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Jan. l7, 1947.
2,413,794
F. S. SMALL
SECUREMENT MEANS FOR SHINGLE AND SIDING UNITS
Filed Oct. 26, 1944
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FRANK 6.
R.
ALL
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ATTORNEY
2,413,794
Patented `Jan. 7, 1947
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,413,794
SECUREMENT MEANS Foa sHINGLE AND
SIDING UNITS
I Frank S. Small, St. Louis, Mo., assignor of one
half to Elden P. Reising, Evansville, Ind.
_
Application October 26, 1944, Serial No. 560,437
9 Claims. (Cl. 10S-8)
1
This invention relates to improvements in se
curement means for shingle and siding units, and
more particularly to an improved arrangement
for maintaining in close permanent adjacence,
and without any exposed metal elements, the
overlapped units of shingle and siding assemblies.
For some time past the application of asbestos
siding and similar shingling materials, with per
Z
and hence which substantially obviates vthe rust
streak effect noted.
A further speciñoobject of the invention is at
tained in eliminating any need for the, usual joint
strip of roofing Vmaterial or the like, and the
reduction of application expense by reason of this
improvement.
'
Another specific object of the invention is at
manent satisfaction, has offered a number of
tained in the elimination of one of the usual rows
up in horizontal rows or courses with the lower
margins of the shingles or units of each course,
or other exposed metal securement means.
A still further and important object of the in- '
vention is attained in an improved securement
diilìculties. According to prevailing practice, the 10 or courses of nails in each siding unit or row
thereof, and Ithe entire elimination of face nails
siding units, usually rectangular in form, lare laid
overlapping Ithe upper margins of the units of
.the course next below. Prevalent means of at
tachment in application of siding of this type,
consist in a double course or row of nails ex
tended through rows of nail holes, one near the
clip for attachment of the overlapped siding units
to each other, in or along the `zones of their over
lap, Such that anchorage of the fasteners uti
lized for .this purpose is effected by means 1o
cated entirely within the siding unit, specifically
top and another near the bottom of each unit,
such anchorage being effected by recessed or
the nails extended through the units into a usually
countersunk clip-anchoring members.
solid sheathing therebeneath. It has also been
The foregoing and numerous other objects will
regarded as necessary for best resistance to wind
more clearly appear _from the following detailed
and rain, to provide in each of the zones of the
description of certain preferred embodiments of
vertical joints between the units, a strip of single .w .the invention, when considered in connection
ply composition rooñng material or the like, sepa 25 with the -accompanying drawing, in which:
rately applied over the sheathing and just inward
Fig. 1 is a plan view of a rectangular asbestos
ly of the vertical joints. This obviously necessi
siding unit, provided with the present improve
tates additional expense for both material and
ments; '
labor. While nails are a fairly satisfactory fas
Fig. 2 -is an enlarged sectional elevation of a
sò
tening expedient for retention of the units in
fastener assembled to a siding unit, as viewed
vertical position, they have not proven satisfac
along line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
tory in keeping the units in close adjacence in
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary View of three courses of
the zones of their'overlap, with the result that
shingling or siding units, illustrating one manner
much trouble is experienced in looseness of the
35 of their application;
units, reflected in a tendency to rattle due to Wind
Fig. 4 is an isometric view of one form of sid
effects, in loss of weather protection, frequent
repair expense, and other numerous shortcom
ings. It is accordingly a major objective of the
present invention to overcome the several difficul
ties noted; to attain an assembly of shingling
ing fastener;
Fig. 5 is an isometric view of a modified form
of fastener, and
Fig. 6 is a view corresponding in nature and
location, to Fig. 2, but showing certain modifica
tions of the fastener and manner of assembling
units particularly for siding purposes, which is
it to the shingling unit.
substantially free of depthwise looseness, rattles
Referring now by characters of reference to the
and the like, and which is characterized by im
proved weather-sealing characteristics.
45 drawing, the several shingling or siding units are
indicated at I0, and by way of example are illus
Considerable further diñîculty has been experi
trated as being rectangular in form, usually of a
enced because of the exposed rows of nails under
length about twice their width, and laid up in ac
the older prevailing practice, usually after a pe
cordance with conventional practice, in horizontal
riod of weathering, due to rusting of the nails,
and consequent rust streaks detracting material 50 courses or rows, with the lower margins of the
units of Aeach course somewhat overlapping the
ly from the appearance» of asbestos siding and
upper margins of the units of the next lower
the like, the units of which are light in color.
The present improvements accordingly objective
ly attain an _assembly in which there is or need be
no exposed ferrous metal securement elements,
course.
This general arrangement is conven
tional, although the principles of the present im
provements will be understood as applicable to a
2,413,794
3
4
wide variety of shapes and arrangement of the
of the clips for securement of the overlapped units
in a close and permanent face adjacent to each
other, and in the elimination of face nails.
Proceeding now to a description of certain prac
units in any of a wide variety of roofing or sid
ing applications. J oint-sealing strips S may be
used if desired.
Each of the units Il) is provided with a plurality Ul tical means of attachment of the fasteners to the
of preformed nail openings II, two being shown,
siding units, it has been noted as a preference
but Sometimes three of these being provided some
to provide each such units with a row of the de
what below and somewhat inwardly of the upper
pressions I2, these forming seats for the recep
margin of each of the units I0. Conveniently
tion of the base or plate portion of the fastener.
formed at low cost at the time of molding or 10 With reference to Fig, 4, it will be seen that the
otherwise forming the units, is a plurality of de
base is constituted of a plate 20 which is prefer
pressions I2 opening into the inner face of each
ably >of non-circular general outline, and is pro
of the units preferably in the region of or slightly
vided about its perimeter or the greater portion
above the overlapping area of the inner face of
thereof, with apexed projections or tooth-like ser
_ the units thus provided. Although any suitable 15 rations 2I. It should b-e noted in connection with
number of the depressions I2, as desired, may be
the structure of Fig. 4, that the base plate 20
employed, these are shown as two in number on
is optionally provided with a plurality of open
each unit and arranged, for location of the fas
ings 22. Extending outwardly of the plate 20 and
teners (Fig. 1) each about one-.third the distance
preferably formed integrally with the plate, is a
in from the nearest Vertical margin of a rec
clip consisting of a shorter horizontal leg IQ and
tangular unit I0. The shape of these depressions
at right angles thereto as an extension, is a long
may be varied according to choice in shape of
er, normally vertical leg I5, heretofore generally
fastener base, as will hereinafter more clearly
referred to. The leg I5 is by preference either
appear.
tapered somewhat at its terminus 23 as by out
Each fastener, generally referred to as I 3, com 2,5 ward deflection in this zone of the material of
prises, as later detailed, an inset or countersunk
which the major clip leg is formed, or if desired,
base plate serving as a support and anchorage
by reducing the material in thickness at the end
for the clip proper, the plate occupying one of
of the major leg. This provision facilitates the
the depressions I2, while the clip portion of the
introduction of the clip over the margin 0f the
fastener is generally although not necessarily, of
overlapped siding or shingle unit therebelow. As
an inverted L shape comprising two legs, a short
has been noted, the distance between most of the
er horizontal portion I4, and a longer substan
leg I5 and surface of the unit, is equal to, or
- tially vertical leg I5. It _will appear that in as
perhaps as desired, very slightly less than the
sembly of the siding units, each unit is secured
normal thickness of the siding unit, whereby to
by a row of" nails IE extending through the open 35 provide a secure gripping engagement of the up
ings II therefor, but that these nails are applied
per margin of the subjacent unit between the
through the shingle unit and sheathing through
clip leg I5 and the adjacent face of the shingle
what is, after finished application, a concealed
or siding unit by which the clip is carried. In
zone of the unit, whereby the nails are protected
the several forms of clip, the overall dimensions
from rain and in great measure from the usual 40 of the base plate preferably appreciably exceed
oxidizing effects, whereby rust streaking is elimi
the corresponding 'dimensions of the bottom of
nated, or at least minimized. It will appear from
the depression I2 in which it is located, and by
Fig. 2 that the clip portion of the fastener bears
further preference the base plate is either, at
a definite relation to the siding unit with which
the time of its formation, or by Vuse of a special
it is employed, in that the sho-rter leg I4 projects 45 deforming tool on the job, stressed outwardly so
outwardly or rearwardly from the inner face of
that it assumes a somewhat bowed aspect in at
the unit by which it is carried, such a distance
least one section, as indicated by dotted lines
that the vertical leg I5 of the clip is spaced rear
in a somewhat modified form in Fig. 6. After
wardly of the rear face of the unit a distance
the base 20A thereof is inserted with its edges
which corresponds closely to, in fact may initial 50 in bottoming >relation in the depression I2, it is
ly be slightly less than the presumably uniform
struck or otherwise forcibly resto-red to an un
thickness of the several units. It results from
stressed or normal planar aspect. The overall
this that in assembly, as each course of the units
area of the base somewhat exceeding that of the
is applied and positioned in the row by nails, the
bottom of the depression, the serrations or apices
clips of the superposed units are so applied that 55 2 IA, will be driven into the material in the lower
their legs I5 are brought downwardly over so as
most portions of the perimetral wall of the de
to lie just rearwardly of the rear face of the over
pression, thus locking the base and hence the
lapped portion of the subjacent units, and in such
fastener in place in the shingle or siding unit.
manner that the shorter horizontal leg of each
As an alternate mode of secu-rement, or for use
clip abuts the upper edge of the unit next there 60 in conjunctionwith that heretofore described,
below.
`
there is preferred for siding or shingle units of
If desired, and according to preference, the clip
certain compositions or constituencies, an adhe
may be formed of a resilient metal stock so that
sive securement of the clip into assembly with
it is slightly stressed in being brought over the
the siding or shingle units. One suitable form of
margin of the subjacent siding unit, and so serves 65 this mode of securement is indicated by Fig. 2,
snugly to grip such margin and guidingly to se
wherein it will appear that there is ñrst deposited
cure the superposed units in depthwise adjacence
a covering layer of moderate depth, of a bonding
to each other and in line and parallelism in the
material 24. For the usual and prevalent asbes
rows, whereby to prevent rattling or looseness
tos siding units made up predominantly of Port
from any cause, so long as the sheathing there 70 land cement and asbestos fiber, there has been
beneath is solid and tight. The manner of appli
found satisfactory as a bonding material, certain
cation of the fastener-equipped units wil be read
of the preparations sold under the trade name
ily apparent from the foregoing description and
of “Cycleweld,” marketed and sold by Chrysler
from the drawing, and may follow if desired, con
Corporation of Detroit, Michigan, this cement
ventional modes of application except for usage 75 being of the class of .synthetic resin adhesives,
¿2,413,794
.more particularly a thermosetting plastic. , Alter
nately there may be employed a preparation sup
plied by Hayes' Adhesive Co. of St. Louis, Mis
souri, and marketed as “Hayes Special Water
proof Cement.” Further, in the application of
_the bonding material such as 24, asufiicient ex
cess is provided so that the body of the originally
plastic material 2B is caused to extrude through
one or a plurality of the openings 22 heretofore
referred to. This extrusion also takes place
through theperimetral spaces between the apical
portions perimetrally of thel fastener base, >and
adhesively engaging the base plate and marginal
portions ofthe recess in which the plate is located.
2. In a Portland cement and fiber shingle or
siding unit of a type in which a plurality of the
units are laid up in overlapped relation, a fastener
including a base plate, a clip carriedby and pro
jecting from the plate for engaging an overlapped
unit therebeneath, a bonding material consisting
of a resin of thermosetting character between the
base plate and a face of the unit, the base plate
being provided with` an opening, and a portion of
the bonding material extending through said
opening, the bonding material constituting the
results in a perimetral deposit of the bonding ma
primary connection between the fastener and the
terial, shown at 25. It will be noted that this
unit, and serving to key the base plate to the body
15
portion of the bonding material effects a close
waterproof union,- with high cohesive effect, be
tween the metal of the plate and the peripheral
wall portions of the depression or recess I2. Still
further, and with additional securement advan
of the unit.
.
.
lS. In a shingle or siding unit of a Portland
cement-über type and provided with a plurality
of facewise depressions, a fastener located in the
region of each of said depressions, each fastener
20
including a plate within the adjacent depression,
terial 24 is extruded through the openings 22 and,
a bonding material by which the plate is secured
upon setting of the bonding material, forms ex
in the depression, the plate being provided with
teriorly headed keying elements 26 on the outer
an opening in its intermediate area and with a
face of the clip base. These extruded portions,
plurality of perimetral passages, the bonding
following setting, serve to tie the base plate of 25
material
extended through said openings and
the clip to the body of the siding or shingle unit,
passages, whereby to key the plate securely into
in coaction with the holding eir‘ect of the pe
assembly with the material in the bottom, and
rimetral deposit 25.
perimetrally
of the depression, and a clip carried
In the form of clip shown by Fig. 5, the hori
by said plate and adapted for engagement with
‘ tage, it will be noted from Fig. 2, that the ma
zontal and vertical leg portions iQ-A and ISA are 30
or may be the same as earlier described; the
base 20A of this form is shown as of serrated cir
cular outline, and convexly stressed as suggested
a similar underlying unit.
4. The combination and arrangement of ele
ments substantially as described in claim 3 but
further characterized in that the perimetral por
be noted that the interlocking engagement 35 tion of the plate is serrated, thus forming the
perimetral passage between the serrations, and
aiîorded by the serrations 2l or ZEA in penetrat
with its serrations interengaging the marginal
ing the material deñning the walls of the depres
portions of the depression in which the plate is
sion, will, in most cases with most siding mated
located.
rials, be entirely sufficient. It is definitely con
5. A rectangular shingle or siding unit of Port
templated, as has been proven by experiments,
land cement and asbestos, and provided with a plu
to employ both securement expedients if desired,
rality of preformed nail holes somewhat nearer
in the same assembly. It is preferred for assur
its upper margin, and with a plurality of depres
ance against casual angular displacement of the
sions inwardly of its inner face, and located
clips after assembly to the siding or shingle units,
to select a non-circular form of base and a cor 45 nearer its lower margin,v the depressions being
located out of vertical alignment with said nail
responding non-circular form of depression in
holes, a fastener in the region of each of said
which the clip base is disposed, with advantages
by the dotted lines of Fig. 6. It should definitely
depressions, each fastener including a base plate v
now evident.
‘
provided with perimetral serrations in inter-en
It should be noted in respect to the several
forms of fastener illustrated, and the various ex 50 gagement with the material of the unit about the
pedients for their assembly to the shingling units,
any of the several features are regarded as sus
ceptible of embodiment in each or any of the
several forms illustrated and described, and others
Within the scope of present improvements.
It will now have appeared that the improved
structure and manner oi assembling the fasteners
to the siding or shingle units, and the resulting
advantageous assembly of such units in applica
tion entirely fuli’ill each of the several objectives
hereinabove set forth, and others expressed and
implied in the description. Since many variants
are possible, the detail of present description is
depression in which the plate is located, a bond
ing material differing from the material forming
the body of the unit, and disposed in each
depression in part between the bottom of the
depression and the adjacent surface of the
plate, and in further part extended through
the serrations and into bonding relation with
the peripheral wall portions of the depression,
the plate and depression being of substantially
conforming non-circular shape to prevent
turning movements of the plate within the
depression and in the plane of the unit, and an
inverted substantially L-shaped clip formed in
tegrally with the plate, the shorter leg of the
to be understood in an instructive rather than
in a limiting sense, numerous changes being pos 65 clip extending substantially normal to the plane
of the unit, and the longer leg thereof being
sible within the scope of the claims hereunto
extended at about a right angle to the shorter
appended.
I claim as my invention:
l. In a rooñng or siding unit of a type formed
of a Portland cement matrix and provided with
a face depression, a fastener characterized by a
base plate disposed in the depression, a clip car
ried by the base plate and an amount of a bond
leg and generally parallel to the adjacent face
of the unit, and being spaced from such face a
distance substantially equal to the thickness of
the unit.
6. An asbestos shingle or siding unit including
a metal attachment clip having an apertured
base, the clip base being secured substantially
ing material in the depression and perimetrally
overlying the base plate, the bonding material 75 parallel to one face of the unit, and a layer of
v7'
aars-,794
adhesive synthetic resin of a thermosetti-n‘g char
acter, between the clip base and the body of the
unit, and constituting the primary means by
which the clip is attached.
'7. In an asbestos and cement shingle or siding
unit, a metal attachment clip, and an adhesive
bonding material constituting the sole secure
ment agency between the clip and the body of
tached vto the clip and the body, and serving as
a sole attachment agency therefor.
9. A weather-resisting face unit of asbestos and
Portland cement» composition, and adapted for use
on a building in an arrangement of a plurality ci
such units, ‘each unit including one or more clips
projecting from its rear face, each clip including
a flat‘base plate and a spring arm, and a layer of
a bonding material consisting of a thermosetting
secured so as to project from one face of the unit, 10 synthetic resin of a type to `bond under heat and
and said bonding material. consisting of a therpressure, with both` the asbestos and cement of
the unit, the attachment clip being -formed and
mosetting synthetic resin.
8. A ceramic facing unit for use in a plurality
for building purposes, the unit including a sub
the face unit, and located between the clip base
and. the body of the unit, a portion of the bonding
material being in locking interñtting engagement
stantially flat ceramic body containing asbestos 15 with the clip and the layer of bonding material
über, one or more spaced clips projecting from
adhesively lengaging the body 0f the unit, the
the rear face of the body, and a bonding layer of
'a synthetic resin of thermosetting type, the bond
ing layer located between and adhesively at
bonding layer serving as the sole structural con
nection between the clip and the unit.
FRANK S. SMALL.
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