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Jan. 7, 1947.
Filed July 24,- 1945
4 Sheets-Sheet l
Jan. 7,‘ 1947.
Filed ‘July 24, 1943
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
Jan. 7, 1947.
2,413,7Q3 ‘
Filed July 24, 1943
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
Jan. 7, 1947.
Filed July V24, 1945
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
Patented Jan. 7, 1947
Henry C. Fischer, Baltimore, Md.
Application July 24, 1943, Serial No. 495,995
2 Claims. (Cl. 89—1)
(Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as
amended April 30, 1928; 370 0. G. 757)
The invention described herein may be manu
factured and used by or for the Government for
governmental purposes, without the payment to
me of any royalty thereon.
section and partly in elevation, of an alternate
form of barrel and recoil assembly.
Figure 4 is a view similar to Figure 3 and
illustrating a third form of barrel and recoil as
This invention relates generally to muzzle
The invention is illustrated and will be de
loaded ordnance pieces, and more particularly to
scribed as applied to a well known type of 4.2
chemical mortars.
inch chemical mortar. Accordingly only such
The chemical mortar, as is well known, is a
structural and operational features of the mortar
relatively light mobile weapon for ?ring a chemi
as deemed necessary for a complete understandcal shell of 4.2-inch caliber. Such a mortar may
ing of this invention will be herein speci?cally
be quickly set up in the ?eld and is ?red by
referred to and described.
dropping the shell into the elevated muzzle or
Of the mortar herein illustrated the conven
barrel of the weapon, the ignition and propel
tional parts which may necessarily be referred to
ling charge being ?red by impact of the shell on
a stationary ?ring pin in the closed breech of 15 generally
The ground-engaging base 5; the front sup
the barrel. Usually the mortar barrel is pro
porting structure 6 for the front portion of the
vided at its breech with a base to engage the
mortar barrel, and which structure includes an
ground, while a front supporting structure for
elevating mechanism of a well known type and
the front portion of the mortar barrel is provided
embodying a coil spring assembly (not shown)
and includes means for adjusting the barrel for
which, when the mortar is ?red, allows down
altitude and traverse for pointing the weapon.
ward motion of the barrel in the direction of the
Usually between the front supporting structure
axis of the support thus reducing the stresses on
and the barrel a shock-absorbing connection is
the standard of the supporting structure together
provided which will take up the shocks occasioned
25 with an elevating screw wheel, and which latter
by ?ring and recoil.
is indicated at ‘l, for adjusting the barrel for
It is an object of this invention to provide an
altitude; the traversing mechanism, the operat
improved mortar having generally the features
ing crank of which is indicated at B, for mov
of construction and assembly above referred to,
ing the barrel transversely; and the two-part
but which is characterized over the present known 30 clamp connection 9 between the front supporting
types of mortars by a construction and assembly
structure 6 and the barrel, and designed, in a
whereby additional effective provision is made
manner well known, that shock from recoil of
for absorbing the shocks incident of ?ring and
the barrel during ?ring is cushioned by coil
springs I0, [0, instead of being transmitted to
In accordance with the present invention the
the standard ‘of supporting structure 6 through a
muzzle or barrel of the mortar embodies what
rigid connector.
may be termed an outer and stationary barrel
In accordance with this invention, and as char
member and an inner sliding barrel, the latter
acterizes each of the several alternate forms
having in the breech thereof the ?ring pin; to
shown, the barrel, herein indicated generally by
gether with a recoil mechanism associated with
the reference numeral II is composed of two
the stationary and sliding barrel elements for 40 telescoping tubes, one of which may be termed
absorbing the force of the discharge or setback
the outer or stationary barrel section, and the
on the barrel and ground-engaging base of the
other of which may be termed the inner or slid
ing barrel section.-
The invention, together with its object and 45
In the form of the invention detailed in Fig
advantages will be best understood from a study
ure 2, the outer stationary barrel section of bar
rel H is designated by the numeral l2, and the
of the following description, taken in connection
sliding barrel section telescopically ?tted in the
with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
barrel section i2, is denoted by the reference
Figure 1 is a side elevational view of a mortar
set up for use and illustrating one embodiment 50
of the invention.
Figure 2 is a sectional View through the mortar
of Figure 1, with certain parts shown in elevation,
and with the front supporting structure omitted.
Figure 3 is an enlarged detail view, partly in
The outer barrel section l2 at its lower or
breech end is threadedly or otherwise ?tted with
a base cap M which rests in the cup l5 provided
therefor on base plate 5. Pivot or base cap pins
it are engaged in U—shaped slots I‘! at opposite
sides of cup #5; cap ill being held securely from
jumping out of the cup l5 by a suitable and well
known type of locking device which includes a
retaining fork l 8 the legs of which bridge the
rel, and against the resistance of the oil and
springs 35 and 38 so that shock of recoil of the
barrel is cushioned instead of being transmitted
directly to the base plate through the connection
open ends of slots H, as shown in Figure 1.
between the barrel and base plate. In this con
The upper end of barrel section [2 is provided
nection it is apparent that as barrel section 13
as at E9 to complementarily ?t within the clamp
moves downwardly when the shot is ?red, oil in
9 whereby proper connection is made between the
the auxiliary cylinder 2"! is forced by piston 25
front supporting structure 6 and the barrel to
port 3'! into the main oil chamber of
permit transverse and vertical adjustment for 10
barrel section I2, and under action of piston 23
aiming the weapon.
The inner barrel section l3, intermediate its
ends as at 20, and also at its inmost or breech
end as at 2!, is diametrically enlarged externally
in order to have at 2e and 2i a snug working
?t within the outer barrel section H, with them
largements 20, and 2! acting as guiding surfaces
for section 13, and enlargement >20 additionally
oil from this main chamber is forced through port
32 past valve 33 into the secondary oil chamber
to act on piston 3! therein in opposition to spring
38. .After the setback force has spent itself, spring
35 acts to return barrel section l3 to extended or
normal position, and spring 38 acts on piston 3!
to force a return flow of oil from cylinder 29 to
‘the referred to main and auxiliary oil chambers,
so that the mortar is again ready for loading and
functioning as a support for the adjacent upper
or outermost end of section I3.
20 ?ring.
At the inmost or breech end barrel section I3
Shock incident to the return of barrel section
is swaged in to form a bottleneck 22, upon which
13 is adsorbed by reason of ‘the resistancelof oil in
is ?tted a piston 2-3. The bottleneck 22 is thread
cylinder 21 to piston 26 on the return stroke of the
ed on the inside to receive a conventional or
standard ?ring pin 24 that is also screw-thread
edly engaged with the piston 23,, as shown in Fig
ure 2.
, Piston 23 has rigidly associated therewith a rod
25 connecting piston 23 with a piston 26 on the
lower end of rod 25. vPiston 25 has a working ?t
in auxiliary cylinder 2'! formed integrally with
base cap l4; rod 25 working through an opening
provided therefor in plug 28 threaded into one
end of cylinder 27.
Outer barrel section i2 and piston 23 form a
main expansible oil chamber that, through the
medium of port or ports 31, is in communication
with a smaller expansible oil chamber formed by
cylinder 21 and piston 26.
Formed integrally with, or otherwise provided
on, the periphery of barrel section I2 is a sec~
ondary cylinder 29 provided at one end with a
screw plug 39. A piston 3| has a working ?t
within cylinder 29 and forms therewith a sec~
ondary expansible oil chamber that is in com
munication with the oil chamber of barrel section
I2 through the medium of a port or passage 32.
Port or passage 32 is controlled by a suitable nee
dle valve 33 adjustable to regulate the flow of oil
latter. In this connection it will be observed that
cylinder 2? is provided with 'a series of circum
ferentially spaced internal ‘grooves or passages
40 that terminate short of the plug-equipped end
of the cylinder. Thus, as piston 25 moves down
wardly in response to _the setback force some of
the oil in cylinder '27 ‘will ?ow through the vpas
sages 46 to seek a level behind piston 26, and upon
the return stroke of the piston offer su?i'cient re
sistance thereto to absorb the ‘shock incident to
return of barrel section 13 to normal position.
From the foregoing it will also be appreciated
that when the shot is ?red the barrel recoi'ls, so
that the barrel section l3 slides parallel to ‘its
own axis, without appreciably moving the base
plate which penetrates into the ground a material
extent at the commencement of ?ring; Thus the
sudden movement of the entire mortar assembly
(base plate, barrel, and front supporting struc
ture) under the effect of the recoil is prevented;
the rearing action of the entire assembly taking
place a little later, after the projectile has been
It will be noted from the above that this inven
tion effectively supplements the usual shock ab
sorbing instrumentalities (the spring associated
between the chambers. A bleeder port 34 is 50 with the elevating mechanism, and the springs
formed in the wall of cylinder 29 adjacent the
forming part of the connection between the bar
plug-equipped end thereof.
rel and front supporting structure) hereinbefore
Inner barrel section it? is yieldably urged to an
referred to generally as being presently conven~
extended or projected position with respect to
tional or standard equipment, to the greater pro
outer barrel section l2 through the medium of
tection against severe jars of such sensitive mech
a coil spring 35 circumjacent rod 25 and inter
.as for example, the-collimator sight, with
posed between piston 23 and shoulder 35, the lat
which such weapon is usually equipped, and to
ter being formed on cap M circumjacent cylin
the prevention of such rearing action as is preju
der 2'5. A coil spring 38 housed within cylinder
dicial to accurate ?ring.
29 acts on piston is‘! in opposition to the pres 60
Alternatively, and as shown in Figure 3, the
sure of oil entering the secondary oil chamber
barrel, therein indicated ‘generally at 4!, may
through the valve controlled port 32.
have the outer ‘barrel section 42 thereof formed
The operation and advantages of the construc
with an integral base cap 43, provided, as iscap
tion and arrangement as thus far detailed will
E4 of Figure 2, for engagement with and reten
now be explained. The projectile, as is common
tion in the cup I 5 of base plate 5 of the mortar.
to ammunition for mortars of the general charac-‘
Also in this second form of the invention, outer
ter herein considered, has its propelling charge
barrel section 42 at the breech end thereof forms
attached to the base of the shell. To ?re the
with piston M on the bottleneck 45 of inner bar
weapon, the projectile is inserted in the muzzle
rel section 46 a main expansible chamber which
and is ?red by means of the shell impinging 70 houses coil spring 41. Spring 41 has one end por
against the ?ring pin 253, all in a manner well
tion thereof seated within an internal recess
known in the art.
formed at the junction of barrel section 42 and
When the shot is ?red the setback force drives
base cap 43, and an end disposed about bottleneck
barrel section l3 downward and inward of barrel
4.5 and impinging against piston 44. In this con
section E2, in the direction of the axis of the bar
i nection it will be noted that piston M of Figure 3
is of considerably less depth than piston 23 of
Figure 2 and exposes a considerable portion of
bottleneck 45 so that the latter functions some
what as a pilot for spring Ill.
This alternate form of the invention is also
characterized by secondary cylinders 59, £19 at di
ametrically opposite sides of barrel section 42,
and which, with pistons 58, 5!! having snug work
ing ?t therein, provide secondary expa-nsible
?oating piston 14 has a working ?t and forms
therewith a secondary expansible oil chamber
that is in communication with the main expansi
ble chamber by a port or passage ‘55 controlled,
like to the passage 32 of Figure 2, by an adjusta
ble needle valve 16.
At the end thereof remote from valve ‘l6, cyl
inder is is provided with a screw plug 'l'l, and at
this last named end is provided with a lateral
chambers adapted to contain oil if so desired. 10 check valve-controlled port ‘l8 through which
air is quickly admitted at one side of piston 14 on
Pistons 50, 58 have rods 5!, 5|, working through
the down stroke of the latter and emitted slowly
gland assemblies 52, 52, at one end of cylinder
from the cylinder on the return stroke of the pis
49, 49, and rigidly secured to cars 53, 53, on the
complemental parts of a two-part clamp 55 that
Explaining now the operation of this embodi
rigidly embraces the forward outer end of barrel 15
ment of the invention: The weapon is loaded
section 46.
and ?red in the manner hereinbefore set forth
Outward movement of barrel section 45 relative
with reference to the embodiment of Figure 2.
to barrel section 132 is limited by a stop collar 55
The setback force, when the shot is ?red, drives
secured as at {it to the forward end of barrel sec
tion 42, and against which an external shoulder 20 barrel section '53 downwardly in the direction of
the axis of the barrel against the resistance of
51, formed at the junction of diameters 58 and
oil and the springs 63, 69, in the barrel section El ,
58 of barrel section 46, abuts.
absorbing the shock; oil in the main expansible
Each cylinder is is provided with a by-pass 60
chamber passing into the secondary expansible
that at its ends connects with the cylinder ad
chamber of cylinder 13 through passage 15 to
jacent opposite ends of the cylinder so that oil
raise piston 14 against the pressure of air in the
passes there-through ?rst in one direction and
cylinder above the piston and which air is emitted
then in a reverse direction in response to recipro
slowly through valve-controlled port 78 as piston
catory movement of the piston.
‘l4 moves toward end l‘! of the cylinder. After
The operation of this form of the invention as
just detailed may be explained as follows: When 30 the setback force has spent itself, springs 68, 69,
plus the pressure exerted by the return ?ow of
the shot is ?red the setback force drives barrel
oil slowly return barrel section 53 to forward po
section 65 downward and inwardly of barrel sec
sition, the air pressure built up in cylinder 13 be~
tion 62 in the direction of the axis of the barrel
ing sufficient to return piston ‘M to its normal po
and against the resistance of spring 41, pistons 53
sition. air being rapidly drawn into the cylinder
moving therewith against the resistance of oil in
behind piston 14 by suction during this return
cylinders 49 and forcing the oil through the by
passes to back into cylinders £59 behind pistons 59,
stroke of the piston.
absorbing the shock. After the setback force has
spent itself, spring it acts to return barrel section
so to extended or normal position. and shock
incident to return of barrel section i6 is absorbed
by reason of the resistance of the oil in cylinders
do to pistons 58 as on the return stroke thereof
these pistons force the oil back through the by
passes 60.
If desired by~passes 65, ‘Bil, may be dispensed
with and air check valves substituted therefor in
As regards the alternate forms of the inven
tion shown respectively in Figures 3 and a, it is
apparent from the respective descriptions thereof
herein that in so far as the factors pertaining to
the effective absorbing of the shocks incident of
?ring and recoil are concerned all the desirable
effect is obtained by action of the pistons 5!!
features noted in connection with Figure 2 are
retained. It will also be apparent that the inven
tion is not limited to what has been detailed here
in by way of explanation, but is to be considered
as embracing all forms of apparatus and variants
of method falling within the scope of the ap
drawing air into the cylinders behind the pistons '
pended claims.
an obvious manner so that the desired cushioning
and forcing air from the cylinders in advance of
the pistons, on each stroke thereof.
Having thus described the invention what is
In the third illustrated embodiment of the in
claimed as new is:
1. In a mortar of the character described, a
vention, Figure Ll, the barrel, indicated generally
by the reference numeral 80, and similarly to the
the inner one of which is movable relative to the
embodiment of Figure 3. has the outer section 6!
thereof at the breech end formed with an integral
base cap 62 for use, in a manner believed obvious,
barrel comprising a pair of telescoping sections,
outer section in the direction of the axis of the
barrel, a piston on the inner end of the inner
barrel section and having a working sliding fit
in the outer barrel section to provide therewith a
in attaching the base plate of the mortar to the
60 main expansible chamber, pressure responsive
means arranged within said chamber and acting
The inner barrel section 63. like to the inner
on the piston to normally urge the inner barrel
barrel section of Figure 3, is limited in its outward
section to a projected position with respect to
movement by a collar es and a shoulder 65, and
at its bottleneck 66 is equipped with a piston Bl.
the outer barrel section, a cylinder mounted on
As shown, piston '6'! is preferably of the ring
the outer barrel section, a piston having a work
ing fit in said cylinder and forming therewith a
equipped type, and forms with barrel section 6| a
secondary expansible chamber. a valve controlled
main expansible oil chamber housing a pair of
port establishing communication between the
concentric coil springs 68, t5. Springs 68, 69, im
pinge at one end against piston 61 and at the other
main and secondary expansible chambers, and
end are seated in a recess ‘in provided in the
breech end of the barrel section 6!. Pilot ele
ments 'il, 72, are provided for the springs as
Formed or otherwise provided on the periphery
of barrel section BI is a cylinder 13 in which a
pressure responsive means in the breech end of
the outer barrel section to act on the inner bar
rel section in opposition to the ?rst named pres
sure responsive means during the return stroke
of the inner barrel section to projected position.
2. A mortar of the class described, comprising
in combination, a barrel formed by a pair of
mentioned expansible chamber, piston means in
telescoping sections, the inner section being re
said second mentioned expansible chamber
ciprocally movable within the outer section, said
adapted'to oppose flow of said hydraulic ?uid
telescoping sections being closed at their breech
thereinto, a piston mounted on the breech end of
ends, a compression spring disposed within said
said inner section, a second piston disposed with
outer telescoping section between the breech
in said counter recoil cylinder, a piston rod in
ends of the sections so as to resiliently space the
terconnecting said pistons, restrictive port means
breech end of the inner section away from the
interconnecting said ?rst mentioned expansible
breech end of the outer to- provide an expansible
chamber with said counter recoil cylinder ad
chamber adapted to be ?lled with a hydraulic 10 jacent the lower end of the latter, and means
fluid, means forming a counter recoil cylinder in
provided to permit partial leakage of hydraulic
the breech end of said outer section, said coun
fluid past said piston in the lower portion of said
ter recoil cylinder being closed at its upper end,
counter recoil cylinder.
another expansible chamber intercommunicat
ing through a restricted opening with said ?rst 15
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