Jan. l7, 1947. 2,413,794 F. S. SMALL SECUREMENT MEANS FOR SHINGLE AND SIDING UNITS Filed Oct. 26, 1944 FIG.|. \ El œ ab Í. . (l ,r\\..\ à f, í/ l/Z » „w A ' 14A l /5A IN1/E FRANK 6. R. ALL Y ' ` ATTORNEY 2,413,794 Patented `Jan. 7, 1947 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,413,794 SECUREMENT MEANS Foa sHINGLE AND SIDING UNITS I Frank S. Small, St. Louis, Mo., assignor of one half to Elden P. Reising, Evansville, Ind. _ Application October 26, 1944, Serial No. 560,437 9 Claims. (Cl. 10S-8) 1 This invention relates to improvements in se curement means for shingle and siding units, and more particularly to an improved arrangement for maintaining in close permanent adjacence, and without any exposed metal elements, the overlapped units of shingle and siding assemblies. For some time past the application of asbestos siding and similar shingling materials, with per Z and hence which substantially obviates vthe rust streak effect noted. A further speciñoobject of the invention is at tained in eliminating any need for the, usual joint strip of roofing Vmaterial or the like, and the reduction of application expense by reason of this improvement. ' Another specific object of the invention is at manent satisfaction, has offered a number of tained in the elimination of one of the usual rows up in horizontal rows or courses with the lower margins of the shingles or units of each course, or other exposed metal securement means. A still further and important object of the in- ' vention is attained in an improved securement diilìculties. According to prevailing practice, the 10 or courses of nails in each siding unit or row thereof, and Ithe entire elimination of face nails siding units, usually rectangular in form, lare laid overlapping Ithe upper margins of the units of .the course next below. Prevalent means of at tachment in application of siding of this type, consist in a double course or row of nails ex tended through rows of nail holes, one near the clip for attachment of the overlapped siding units to each other, in or along the `zones of their over lap, Such that anchorage of the fasteners uti lized for .this purpose is effected by means 1o cated entirely within the siding unit, specifically top and another near the bottom of each unit, such anchorage being effected by recessed or the nails extended through the units into a usually countersunk clip-anchoring members. solid sheathing therebeneath. It has also been The foregoing and numerous other objects will regarded as necessary for best resistance to wind more clearly appear _from the following detailed and rain, to provide in each of the zones of the description of certain preferred embodiments of vertical joints between the units, a strip of single .w .the invention, when considered in connection ply composition rooñng material or the like, sepa 25 with the -accompanying drawing, in which: rately applied over the sheathing and just inward Fig. 1 is a plan view of a rectangular asbestos ly of the vertical joints. This obviously necessi siding unit, provided with the present improve tates additional expense for both material and ments; ' labor. While nails are a fairly satisfactory fas Fig. 2 -is an enlarged sectional elevation of a sò tening expedient for retention of the units in fastener assembled to a siding unit, as viewed vertical position, they have not proven satisfac along line 2-2 of Fig. 1; tory in keeping the units in close adjacence in Fig. 3 is a fragmentary View of three courses of the zones of their'overlap, with the result that shingling or siding units, illustrating one manner much trouble is experienced in looseness of the 35 of their application; units, reflected in a tendency to rattle due to Wind Fig. 4 is an isometric view of one form of sid effects, in loss of weather protection, frequent repair expense, and other numerous shortcom ings. It is accordingly a major objective of the present invention to overcome the several difficul ties noted; to attain an assembly of shingling ing fastener; Fig. 5 is an isometric view of a modified form of fastener, and Fig. 6 is a view corresponding in nature and location, to Fig. 2, but showing certain modifica tions of the fastener and manner of assembling units particularly for siding purposes, which is it to the shingling unit. substantially free of depthwise looseness, rattles Referring now by characters of reference to the and the like, and which is characterized by im proved weather-sealing characteristics. 45 drawing, the several shingling or siding units are indicated at I0, and by way of example are illus Considerable further diñîculty has been experi trated as being rectangular in form, usually of a enced because of the exposed rows of nails under length about twice their width, and laid up in ac the older prevailing practice, usually after a pe cordance with conventional practice, in horizontal riod of weathering, due to rusting of the nails, and consequent rust streaks detracting material 50 courses or rows, with the lower margins of the units of Aeach course somewhat overlapping the ly from the appearance» of asbestos siding and upper margins of the units of the next lower the like, the units of which are light in color. The present improvements accordingly objective ly attain an _assembly in which there is or need be no exposed ferrous metal securement elements, course. This general arrangement is conven tional, although the principles of the present im provements will be understood as applicable to a 2,413,794 3 4 wide variety of shapes and arrangement of the of the clips for securement of the overlapped units in a close and permanent face adjacent to each other, and in the elimination of face nails. Proceeding now to a description of certain prac units in any of a wide variety of roofing or sid ing applications. J oint-sealing strips S may be used if desired. Each of the units Il) is provided with a plurality Ul tical means of attachment of the fasteners to the of preformed nail openings II, two being shown, siding units, it has been noted as a preference but Sometimes three of these being provided some to provide each such units with a row of the de what below and somewhat inwardly of the upper pressions I2, these forming seats for the recep margin of each of the units I0. Conveniently tion of the base or plate portion of the fastener. formed at low cost at the time of molding or 10 With reference to Fig, 4, it will be seen that the otherwise forming the units, is a plurality of de base is constituted of a plate 20 which is prefer pressions I2 opening into the inner face of each ably >of non-circular general outline, and is pro of the units preferably in the region of or slightly vided about its perimeter or the greater portion above the overlapping area of the inner face of thereof, with apexed projections or tooth-like ser _ the units thus provided. Although any suitable 15 rations 2I. It should b-e noted in connection with number of the depressions I2, as desired, may be the structure of Fig. 4, that the base plate 20 employed, these are shown as two in number on is optionally provided with a plurality of open each unit and arranged, for location of the fas ings 22. Extending outwardly of the plate 20 and teners (Fig. 1) each about one-.third the distance preferably formed integrally with the plate, is a in from the nearest Vertical margin of a rec clip consisting of a shorter horizontal leg IQ and tangular unit I0. The shape of these depressions at right angles thereto as an extension, is a long may be varied according to choice in shape of er, normally vertical leg I5, heretofore generally fastener base, as will hereinafter more clearly referred to. The leg I5 is by preference either appear. tapered somewhat at its terminus 23 as by out Each fastener, generally referred to as I 3, com 2,5 ward deflection in this zone of the material of prises, as later detailed, an inset or countersunk which the major clip leg is formed, or if desired, base plate serving as a support and anchorage by reducing the material in thickness at the end for the clip proper, the plate occupying one of of the major leg. This provision facilitates the the depressions I2, while the clip portion of the introduction of the clip over the margin 0f the fastener is generally although not necessarily, of overlapped siding or shingle unit therebelow. As an inverted L shape comprising two legs, a short has been noted, the distance between most of the er horizontal portion I4, and a longer substan leg I5 and surface of the unit, is equal to, or - tially vertical leg I5. It _will appear that in as perhaps as desired, very slightly less than the sembly of the siding units, each unit is secured normal thickness of the siding unit, whereby to by a row of" nails IE extending through the open 35 provide a secure gripping engagement of the up ings II therefor, but that these nails are applied per margin of the subjacent unit between the through the shingle unit and sheathing through clip leg I5 and the adjacent face of the shingle what is, after finished application, a concealed or siding unit by which the clip is carried. In zone of the unit, whereby the nails are protected the several forms of clip, the overall dimensions from rain and in great measure from the usual 40 of the base plate preferably appreciably exceed oxidizing effects, whereby rust streaking is elimi the corresponding 'dimensions of the bottom of nated, or at least minimized. It will appear from the depression I2 in which it is located, and by Fig. 2 that the clip portion of the fastener bears further preference the base plate is either, at a definite relation to the siding unit with which the time of its formation, or by Vuse of a special it is employed, in that the sho-rter leg I4 projects 45 deforming tool on the job, stressed outwardly so outwardly or rearwardly from the inner face of that it assumes a somewhat bowed aspect in at the unit by which it is carried, such a distance least one section, as indicated by dotted lines that the vertical leg I5 of the clip is spaced rear in a somewhat modified form in Fig. 6. After wardly of the rear face of the unit a distance the base 20A thereof is inserted with its edges which corresponds closely to, in fact may initial 50 in bottoming >relation in the depression I2, it is ly be slightly less than the presumably uniform struck or otherwise forcibly resto-red to an un thickness of the several units. It results from stressed or normal planar aspect. The overall this that in assembly, as each course of the units area of the base somewhat exceeding that of the is applied and positioned in the row by nails, the bottom of the depression, the serrations or apices clips of the superposed units are so applied that 55 2 IA, will be driven into the material in the lower their legs I5 are brought downwardly over so as most portions of the perimetral wall of the de to lie just rearwardly of the rear face of the over pression, thus locking the base and hence the lapped portion of the subjacent units, and in such fastener in place in the shingle or siding unit. manner that the shorter horizontal leg of each As an alternate mode of secu-rement, or for use clip abuts the upper edge of the unit next there 60 in conjunctionwith that heretofore described, below. ` there is preferred for siding or shingle units of If desired, and according to preference, the clip certain compositions or constituencies, an adhe may be formed of a resilient metal stock so that sive securement of the clip into assembly with it is slightly stressed in being brought over the the siding or shingle units. One suitable form of margin of the subjacent siding unit, and so serves 65 this mode of securement is indicated by Fig. 2, snugly to grip such margin and guidingly to se wherein it will appear that there is ñrst deposited cure the superposed units in depthwise adjacence a covering layer of moderate depth, of a bonding to each other and in line and parallelism in the material 24. For the usual and prevalent asbes rows, whereby to prevent rattling or looseness tos siding units made up predominantly of Port from any cause, so long as the sheathing there 70 land cement and asbestos fiber, there has been beneath is solid and tight. The manner of appli found satisfactory as a bonding material, certain cation of the fastener-equipped units wil be read of the preparations sold under the trade name ily apparent from the foregoing description and of “Cycleweld,” marketed and sold by Chrysler from the drawing, and may follow if desired, con Corporation of Detroit, Michigan, this cement ventional modes of application except for usage 75 being of the class of .synthetic resin adhesives, ¿2,413,794 .more particularly a thermosetting plastic. , Alter nately there may be employed a preparation sup plied by Hayes' Adhesive Co. of St. Louis, Mis souri, and marketed as “Hayes Special Water proof Cement.” Further, in the application of _the bonding material such as 24, asufiicient ex cess is provided so that the body of the originally plastic material 2B is caused to extrude through one or a plurality of the openings 22 heretofore referred to. This extrusion also takes place through theperimetral spaces between the apical portions perimetrally of thel fastener base, >and adhesively engaging the base plate and marginal portions ofthe recess in which the plate is located. 2. In a Portland cement and fiber shingle or siding unit of a type in which a plurality of the units are laid up in overlapped relation, a fastener including a base plate, a clip carriedby and pro jecting from the plate for engaging an overlapped unit therebeneath, a bonding material consisting of a resin of thermosetting character between the base plate and a face of the unit, the base plate being provided with` an opening, and a portion of the bonding material extending through said opening, the bonding material constituting the results in a perimetral deposit of the bonding ma primary connection between the fastener and the terial, shown at 25. It will be noted that this unit, and serving to key the base plate to the body 15 portion of the bonding material effects a close waterproof union,- with high cohesive effect, be tween the metal of the plate and the peripheral wall portions of the depression or recess I2. Still further, and with additional securement advan of the unit. . . lS. In a shingle or siding unit of a Portland cement-über type and provided with a plurality of facewise depressions, a fastener located in the region of each of said depressions, each fastener 20 including a plate within the adjacent depression, terial 24 is extruded through the openings 22 and, a bonding material by which the plate is secured upon setting of the bonding material, forms ex in the depression, the plate being provided with teriorly headed keying elements 26 on the outer an opening in its intermediate area and with a face of the clip base. These extruded portions, plurality of perimetral passages, the bonding following setting, serve to tie the base plate of 25 material extended through said openings and the clip to the body of the siding or shingle unit, passages, whereby to key the plate securely into in coaction with the holding eir‘ect of the pe assembly with the material in the bottom, and rimetral deposit 25. perimetrally of the depression, and a clip carried In the form of clip shown by Fig. 5, the hori by said plate and adapted for engagement with ‘ tage, it will be noted from Fig. 2, that the ma zontal and vertical leg portions iQ-A and ISA are 30 or may be the same as earlier described; the base 20A of this form is shown as of serrated cir cular outline, and convexly stressed as suggested a similar underlying unit. 4. The combination and arrangement of ele ments substantially as described in claim 3 but further characterized in that the perimetral por be noted that the interlocking engagement 35 tion of the plate is serrated, thus forming the perimetral passage between the serrations, and aiîorded by the serrations 2l or ZEA in penetrat with its serrations interengaging the marginal ing the material deñning the walls of the depres portions of the depression in which the plate is sion, will, in most cases with most siding mated located. rials, be entirely sufficient. It is definitely con 5. A rectangular shingle or siding unit of Port templated, as has been proven by experiments, land cement and asbestos, and provided with a plu to employ both securement expedients if desired, rality of preformed nail holes somewhat nearer in the same assembly. It is preferred for assur its upper margin, and with a plurality of depres ance against casual angular displacement of the sions inwardly of its inner face, and located clips after assembly to the siding or shingle units, to select a non-circular form of base and a cor 45 nearer its lower margin,v the depressions being located out of vertical alignment with said nail responding non-circular form of depression in holes, a fastener in the region of each of said which the clip base is disposed, with advantages by the dotted lines of Fig. 6. It should definitely depressions, each fastener including a base plate v now evident. ‘ provided with perimetral serrations in inter-en It should be noted in respect to the several forms of fastener illustrated, and the various ex 50 gagement with the material of the unit about the pedients for their assembly to the shingling units, any of the several features are regarded as sus ceptible of embodiment in each or any of the several forms illustrated and described, and others Within the scope of present improvements. It will now have appeared that the improved structure and manner oi assembling the fasteners to the siding or shingle units, and the resulting advantageous assembly of such units in applica tion entirely fuli’ill each of the several objectives hereinabove set forth, and others expressed and implied in the description. Since many variants are possible, the detail of present description is depression in which the plate is located, a bond ing material differing from the material forming the body of the unit, and disposed in each depression in part between the bottom of the depression and the adjacent surface of the plate, and in further part extended through the serrations and into bonding relation with the peripheral wall portions of the depression, the plate and depression being of substantially conforming non-circular shape to prevent turning movements of the plate within the depression and in the plane of the unit, and an inverted substantially L-shaped clip formed in tegrally with the plate, the shorter leg of the to be understood in an instructive rather than in a limiting sense, numerous changes being pos 65 clip extending substantially normal to the plane of the unit, and the longer leg thereof being sible within the scope of the claims hereunto extended at about a right angle to the shorter appended. I claim as my invention: l. In a rooñng or siding unit of a type formed of a Portland cement matrix and provided with a face depression, a fastener characterized by a base plate disposed in the depression, a clip car ried by the base plate and an amount of a bond leg and generally parallel to the adjacent face of the unit, and being spaced from such face a distance substantially equal to the thickness of the unit. 6. An asbestos shingle or siding unit including a metal attachment clip having an apertured base, the clip base being secured substantially ing material in the depression and perimetrally overlying the base plate, the bonding material 75 parallel to one face of the unit, and a layer of v7' aars-,794 adhesive synthetic resin of a thermosetti-n‘g char acter, between the clip base and the body of the unit, and constituting the primary means by which the clip is attached. '7. In an asbestos and cement shingle or siding unit, a metal attachment clip, and an adhesive bonding material constituting the sole secure ment agency between the clip and the body of tached vto the clip and the body, and serving as a sole attachment agency therefor. 9. A weather-resisting face unit of asbestos and Portland cement» composition, and adapted for use on a building in an arrangement of a plurality ci such units, ‘each unit including one or more clips projecting from its rear face, each clip including a flat‘base plate and a spring arm, and a layer of a bonding material consisting of a thermosetting secured so as to project from one face of the unit, 10 synthetic resin of a type to `bond under heat and and said bonding material. consisting of a therpressure, with both` the asbestos and cement of the unit, the attachment clip being -formed and mosetting synthetic resin. 8. A ceramic facing unit for use in a plurality for building purposes, the unit including a sub the face unit, and located between the clip base and. the body of the unit, a portion of the bonding material being in locking interñtting engagement stantially flat ceramic body containing asbestos 15 with the clip and the layer of bonding material über, one or more spaced clips projecting from adhesively lengaging the body 0f the unit, the the rear face of the body, and a bonding layer of 'a synthetic resin of thermosetting type, the bond ing layer located between and adhesively at bonding layer serving as the sole structural con nection between the clip and the unit. FRANK S. SMALL.