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P. SQCARTER
2,413,745 ,
I
ANTENNA’
‘
Filed June 17, 1942
INVENTOR
Pam/p <5‘. CARTER.
BY
,
.
ATTORNEY
I
v
‘
Patented Jan. 7, 1947
2,413,745
UNITED. STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,413,745
ANTENNA
Philip S. Carter, Rocky Point, N. Y., assignor to
Radio Corporation of America, a corporation
of Delaware
Application June 17, 1942, Serial No. 447,312
14 Claims.
(Cl. 250—33)
I
2
The present invention relates to antennas and,
particularly, to ultra high frequency antennas
tenna has an effect on the transmission line con
operative over a very wide frequency band such
as, for example, is required in the case of tele
nected thereto similar to the effect of a paral
lel tuned circuit, thus resulting in a much wider
band of frequencies over which the system gives
vision transmission.
An object of the present invention is to pro
vide an ultra high frequency antenna having an
impedance which varies very little with change of
a uniform response.
The present invention Will be more fully un
characteristics as a parallel tuned circuit.
It is well known that when a line which is a
plurality of radiating elements It), 20, 30 lying
derstood by reference to the following detailed
description, which is accompanied by a drawing
frequency.
in which Figure 1 is a plan view, partly in sec
Another object of the present invention is to 10 tion, illustrating an embodiment of the present
produce an antenna which is mechanically strong
invention, while Figure 2 illustrates a modi?ca
and which is inherently protected against light
tion thereof, Figure 2A illustrates in perspective
ning and weather damage.
an antenna array utilizing the structure of Fig
The present invention consists essentially of
ure 2, and Fig. 3 illustrates a further modi?ca
a radiator element so arranged as to present an 15 tion of Figure 2.
v
impedance curve against frequency with the same
The antenna shown in Figure 1 consists of a
in a horizontal plane each de?ning one side of -
number of wavelengths long‘ is teminated in a
a triangle. Each radiating element is discon
resistanc'e which does not match the line and this 20 tinuous at the middle of each side of the tri
is excited by a source of high frequency energy,
angle thus forming a pair of members. In the
standing waves are set up on the line. At re
case of radiating member If), the members are
curring points along the line an impedance is
presented which is purely resistive. These points
identi?ed by reference numerals l I, I2; in the
case of radiating member 26, by 2! and 22 and
tend to move away from the terminating resist 25 in the case of radiating member 30, by 3| and
ance when the frequency is lowered and tend to
32. Transmission lines TL1, TLz, TLs are run
move toward that end when the frequency is
from a convenient central point to adjacent ends
raised. Thus, if the source of power is con~
of conductors ll, I2, 2|, 22 and 3| and 32, respec
nected at a point where the line presents a pure
tively. The transmission lines are so connected
resistance at one frequency and the frequency is 30 to a common transmission line TL that when line
changed a pure resistance will no longer be
TL is connected to a transducer means, such as
presented. It has been discovered that when the
a source of high frequency energy, the current
resistance is replaced by a series tuned circuit,
such as a center fed dipole antenna, a change in
?ows, for example, clock-wise in all of the con
ductors at a particular instant and counter-clock
its impedance with frequency either side of res 35 wise during the alternate half cycles. This gives
onance causes the resistive points along the line to
the effect of parallel resonance as required above.
shift in position more rapidly with a change
It also results in a radiation pattern which is
in frequency than in the case of a resistive ter
substantially circular in the plane of the radiat
mination. On the other hand, it has been dis
ing conductors. For any given, size of triangle a
covered that if the resistance termination is 40 radiation resistance results which is relatively
replaced by a circuit which has the characteris
high, since the highest current points are at the
tics of a parallel tuned circuit, its change in
angles of the triangle. In order to obtain a still
impedance with frequency causes the points of
wider frequency response than is obtainable from
pure resistance along the line to move in the,
the parallel resonance effect mentioned above,
opposite direction from that in which they move 45 each of the conductors ll, 12, 2|, 22 and 3|, 32
when a pure resistance termination is used.
is generally conical in formation with the apices
These two effects may be caused to oppose each
of the cones adjacent. A complete discussion
other and thus cancel. Thus, when the trans
of the reasons for the conical formation of the
mission line is of such length as to present a
radiating conductors and of the factors in?uenc
pure resistance to the source of power at the
ing the relationship between the maximum diam
center of the band, the impedance will change
eters of the cones and their length will be found
much more slowly with frequency in the case of a
by reference to my prior Patent #2175254,
parallel tuned circuit than in the case of a series
granted October 10, 1939.
,
tuned circuit.
It should be noted that since the highest cur
Accordingly, therefore, the present invention
comprises an antenna system in which the an
rent points are at the angles of the triangle
formed by the radiators Ill, 20, 30 the potentials
2,413,745
3
4
the sides of a polygon lying in a horizontal plane,
each of said elements including a pair of coaxial
at these points are at aminimum. Therefore, con
ductive metal supports S connected to the radi
ators at these points may be used for supporting
single unit or one element of a stacked array.
conical members having their apices adjacent, the
adjacent bases of said conical members being
connected together, and means coupled to said
These supports are indicated in transverse cross
apices for so energizing said elements that at any
the antenna in the desired location, either as a
instant current travels all around said polygon in
section as though the viewing plane for the ?gure
passed immediately above one unit of a stacked
one direction.
3. A short wave broadcast antenna including a
array.
The modi?cation of the invention shown in Fig 10 plurality of radiating elements arranged along
the sides of a polygon lying in a horizontal plane,
ure 2 employs half wave phase reversing loops I4,
each of said elements including a pair of conical
24 in radiating members Ill and 20, respectively.
members having their apices adjacent, the adja
The conductrs of transmission line TL are then
cent bases of said conical members being con
connected to the adjacent apices of cones 3i and
32 of radiating member 30, thus enormously sim 15 nected together, and means coupled to said apices
for energizing said elements for unidirectional in
plifying the energizing system for the antenna.
stantaneous current flow around said polygon.
The operation, of course, is the same as discussed
4. A short wave broadcast antenna including a
for Figure 1.
plurality of radiating elements arranged along
The antenna array of Figure 2A utilizes a plu
rality of antennas as shown in Figure 2. The an
tennas are stacked vertically one above the other
along a common vertical axis. The antennas are
supported in position by conductive metal sup
ports S, located at each corner of the polygon
formed by the antennas. The antenna members
are conductively connected to the supports S.
the sides of a polygon lying in a horizontal plane,
each of said elements including a pair of conical
members having their apices adjacent, the ad
jacent bases of said conical members being con
@ nected together, means for coupling transducer
means to one pair of adjacent apices and phase
reversing loops connected between each other
pair of adjacent apices.
All of the antennas are fed in parallel from a sin
5. A short Wave broadcast antenna including
a plurality of radiating elements arranged along
to the transmission line so arranged that the an
tennas radiate in an inphase relationship. One 30 the sides of a polygon lying in a horizontal plane,
each of said elements including a pair of conical
antenna of the array shown in Figure 2A has the
members having their apices adjacent, the ad
same reference numerals applied thereto as the
jacent bases of said conical members being con
antenna of Figure 2, while the others carry the
gle transmission line TL with the connections
> nected together, and means coupled to said apices
same reference numerals primed and double
for energizing said elements for unidirectional in
stantaneous current flow around said polygon,
tween the different antennas of the array may be
and means at each corner of said polygon for
more readily perceived. It is not believed that
supporting said antenna.
any further description of this modi?cation of
6. A short wave broadcast antenna including
the present invention is necessary.
It will be noted that the structures shown in 40 a plurality of radiating elements arranged along
the sides of a polygon lying in a horizontal plane,
Figures 1 and 2 may be braced for mechanical
each of said elements including a pair of conical
strength. to any desired extent along the planes
members having their apices adjacent, the ad
indicated by lines CL in Figure 2. These planes
jacent bases of said conical members being con
bisect the angles of the triangle and are, there
nected together, means for coupling transducer
fore, neutral puanes. If an array of two or more
means to one pair of adjacent apices and phase
triangular radiating elements are located in
reversing loops connected between each other
planes parallel to each other and with a common
pair of adjacent apices, and means at each corner
axis, the resultant structure may be made quite
of said polygon for supporting said antenna.
rigid by means of cross-bracing in the bisecting
primed respectively, whereby the similarity be
planes.
The modi?cation shown in Figure 3 results in a
somewhat improved uniformity of the radiated
field. The conductors H, l2, 2|, 22 and 3| and
32 are arranged along the sides of a heXagon
in thisv modi?cation.
The antenna of Figure 3 is
energized in the same way as described with ref
erence to Figure 2 and may also be cross-braced
in the same way as described with reference to
Figure 2.
While I have particularly shown and described
several modi?cations of my invention, it is to be
distinctly understood that my invention is not
limited thereto but that improvements within the
50
'7. A short Wave broadcast antenna including a
plurality of radiating elements arranged along
the sides of a polygon lying in a horizontal plane,
each ofsaid elements including a pair of, conical
members having their apices adjacent, the adja
cent bases of said conical members being con
nected together, and means coupled to said apices
for energizing said elements for unidirectional
instantaneous current flow around said polygon,
and conductive supporting parts connected to
said members at corners .of said polygon.
. 8. A short Wave broadcast antenna including a
plurality of radiating elements arranged along
the sides of a polygon lying in a horizontal plane,
each of said elements including a pair of conical
scope of the invention may be made.
members having their apices adjacent, the ad:
I claim:
65
jacent bases of said conical members being con
1. A short wave broadcast antenna including a
.nected together, means for coupling transducer
plurality of radiating elements arranged along
the sides of a polygon and conductively con
means to one pair of adjacent apices and phase
nected at each angle of said polygon. each of said
reversing loops connected between each other
elements including a pair of conical members
pair of adjacent apices, and conductive support
having their apices adjacent. and means coupled 70 ing parts connected to said members at corners
to said apices for so energizing said elements that
at any instant current travels all around said
polygon in one direction.
2. A short wave broadcast antenna including a
of said polygon.
9. A short wave broadcast antenna array in
cluding a plurality of antennas as set forth in
plurality of radiating elements arranged ‘along 75 claim 1, coaxially arranged in parallel planes.
2,413,745
5
10. A short wave broadcast antenna array in
cluding a plurality of antennas as set forth in
together and means coupled to said apices for so
energizing said elements that at any instant cur
claim 3, coaxially arranged in parallel horizontal
11. A short wave broadcast antenna array in
cluding a plurality of antennas as set forth in
rent travels all around said polygon in one direc
tion.
14. An antenna for a short wave broadcast an
tenna array, said antenna being adapted to be cc
claim 5, coaxially arranged in parallel horizontal
axially arranged in parallel horizontal planes
planes.
planes.
with a plurality of other similar antennas, said
antenna including a plurality of radiating ele
12. A short Wave broadcast antenna array in
cluding a plurality of antennas as set forth in 10 ments arranged along the sides of a polygon lying
claim 8, coaxially arranged in parallel horizontal
in a horizontal plane, each of said elements in
planes.
cluding a pair of coaxial conical members having
their apices adjacent, the adjacent apices of said
conical members being connected together and
13. An antenna for a short Wave broadcast an
tenna array, said antenna being adapted to be
coaxially arranged in parallel planes with a plu
rality of other similar antennas, said antenna in
cluding a plurality of radiating elements ar
ranged along the sides of a polygon, each of said
elements including a pair of coaxial conical mem
means coupled to said apices for so energizing
said elements that at any instant current travels
all around said polygon in one direction and con
ductive vsulrlporting means connected to said
members at the corners of said polygon.
bers having their apices adjacent, the adjacent 20
apices of said conical members being connected
PHILIP S. CARTER.
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