied have been 4. In a rocket, jet propulsion means, sets of shown herein, it is to be understood that the in crossed rudders for'steering the rocket ln four di; vention is not limited to any specific construction but may be embodied in various forms Without de l0 rections, a directive radio antenna in alignment with each rudder and directionally receptive to parting from the spirit of the invention as de radiant energy received from the rear only, a ra fined by the appended claims. dio receiver in said rocket connected to be en ' What is claimed is: ergized by thereceived energy and including cir 1. In a rocket, jet propulsion means, -sets of cuits selective of different control signals, rud crossed rudders for steering in_four directions, der control means connected to be actuated by steering mechanism including a pair of stable said selected signals for steering said rocket, a mem-bers mounted respectively for freedom of detonator and additional means connected to be movement about the two axes of said rudders, actuated by selected signals to actuate said deto control elements actuated by the respective stable members and connected to control the respective 20 5. In a rocket, jet propulsion means, sets of rudders to maintain a given course, means to crossed rudders for steering> the rocket in four shift each control element relative to said stable directions, a directivev radio antenna in align member for changing the course, and means re ment with each rudder and directionally Vrecep sponsive to received radiant energy pulses for actuating said shifting means. _ 25 tive- to radiant energy received from the rear only, a radio receiver in said rocket connected to 2. In a rocket, jet propulsion means, sets of be energized by the received energy and includ crossed rudders for steering in four directions, ing circuits selective of diiTerentv control signals, steering mechanism including a pair of stable rudder control means connected to be actuated members mounted respectively for freedom of by said selected signals for steering said rocket, a movement about the two axes 'of said rudders, releasable parachute in said rocket. release mech control elements actuated by the respective stable anism therefore and additional means connected members and connected to control the respective nator. rudders to maintain a given course, reversible step-by-step means to shift each control element , - to be actuated by selected signals to actuate Said release means. Y Y e . course, a radio receiver receptive to radiant en 6. In a rocket, jet propulsion means, steering rudders, steering control mechanism connected to ergy pulses, selective means to segregate pulses actuate said rudders, a gyroscope, a control mem of predetermined characteristics, and relay means responsive to selected pulses to actuate said step ber on said rocket actuated by movement rela tive to said gyroscope to actuatesaid Steering relative to said stable member for changing the control mechanism so as to maintain a prede » termined course, means locking said gyroscope 3. In a rocket. jet propulsion means, sets of in a given position, and means responsive to crossed rudders for steering in four directions, launching of said rocket to release said ,locking steering mechanism including a pair of stable members mounted respectively for freedom of movement about the two axes of said rudders, 45 by-step means. means. control elements actuated by the respective sta ble members and connected to control the re ' ` JOHN HAYS HAMMOND, JR.