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Dec. 3l, Í94È
_|_ HI HAMMOND, JR
2,4Í3,621-
RADIO CONTROLLED ROCKET
Filed March 22,1944
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Déc. 31, 1946.
„L H, HAMMQND, JR
2,413,621
RADIO CONTROLLED ROCKET
\-
Filed March 22, 1944
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
24
76
Recs :VER
lNvENroR
-
JoHN HAvYs HAMMoND, JR.
BY
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f
/
2,413,621
Patented Dec. 31, 1946
"f¿~UNiTED» vsrnria‘zs PATENT orifice
2,413,621
'RADIO .CONTROLLED ROCKET
John Hays Hammond, Jr., Gloucester, Mass., as
signor to Radio Corporation of America, New
York, N. Y., aïcorporartion of Delaware
Application March 22, 1944,’Serlal No.' 527,536
'
y1
I 6 claims.
(ci. 1oz-_50)
vThe invention relates to the radio-dynamic.
control of rockets and more particularly to a radio
control system whichV can selectively steer the
rocket inany one of a pluralityof directions.
The invention provides means for controlling
Y‘the path of night of a rocket in connection with
gyroscopic or other stabilizing means in" which
the rocket may be caused to travel on a definite.
course under -gyroscopic control, this course,
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2
and I'I.Y Thev propulsion compartment I5 (Fig. 2)
is connected at its lower end to a discharge tube
I8. Mounted on the discharge tube I8 are fins
_ 20. The explosive compartment I3 is filled with a
high explosive I9 and the propulsion compart
ment l5 is ñlled with sticks of slow burning pow
der 2I or other suitable material for rocket pro
pulsion.
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In the control compartment I4 are located two
however, being cap-able. of being changed by 10 gyroscopes 22 and 222, a radio receiver 24 and
means of radio control.`
Y
Y ’
a ,rudder operating mechanism 25. The gyro
The invention also consists in certain new and
scope 22 comprises a rotor (not shown) mounted
original features of construction and combina
for rotation in a rotor casing 26 (see Fig. 3) which
i .tions of parts hereinafter set forth and claimed.
is pivoted in a gimbal ring 21. The gimbal ring
- ;- Although the novel features which are believed
21 is pivoted inv a cross member 28 and is pro
„to'be characteristic of `thisinvention will be par
vided with a shaft 2s which is rotatably mounted
ticularly pointed out in the claims appended
vin a control box 30. To the end of the shaft 29
hereto, the invention itself, as to its objects and
(see Figs. 4 and 5) is attached a contact arm
advantages, :the mode of its operation and the
32 which co-operates with two semi-circular con
20
~ma`riner of its organization may be better under
ducting segments 33 and 34 which are-mounted
'stood -by referring to the following description
on `but insulated from a disc 35. The disc 35 is
taken in 2 connection with the accompanying
rotatably mounted in line with the shaft 29 and
drawings forming a part thereof, in which
is provided with two sets of ratchet teeth 36
Fig. 1 is a’ iongitudinai section of the forward
and 31 and a set of detent teeth 38.
I
portion of a rocket embodying the present/in 25 Mounted in the control box 3U are two solenoids
vention.`
Y
.
4I and 4Ia which are provided with cores 43
,_
Fig. 2 isa longitudinal section of the after por
Ä and 43a which reciprocate in brackets 44 and
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g ' Y
’
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44a respectively. The cores 43 and 43a are pro
Fig. 3 is a section taken on line 3-'-3 ofFig. 1;
videdwith shoulders 45, 45a and 46, 46a, respec
30 tively, the latter Anormally engaging the brackets
vFig'f‘l` is an enlarged Vview vof the control box;
>-tion ofthe rocket;
Figfâ isla plan view of the control'box;
*_Fig..6 illustrates diagrammatically the receiv- A
-ing' circuits located on the rocket.;
.
' Figf’! is a section taken on line 'I-1 of ¿F-ig. î2;
Fig. 8 is a section taken on line 8-.8 of Fig. 2;
f Fig. 9 isa _block diagram ofthe transmitter:
and
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y
Q Fig. 10 is alongitudinal section of the forward
portion'of the rocket showing amodiñed form of
the invention. "
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Q .Like reference characters denote like parts in
the several figures of the-drawings.
`144, 44a. Between the »shoulders 45, 45a and the
solenoids are mounted compression springs 47,
41a. Pivotally mounted on the cores 43, 43a are
pawls 48, 48a against which press hat springs 49,
35 49a. The pawls 48 and'48a cooperate with the
_ ratchets 36 and 31, respectively, but are normally
held out of engagement withthese ratchets. A
detent 40 is secured to the end of a ñat spring
50 and engages the teeth 38.
40 - VThe gyroscope 222 is similar to the gyroscope
22 and is provided with a shaft 229 rotatably
mounted in a control box 23D. The correspond
inthe, fonowmg "descriptionparts -Win be iden->
ing parts have been given theîsame reference
characters as those -described above Vbut with the
are intended to be as generic in theirapplication 45 numerals increased by 200.
In order tohold the gyroscopes 22 and 222 in
to
. `Referringto
similar Ypartsthe
as lthe
accompanying
art will permit.
drawings andy ' ñxed positions until the rocket II is ready to be
tiíiedbyspeciiic names for convenience, -but they
ñred L shaped arms 5I and 215i are provided
more particularly to Figsnl and 2 a rocket II is
shown as resting in a ñring` tube I2 Iwhich may 50 which are pivoted to brackets 52 and 252 secured
to the shell of the rocket II. Engaging the
be mounted in any suitable manner, not shown,
for projecting the rocket I I in any desired direc
tion.v The> rocket II is divided into explosive,
control, and propulsion compartments I3, I4 and
I 5l respectively by two transverse partitions .I6
small ends of the arms 5I and 2.5I are'Z-shaped`
members 53 and 253 which are pivoted in brackets
54 and 254. Flat springs'55 and 255 tend to
hold one end of the respective members 53 .and
55 253 against the inside surface of the tube-cl2.
2,411.8;621
3
4
means of two solenoids |09 and H0.
l'fe'i'ísîtm springs 56 and 256 are connected to the
Balanced
compression springs ||2 and 3|2 are provided to
maintain the valves |05 and |06 in a central
arms ‘5l-and 25| and to brackets 51 and 251 and
tend to pull the arms 5| and 25| respectively
away from the gyro casings 26 and 226. The
outer ends of brackets 51 and 251 engage the
casings 26 and 226. The inner ends of the arms
Y5| and. 25| are provided with contacts 58 and
position when the solenoids |01-I I0 are de-ener
gized.
The windings of the solenoids |09 and || 0 are
connected by conductors ||3 and ||4 to two
brushes H5 and H6 which are mounted on a
258 which engage contacts 59 and 259 connectedv
to the windings 6| and 26| respectively of the
block of insulation ||1 in the control box 30
gyro rotors. The contacts 58 and 258Tare con- 10 and which make contact with the contact seg
ments 33 and 34 respectively. The return leads
nected by ñexible conductors 62 and 262 to con
tacts 63 and 263 respectively which are mounted
in blocks of insulation 64 and 264 in the shell
of the rocket |I. The contacts 63 and 263 nor
mally engage contacts 65 and 265 respectively 15
mounted in blocks of insulation 66 and 266 in
the tube l2. The contacts 65 and 265 are con
of the windingsof the solenoids |09 and ||0 are
connected by a conductor ||8 to a battery ||9
which is connected by a conductor |20 to the con
tact arm 32. The solenoids |01 and |08 are
connected in a similar manner to brushes ||5a
and ||6a in control box 230. The conductors H3,
||4 and |20 together with the conductors from
the radio receiver 24‘ to control box v30, pass
nected in parallel across a source of electrical
energy 61 through a switch 66.
Fig, 6 is a diagrammatic illustration of the re 20 thru a protective sleeve |2| under the gyroscope
222.
'
ceiver 24 which may be similar in design to the
For igniting `the propulsion powder sticks 2|
an igniter |22 is provided which is mounted ad
jacent tothe powder sticks 2| and is connected
by two conductors |23 to two contacts |24 mount
receiver depicted in Fig. 3 of my co-pending appli
cation 458,938 and is connected to a directional
antenna system 1 | _12, 13-14 which is mounted
at the tail of the rocket || (see Fig. 8). The axes
of the antennas 1|-12 and 13--14 are located4
ed in a block of insulation |25. The contacts
|24 engage contacts |26 which are mounted in
a block of insulation |21 and which are connect
ed in series with a battery |28 and a switch |29.
in planes at right angles to each other and
preferably in the planes of the vanes 20.
The antennas are shown as comprising wave
Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic illustration of the
receiving members 15--16 and 11-18 and direc 30
transmitter which may be similar in design to
tional members 8|--82 and 83--~84. The direc~
the transmitter depicted in Fig. 2 of my copend
tional members are suited to make the receiving
ing application. Serial Number 458,938. The
elements receptive to signals, received from the
rear and to shield the receiving members from
waves propagated from other directions, so that :
possibility of interference with the control beam
is eliminated.
A
The receiver 24 is -connected thru ñve ñlters
85-89 to the input circuits ofnve ampliñers
transmitter is of a. type to generate a short wave
carrier modulated by a control frequency. Five
modulators |30--I34 are connected to vary the
control frequency when individually operated to.
produce the “A,” “~B,” “C,” “D” and “E” control
frequencies respectively. Thefmodulators |30
BSc-89a the output `circuits of which are con 40 |34 are controlled by five keys |35-|39. The
transmitter is connected to the antenna |4|` by
nected to the solenoids 4| and 4|a in control box
means vof the line |42.
/
30, the solenoids 24| and 24m in the control box
230, and to a relay 90 respectively.
The contacts l
of the relay 90 are connected thru a battery 90a
(Fig. l) to a detonator 90b which is located in
the explosive charge I9 in the explosive compart
ment
|3.
'
..
The rudder operating mechanism 25 controls
two sets of rudders 9| and92 pivotally mounted
in the vanes 20.
The two ‘rudders 9| are con
nected together by a curved rod 93 and the two
rudders 92 are connected together by a curved
rod
94.
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,
The two sets ol“ rudders 9| and 92 are con
Operation
A> few minutes before it is desired to .fire the
rocket || the switch 68 is closed which closes a
circuit from the generator 61 thru the contacts
65 and 63, conductors 62, contacts 58 and 59 to
the Vwindings 6| ofthe gyroscopes 22 and 222.
This causes the rotating elements of the gyro
50 scopes 22 and 222 to be brought up and main
tained at speed. The gyroscopes 22 and 222 are*v
held in the positions shown by means of the arms
5| and 25|.
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..
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nected by links 95 and 295- respectively to piston 55 _Y When it is desiredto flre the rocket || >the
switch |29 is closed thus completing aicircuit .
rods 96 and 296,L attached to pistons 91 and 291
from the battery |28 to the igniter |22 .which
which reciprocate in cylinders 98 and 99. Bal
ignites the powder sticks 2 I. As these commence
anced compression springs |0| and 30| are pro
to burn the products of combustion will be forced
vided for normally holding the> pistons 91 and
291 respectively and therefore therudders 9| and 60 out of the discharge tube I8 and will cause the
rocket || to be propelled out of the tubel‘l2. As
92, in a central position.
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the rocket Vl | leaves Ythe tube I2 the supplyof
The pistons 91 and 2.91 are actuated by air
power‘to the gyroscopes 22 and 2227Wi11 be cut off,
under pressure which is supplied from a tank
but» their rotors will continue to rotate for a long
|02. This. tank is shown
being connected by
a pipe |03 to a. funnel shaped opening in the nose 65 period of Vtime due to theirmomentum. As the
rocket || leaves the tube |2 the members 53 and
'of the rocket ||. A ñask containing air under
253 will no longer press against the inside' of the
pressure may also be used as a source- of com.
tube I2 but will be free to rotate slightly under
pressed air if desired. The tank |02 is connect
the action of the springs 55 and ¿255 thus releas
ed to the cylinders 98 and 99 by means of con
ing the arms 5| and 25| which„under the action
duits |04 and 300 and the supply of air to the
ofthe springs 56 and 256 will be Vmoved away from
interior ol the cylinders 98 and 99 is controlled
the gyroscopes 22 and 222, thus leaving them free
by two piston valves |05 and |06 respectively.
to turn in the rocket. ,
The valve |05 is operated in opposite directions
As long `as the rocket | | travels in the'direction
by means of two solenoids |01 and |08 and the
in which it Was headed the contact arms 32 and
valve |06 is operated in opposite directions by 75 232 in the control boxes 30 and 230 will remain
2,418,621
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on the insulation between the segments 33--34
and 233-234 andV all the solenoids |01-I I0 will
remain de-energized and the rudders 9| and 92
will remain centered.
.
«
If the rocket H should deviateto the right as
seen in Figs, l and 4 the gyroscope 22 would re
main fixed in space and the disc 35 would be ro
tated with‘the rocket in a clockwise direction
relative thereto. This would cause the arm 32
'to engage the'segmentï 33 which would clojse a
circuit from the battery H9, conductor |20,?arm
V32, segment 33, brush H5, conductor H3, sole
noid |09, and conductor H8 back tothe battery
H9.
This will cause the energization of the sole
. noid |09 which in turn will cause the piston valve
|06 to move upward which will allow air under
pressure to pass from the tank |02 thru pipe |04
to the upper end of the cylinder 99. This will
cause the piston 91 in this cylinder to move down
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6
n
The rotation‘of the disc 35 will carry with it the
y’ segments 33 and 34 so‘that the arm 32 will en
gage the segment 33. This, as previously de
` scribed will cause the energization of the'solenoid
|09 which in turn will cause the rudders 92 to be
deilected to the left to steer the rocket Il to the
left. This de?lecting movement will continue un
til the rocket | | has been deflected sufficiently to
the left to cause the insulation between the seg
- ments-33 and 34 to move under the arm 32. At
this time the rocket II will again assume a
straight course and will continue to travel on
the sameuntil another radio impulse is sent.
If it is desired to deflect the rocket’ll to the
right the key |35 of the transmitter is depressed
causing the “A” frequency to be transmitted.
This as already described actuates theamplifier
85a and energizes the solenoid 4| in control box
30. The energization of this solenoid causes the
ward which by means of the piston rod 96:.and 20 rotation of the disc 35 one step in a counter
link 95 will cause the rudders 92 to be moved in
clockwise direction, whichin a manner similar to
a clockwise direction to steer the rocket H to
that already described, causes the energization
the left. The rocket will continue to turn to the
of the solenoid H0 which, in turn deilects the
left until it is again on its original course at which
time >the insulation between the segments 33iand
34 will have moved under the arm 32 and; the
circuit to the solenoid |09 will be broken, thus
allowing the piston valve |06 to be returned to
a‘central position under the action of the springs
H2. The piston 91 together with the rudders 92 .
will then be returned to a central position under
the action of the springs I0 I_.
If the rocket II deviates to the left or up or
rudder 92 to the right and steers the rocket |I
to the right.
In a similar manner the depressing of the keys
|31 or |38 of the transmitter will cause the rocket
I| to be deflected either down or up thru a given
angle.
If it is desired- to. deflect the rocket Il
further inY any given direction a second or third
impulse of the required type is sent and the disc
35 will be rotated two or three steps as desired.
It is thus seen that a system is provided which
down a similar action Nwill take place energizing
will normally maintain‘the rocket on a straight
the solenoids H0, |01 or |08. respectively. Itis
thus seen that in this way the rocket is main 35 course. By sending suitable impulses the rocket
may be deflected thru predetermined angles yin
tained on a predetermined straight course which
any one of four directions at right angles to
is a prolongation of the direction in which it was
each other. YAfter being so'l deilected the rocket
headed when it was iired.
. If it is desired to deflect the rocket I | from its
course, the radio control mechanism is operated
under the control Yof Ythe transmitter shown in
Fig. 9 which may be located on the ground ad
jacent to the ilring tube I2 or at any other suit
able location as on an airplane which may con
trol the direction of the rocket from the air.
In the operation of the transmitter of Fig. 9 a
radio frequency is generated which is modulated
frequency
by
‘KA’I’
when
UB,”
any‘IC7’
one of the
HD!)
keys |30,
HEI’ |3|, |32,
will maintain' the new course until further im
pulses are sent to deflect it in a diiierent direc
tion.
‘
.
`
If »it is desired to explode the rocket when it
reaches the vicinity of the target the key |39 at
the transmitter is depressed causing the “E” fre
quency to be transmitted. This is receivedfby
the antenna system 14 and receiver 24 and oper
ates the amplifier 89e which in turn causes the
energization of the'relay 90. This will close a
circuit from the battery 90a to the detonator 90b
will> cause the detonation of the explosive
|33 or |34 is depressed. In this way when any 50 which
charge I9.
one of the keys |30-I34 is depressed aplane
A modification of the invention is shown in Fig.
polarized Wave is radiated from the antenna ¿|4I,
10 in which the explosive charge I9 is replaced
this wave being modulated at a diiîerent prede
by a parachute |45, so that when the rocket is
termined frequency for each key.
¿
The modulated radio wave transmitted from 55 used for experimental purposes it may be recov
ered undamaged.
the antenna |34 is received by the antenna sys
In this modiiled form of the invention a portion
tem 1I-14 of the rocket || and selectively oper
of the shell of the rocket I I is formed with a door
ates the amplifiers 85a-89a. The ampliñers
|46 which is hinged at |41. A locking mecha
85a-89a will in turn energize the solenoids
4I--4Ia of control box 30, the solenoids 24|, 24| a 60 nism |48 is provided which is operated by a sole
noid |49 which takes the place of the detonator
of control box 230, or the relay 90 respectively.
‘ 90b, shown in Fig. 1, and is controlled by the re
If, for example, it is desired to deflect the rocket
lay 90. A spring |5I is secured to the inside of
H to the left, as seen in Fig. 1, the key |36 of
the casing of the rocket I| and presses against
the transmitter is depressed which causes the ‘.‘B”
frequency to be transmitted` The radiated wave 65 the door |46 tending to force it open.> The para
chute I 45 is attached to one end of `a. cord |52
is picked up by the receiving antenna 'll-_14 on
the rocket H and actuates the amplifier 86a:
the other end of which is secured to a lug |53 at
tached to the bulkhead I6.
This amplifier is connected to the solenoid 4Ia
in control box 30 where is thereby energized.
[Operation of Fig. 9
Theenergization of the solenoid 4Ia causes the 70
core 43a to be moved downward which allows the
At the end of an experimentall flight when the
pawl 48a to engage one of the teeth 31. As the
velocity of the rocket is nearly zero the “E” fre
core 43a continues to move downward the disc
quency is transmitted and, as previously de
35 will be rotated in a clockwise direction until
scribed, causes the operation of the relay 90 which
the detent 40 has dropped into the next tooth 38.' 75 in turn causes the energization of the solenoidV
2,413,621
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|49 which releases the locking mechanism |48.
This causes the door |46 to be opened under the
>action of the spring 15| and allows the parachute
|45 to drop out and bring the rocket unharmed
to‘earth.
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spective rudders to maintain a given course, a.
radio receiver having circuits selective to control
signals of different characteristics, relay means
connected to said circuits to be actuated by the
respective signals and step-by-step mechanism
actuated by each relay to shift said control. ele
Although only a few of the various forms in
ment for steering the rocket in a given direction.
which this invention may be embodied have been
4. In a rocket, jet propulsion means, sets of
shown herein, it is to be understood that the in
crossed rudders for'steering the rocket ln four di;
vention is not limited to any specific construction
but may be embodied in various forms Without de l0 rections, a directive radio antenna in alignment
with each rudder and directionally receptive to
parting from the spirit of the invention as de
radiant energy received from the rear only, a ra
fined by the appended claims.
dio receiver in said rocket connected to be en
' What is claimed is:
ergized by thereceived energy and including cir
1. In a rocket, jet propulsion means, -sets of
cuits selective of different control signals, rud
crossed rudders for steering in_four directions,
der control means connected to be actuated by
steering mechanism including a pair of stable
said selected signals for steering said rocket, a
mem-bers mounted respectively for freedom of
detonator and additional means connected to be
movement about the two axes of said rudders,
actuated by selected signals to actuate said deto
control elements actuated by the respective stable
members and connected to control the respective 20
5. In a rocket, jet propulsion means, sets of
rudders to maintain a given course, means to
crossed rudders for steering> the rocket in four
shift each control element relative to said stable
directions, a directivev radio antenna in align
member for changing the course, and means re
ment with each rudder and directionally Vrecep
sponsive to received radiant energy pulses for
actuating said shifting means.
_
25 tive- to radiant energy received from the rear
only, a radio receiver in said rocket connected to
2. In a rocket, jet propulsion means, sets of
be energized by the received energy and includ
crossed rudders for steering in four directions,
ing circuits selective of diiTerentv control signals,
steering mechanism including a pair of stable
rudder control means connected to be actuated
members mounted respectively for freedom of
by said selected signals for steering said rocket, a
movement about the two axes 'of said rudders,
releasable parachute in said rocket. release mech
control elements actuated by the respective stable
anism therefore and additional means connected
members and connected to control the respective
nator.
rudders to maintain a given course, reversible
step-by-step means to shift each control element
,
-
to be actuated by selected signals to actuate Said
release means.
Y
Y
e
.
course, a radio receiver receptive to radiant en
6. In a rocket, jet propulsion means, steering
rudders, steering control mechanism connected to
ergy pulses, selective means to segregate pulses
actuate said rudders, a gyroscope, a control mem
of predetermined characteristics, and relay means
responsive to selected pulses to actuate said step
ber on said rocket actuated by movement rela
tive to said gyroscope to actuatesaid Steering
relative to said stable member for changing the
control mechanism so as to maintain a prede
»
termined course, means locking said gyroscope
3. In a rocket. jet propulsion means, sets of
in a given position, and means responsive to
crossed rudders for steering in four directions,
launching of said rocket to release said ,locking
steering mechanism including a pair of stable
members mounted respectively for freedom of
movement about the two axes of said rudders, 45
by-step means.
means.
control elements actuated by the respective sta
ble members and connected to control the re
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JOHN HAYS HAMMOND, JR.
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