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.Jan- 7, 1,947-
>A. G. s. SANDISON
‘ 2,413,787‘
BOAT CONSTRUCTION
Filed June 20, 1945
2' Sheets-Sheet 1
Jan. 7, 19.47.
'
A, G, $_ sAND|soN_
2,413,787
BOAT CONSTRUCTION
_ Filed June 20, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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2,413,787
Patented Jan. 7, 1947
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,413,787’
BOAT CONSTRUCTION
Alexander Greswolde Seymour Sandison,
Brantford, Ontario, Canada
Application June 20, 1945, Serial No. 600,549
In Canada September 12, 1944
11 Claims.
(01. 9-6)
1
2
This invention relates to boat construction,
and particularly to the construction of wooden
boats of round bilged type, and has for its object
to provide such a method of construction for the
ribs, timbers or frames of a boat that machine
operations may be used largely in place of the
usual construction methods, whereby the amount
of labour required for construction may be re
duced, and whereby also the quality of work and
the accuracy of ?tting may be improved over that
By the use of this invention it is possible to
employ certain machine methods in shaping the
frame segments and thereby to ensure rapid pro
duction and accurate ?tting, rendering it easy
to produce frames of satisfactory strength and
accuracy of jointing. The invention is particu
larly applicable with a method of boat construc
tion described in a previous patent application by
the present inventor entitled “Improvements in
boat construction,” application Serial No. 550,
usually obtained.
741 ?led August 23, 1944, which issued March. 19,
'
I
As ordinarily constructed the wooden frames of
a boat are usually either of “bent” or of “cut”
type. Bent frames are usually of'hardwood, such
as oak or elm, and are usually formed by soften
ing the wood by steaming and then bending to
shape. Such frames, however, as ordinarily
1946 as Patent No. 2,397,049 and using a machine
of type described in another previous patent ap
plication by the present inventor'entitled “A ma
chine for fabricating strakes for boat construc
tion or the like,” application Serial NO.‘550,738
?led August 23, 1944, for the shapingof the seg
ments; and in the following description it is as
sumed that the machine and the methods of
mit bending without breakage and their rigidity 20 boat construction described in the abovemen
tioned patent applications are employed.
is insu?icient to prevent the planking of the'boat
In describing the invention reference will be
becoming highly stressed in service with a possi
made to the attached diagrammatic drawings,
bility of distortion of the shape of the boat or
which illustrate the preferred form of the inven
damage to fastenings in course of time, and the
made suffer from the disadvantage that they are
necessarily of small sectional dimensions to per
liability to distortion is enhanced by a tendency
of the bent frames to straighten. Cut frames,
which are usually built up of jointed segments,
sometimes referred to as “cleats” or '“futtocks,”
can readily be made of sufficiently heavy section
to prevent danger of serious stressing or distor
tion of the planking, but, as ordinarily made, are
subject to the disadvantage that'they involve a
laborious process of marking off, cutting and fit‘
». tion, and in which:
Fig. 1 shows four separated strakes with frame
segments'attached thereto.
,
Fig. 2 shows the assemblyof the set of strakes
and frame segments shown in Fig. -1.
Fig. 3 is a ‘diagram illustrating the longitu
dinal shaping ‘of a strake with attached frame
segments.
-
Fig. 4 is a diagram on an enlarged scale'illus
ting, resulting in high cost of construction if work
trating the transverse shaping cf-a strake with
of ?rst class strength and accuracy of ?t is re
attached frame segments.
quired.‘
'
Fig. '5 shows a method of forming the ends of
the frame segments, this method differing from
The present invention is concerned primarily
that shown vin'the preceding ?gures.
'
with the construction of boats having cut frames
Fig. 6 shows another method of forming the
longitudinally spaced and having their skins com
f '
posed of bent longitudinal strakes which are ini 4 O ends of the frame segments.
Fig. '7 is a transverse section of a boat showing
tially fabricated as unbent strakes, and in the
the complete assembly of a frame.
present invention the frames are initially formed
In the drawings similar parts are indicated by
as a plurality of segments, these segments being
like reference numerals.
'
.
located and held in their designed positions rela
Referring to Fig. l, strakes I, pre-fabricated
tive to the unbent strakes and cut to shape while 45
prior to their assembly ‘to form part of the skin
so held. It is preferred to form the segments of
of a boat, have frame segments 2’ secured to
such length that each segment has an effective
them, which segments are cut with tongues or
span equivalent to the ‘width of two strakes, and
tenons 3, ‘and with grooves 4-, the tongues‘ and
to cut the ends of the segments with tenons or
grooves being designed to register on assembly.
other matching means of registration whereby
The number of segments on each strake is equal
assembly may be facilitated and secure joints
to half the designed number of frames andfth'e
made between the ends of the frame segments on
longitudinal vpositions of the fra'me‘segments on
assembly. For preference the joints should be
adjacent strakes are staggered.-'- ‘
'
staggered so that joints in adjacentframes/do
not occur opposite the same strake.
-‘ 55 - In Fig. 2 the set of strakes illustrated in Fig. 1
2,413,787
3
4
is shown assembled to form part of the skin of a
boat. The strakes have been bent longitudinally
and assembled in such a manner that the edges
of the strakes lie together, the tenons and grooves
at the ends of the frame segments being also in
inclusive are exempli?ed in Figs. 5 and 6. In
Fig. 5 a method of transverse tenoning or match
ing is employed, the segment I 2 being formed
with a transverse tenon [3 at one end and a
sembly the ends of the frame segments may addi
transverse groove M at the other end, and also
with a faying surface l5. In Fig. 6 cylindrically
formed registering surfaces are employed and
tionally be secured to one another and to the
the segment 22 has a faying surface 25 and is
registration.
It will be understood that on as
adjoining strakes by gluing, or by screws, nails
formed with a pin 25 at one end and a hole 21
or through fastenings, or by a combination'of
at the other end. The properties of these vari
ous types of joints are not identical and the choice
of type may be made according to preference.
Thus the longitudinal tenoning method shown in
Figs. 1 to 4 gives positive location of the strakes
on assembly as to their relative transverse posi
tion, but not as to their relative longitudinal po
sitions; the transverse tenoning method shown
in Fig. 5 gives positive location of the strakes on
assembly as to their relative longitudinal posi
these methods, such methods being well known.
The preferred shape of the strake is illustrated
with reference to Fig. 3, which shows reference
axes O—X and O—Y, the axis O—X correspond
ing to the centre line of the strake if the latter
is symmetrical. Dimension it corresponds to the
longitudinal distance from the. arbitrary origin
0 and dimension y corresponds to the distance
from the line O-X to the edge of the strake, as
measured across the inner surface of the strake,
and dimension 1/’ corresponds to the distance
from the line O—X to a reference point located
at or near the end of the frame segment. The
‘ reference point to which 1/’ is measured corre
sponds to the position of the axis line of the ad
jacent strake on assembly and does not neces
sarily correspond to an actual point on the joint
between the ends of the frame segments. As de
tions but not as to their relative transverse posi- '
tions; while the concentric registration method
shown in Fig. 6 gives positive location of the
strakes on assembly both as regards their rela—
tive longitudinal and relative transverse positions.
In the descriptions hitherto it has been as—
sumed that the adjoining profiles of adjacent
strakes are of symmetrical contour, that is to
say that the one pro?le forms a mirror image of
scribed in, the above-mentioned previous patent
the other, and for reasons of simplicity it is gen
applications the edge of the strake may be cut 30 erally preferred to adopt such symmetry between
in substantial accordance with the formula
the adjoining pro?les. It will, however, be evi
dent that this symmetry is not essential to the
operation of the invention, though departure
where A, B, C, D and E are constants. The ends
of the frame segments are cut so that dimension
y’ is slightly less than 2y, the theoretical rela
tionship for correct registration being given in
the next paragraph.
In the cross section illustrated in Fig. 4 dimen
sions y and 1/’ have the same meaninigs as de
therefrom generally tends to complicate the set
tings for the machine without any real advantage
being secured.
The ?nal assembly of a frame when the as
sembly of a boat is completed is illustrated in
Fig. 7. The two halves of the complete frame
4:0 are here shown joined by a floor 8 which in turn
is secured to the keel 9. In the example shown
the frame is straight over some portion of its
length and where such straight portions occur
planking at that particular section, being such
the
frame may be made Without joints, and the
as would secure exact contacts between the edges
of adjacent strakes on assembly. The faying 45 corresponding straight frame segments need not
then necessarily be cut to shape in conjunction
surface 5 of the frame segment is cut at an angle
with the strakes.
equal to 20: with respect to the surface of the
In the method of construction described, the
strake, as is shown, and the tenoning and groov
lengths of the frame segments in curved portions
ing of the ends of the frame segments is cut at
scribed with reference to Fig. 3, and the angle a
is the theoretical angle of bevel of the edge of the
an angle equal to 2a with respect to a line per 50 of the frame are made to correspond to a span
equivalent to the width of two strakes, and in
pendicular to the strake surface, as is shown.
most cases this is preferable. It is, however,
The correct value of dimension y’ may be shown
within the scope of the invention to construct
to be equal to y(l+cos 2oz) .
the segments'so as to span only the width of one
In the operation of fabricating the strakes
with the attached frame segments a sequence of 55 strake, or so as to span three or more strakes,
and machine settings can readily be devised to
operations such as the following may be em
cut the segments accordingly.
ployed. Firstly, pieces of Wood of suitable sec
I claim:
tion and of length somewhat greater than the
1. In the process of construction of a boat have
?nished dimensions of the frame segments are
secured at the required intervals to the plank 60 ing longitudinally spaced frames and having its
skin composed of bent longitudinal strakes which
from which the strake is to be cut. Secondly,
are initially fabricated as unbent strakes, the ini
the strake with its attached frame segments is
tial formation of said frames as a plurality of
mounted on the machine, which is set in accord
segments, said segments being located and held
ance with the required value of width y and
angle 0:, and the edges of the strake are then cut. 65 in their designed positions relative to said unbent
strakes and cut to shape while so held.
Thirdly, the machine is set to cut in accordance
2. In the process of construction of a boat hav
with width y but at an angle equal to 20:, and
ing longitudinally spaced frames and having its
the faying surfaces of the frame segments are
skin composed of bent longitudinal strakes which
then cut. Fourthly, the machine is set to cut
in accordance with a nominal width equal to y’ 70 are initially fabricated as unbent strakes, the
and for an angle equal to 20:, and the jointing
initial formation of said frames as a plurality of
surfaces at the ends of the frame segments are
segments, said segments being located and held in
then cut.
‘
their designed positions relative to said unbent
Forms of joint for the frame ends other than
strakes and cut with matching joint faces while
the longitudinal tenoning shown in Figs. 1 to 4 75 so held.
2,413,787
5
3. In the process of construction of a boat hav
ing longitudinally spaced frames and having its
skin composed of bent longitudinal strakes which
are initially fabricated as unbent strakes, the ini
tial formation of said frames as a plurality of
segments, said segments being located and held
in their designed positions relative to said unbent
strakes and cut with matching joint faces while
so held, said matching joint faces comprising
tenons and grooves longitudinally disposed in .
6
segments of effective length equivalent to the
width of two strakes, said strakes being located
and held in staggered relationship in their de
signed position relative to said unbent strakes and
cut to shape while so held.
8. In the process of construction of a boat hav
ing strakes and having frames composed of a plu
rality of segments, the securing of un?nished
frame segments to an unassembled strake, fol
lowed by their shaping while so secured.
9. In the process of construction of a boat hav
ing strakes, and having frames composed of a plu
rality of segments, the securing of frame seg
relation to said strakes.
4. In the process of construction of a boat hav
ing longitudinally spaced frames and having its
ments having un?nished faying surfaces and ends
skin composed of bent longitudinal strakes which
are initially fabricated as unbent strakes, the ini 15 in position on an unassembled strake having un
?nished edges, followed by machining to finished
tial formation of said frames as a plurality of seg
shape of the edges of the strake and of the faying
ments, said segments being located and held in
surfaces and ends of the frame segments secured
their designed positions relative to said unbent
thereto.
strakes and cut with matching joint faces while
10. In the process of construction of a boat
so held, said matching joint faces comprising 20
having strakes, and having frames composed of a
tenons and grooves transversely disposed in rela
plurality of segments, the securing of frame seg
tion to said strakes.
ments’ having un?nished faying surfaces and
5. In the process of construction of a boat hav
ends in position on an unassembled strake having
ing longitudinally spaced frames and having its
un?ished edges, followed by machining opera
skin composed of bent longitudinal strakes which
tions to cut the edges of the strake to their cor
are initially fabricated as unbent strakes, the ini
rect width and angle of bevel, to cut the faying
tial formation of said frames as a plurality of
surfaces of the frame segments to their correct
segments, said segments being located and held in
angle of bevel, and to cut the ends of the frame
their designed positions relative to said unbent
segments in the form of joint surfaces.
strakes and cut with matching joint faces while
11. In the process of construction of a boat
so held, said matching joint faces comprising cy
having strakes, and having frames composed of a
lindrically formed surfaces.
‘
plurality of segments, the securing of frame seg
6. In the process of construction of a boat hav
ments having un?nished faying surfaces and
ing longitudinally spaced frames and having its
ends, and Of length sufficient to span the width
skin composed of bent longitudinal strakes which
of two strakes, in position on an unassembled
are initially fabricated as unbent strakes, the ini
strake having un?nished edges, followed by ma
tial formation of said frames as a plurality of
chining operations to cut the edges of the strake
segments of effective length equivalent to the
to pro?le and in accordance with a required angle
width of two strakes, said segments being located ‘
of bevel, to cut the faying surfaces of the frame
and held in their designed position relative to said
segments to an angle equal to twice said angle of
unbent strakes and cut to shape while so held.
bevel, and to cut the ends of the frame segments
7. In the process'of construction of a boat hav
in the form of joint surfaces.
ing longitudinally spaced frames and having its
skin composed of bent longitudinal strakes which
ALEXANDER GRESWOLDE
are initially fabricated as unbent strakes, the ini
tial formation of said frames as a plurality of
SEYMOUR SANDISON.
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