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Jan. 1 7, 1947.
2,413,820
" c. E. FRANK -
ENGINE
Filed Dec. 24, "1943
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vJan. 7, 1947.
C. E. FRANK
2,413,820
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ENGINE
Filed Dec. 24, 1945
3‘ Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR.
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Jan. 7, 1947.
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c. E. FRANK
'
' " 2,413,820,
ENGINE
Filed Dec. 24,1943
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INVFNTOR.
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Clare/Ice Z?d? &
BY
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HTToF/VEYJ.
2,413,820
Patented Jan. 7, 1947 _
PATENT-ems
" UNITED-STATES
_ 2,413,820
‘
j
>
‘
ENGINE
,,
-
.
Clarence E. Frank, Fraser, Mich" asslgnor’ to
Briggs vManufacturing ‘Company,
Detroit,
_Mich., a corporation of Michigan '
‘Application December 24, 1943, Serial No. 515,479‘
'
'
'
19 Claims.
(crux-soy
I
This invention relates ‘to-internal combustion
2,
maintaining greater uniformity in the operating
engines and especiallytoenginesof the class hav~ ~ I clearance between the valve and its bearing sur
ing rotatable valves in the cylinder- head provid
ing substantial portions of the combustion space
‘faces and reducing loss of lubricant due to leak;
age past such surfaces". >
' » It is also anobl'ect ofthe inventioni to provide
at the time of ?ring. , In particular the present
invention principally contemplates the cooling of
an engine havinga cylinder headand a valve
such engines and the provision of meansfor con- '
trolling the expansion of portions of the cylinder v
head adjacent the rotatable valve so-as to main
tain more closely or accurately the desired‘ oper 10'
rotatable therein and having a different, such
as a small'encce?ldient of expansion than the
head and in which means is provided whereby
the rate of expansion of the head will be sub-
bearing surfaces in the cylinder head.
' stantially the same as the valve at certain bearing‘
localities whereit is desirable to maintain uni
ating clearances between the valve and related
.
An object of the invention is to provide an
form operating clearances between the cooperatw
ing bearing surfacesv ofthe valve and head,
be liquid cooled in ef?cient manner and will be 15 Other objectsof this invention will appear in
compact and relatively simple in‘ construction as
the followingdescription and appended claims,
well as easy to assemble.
reference being had to the accompanying draw
A further object of the invention is to provide
ings forming a part of this speci?cation wherein
an engine having a rotatable valve and improved
like reference characters designate corresponding
means for controlling'the relative expansion of i
parts in the several views.
‘_ ..
the valve and cylinder head due to heating of
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary sectional elevation illus
associated portions thereof during operation.
trating a portion of a multi-cylinder engine.
,
improved internal combustion engine which may _
Another object ofethe invention is to, provide
an engine having a cylinder, cylinder head and '
Y a rotatable valve in the head,~such asa generally
frusto-conical valve, and in which means are
lines 3—3 of Fig. 1 looking in the directionof the
operating clearances between‘ the valve and head,
arrows.
especially where the valve and headare made of ‘
expansion rates.
'
-
~
.
A still further object of theinventlon is to pro
videan improved engine of the ‘rotatable v'alve
type wherein the cylinder head, within which the
valve is mounted, has a greater coe?lcient of ex
the rotatablevalve or valves of the‘engine.
' -Fig. 3-is, a section taken substantially through
provided for maintaining closely predetermined
metals or metal alloys having different thermal’
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary sectional elevation illus
trating a portion ofthe driving mechanism for v- I i
.
-
5
iv
'
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary sectional view taken
substantially ‘through lines 4401' Fig.1 looking
, in the direction of the arrows.
'
‘
Fig. 5 isa fragmentary sectional elevation illus;
trating another embodiment of the present in
vention.
.
,
'
'
,
'
'
Before explaining in detail the present inven
tion it is to be understood that the invention is
.not limited in its application to the details of
construction and arrangement of parts illustrated
in the accompanying. drawings, since the inven
40, tion is capable, of other embodiments and of being
practiced or carried out in various ways. Also it
pansion than the valve, yet provision being‘ made
in accordance with the invention to restrain any
appreciable‘relative expansion of the head and
valve at localities where it .is desired to maintain
substantially constant clearances between adja
cent bearing surfaces of the head and valve.
A further object of the invention is to provide ' is to be understood that the phraseology or termi
a cylinder head constructed for mounting and
nology employedherein is for, the purpose of de
operation therein of a rotatable valve, preferably
scription and not of limitation, .
of frusto-conical shape, and in which the cylin 45 The present invention is especially applicable
der head is constructed in improved manner-to > to engines of the class having rotatable valves,
provide efficient cooling ofv the valve and its as
' preferably but not necessarily rotating continu- ,
sociated parts as well as the exhaust conduit by
ously in one direction, for controlling-the intake
means of a liquid coolant. ;
.
_,
and firing of the fuel charge and for exhausting’
Another object of the inventionv is to provide 60 the products of combustion. In theillustrated
improved means for assembling and attaching to
embodiment ofvthe invention,» exemplifying one
gether the cylinder and cylinder head, the same
desirable adaptation thereof, a rotatable valve of
being accomplished in such improved manner as
the frusto-conical type is mounted in the cylin
to effect control of the expansion of the housing
der head and is formed with‘substantially all or
for the rotatable valveduring operation, thereby 55 at least the maiorvportion of the combustion
2,413,820 ‘
3
this gasket’ will provide a liquid and gas tight ,
chamber. The valve or rotor is formed/with an
' opening or port in the side of the valve adapted
to register with intake and exhaust passages and
an ignition device during operation, there being
an opening or port at the innerv end or bottom
of the rotor communicating at all times with the
cylinder.
joint.”
1
~
1,
The’ cylinder head is formed with a series of
lugsvor ribs 36. and 31 bored to receive bolts 38
extending from bosses (not shown)‘ on the jacket
‘ member 24 which,as stated, is ?xed to the crank
'
case?, The "cylinder head vmay be drawn vdown
tightly tothe crankcase or jacket 24 by suitable
In the drawings I have illustrated, byway vof ‘
nuts‘applied to the upper ends of the bolts 38,
example, certain embodiments of the inventionv 10 “thus connecting the jackets 24 and 28 tightly
as applied ‘to an internal combustion engine of
together at the water tight joint formed by the‘
- the spark ignition type. However, it will be un
gasket 30. The upper end of the jacket 24 is
derstood that the invention is not limited to an
engine in which combustion is initiated by spark
ignition. For most uses the engine'is/of the mul- '7
ti-cylinder type but for the purposes of simpli? 15
cation a single cylinder unit of the engineis illus
trated in the present embodiment, it being under
stood that the remaining cylinders and associated
parts are identical to the structure herein shown '
and described.
Referring to the drawings, they present engine
comprises a cylinder 20 within‘ which a suitable
piston 2| is mounted for reciprocation. The pis
formed with an inwardly projecting boss 39 pro
vidihga ledge adapted tosupport the ?ange 20b
of the'cyli'nder‘20. This boss 39 at its upper edge
is provided with a series of 'ducts 39a providing
between‘the outer chamber 29
‘ communication
andv the chamber 25 for the flow of coolant be
tween these chambers.) The boss is also cut away
at intervals at 39b toprovide additional com
Tmunic'ating ~passages~between the chambers 25
and 29.L Thus-,lthe cylinder 20 is positioned with
respect to the<jacket 24 by means of its i?ange
"20b overlying the supporting boss 39 and engag
ton is connected in the usual manner through a
ing the upper edge thereof, as shown particularly
wrist pin 2|a and connecting rod 22 to the crank 25 in
It will, therefore, be seen that when
shaft 23 of‘ the engine. ‘Surrounding the cylin
der 20 is a cylindrical jacketv24 which is rigidly
secured to the crankcaseor {forms substantially '
an integral portion of the crankcase. This jacket
the cylinder headis drawn down tightly through
the ‘medium of the bolts 138 the gasket 35 will
be compressed to provide a water tight joint and
the rib-like portion 34 of the wall 3|‘0f the cylin
member 24 has an extended portion spaced from 30 der head will ?t snugly within therrecess 32. ,
the wall of the cylinder 20 to provide a vwater
The cylinder head is formed with a generally
cooling space or chamber 25 extending‘ entirely
frusto-conical recess 40 within which is mounted
around the cylinder. The lower or inner end
"a rotatable valve or rotor‘ 4| which is also of
of the cylinder 20 is formed with an annular rib
generally frusto-conlcalconstruction having ta
20a forming a pilot portion slidable into and 35 ' pering outwardly converging walls corresponding
having a smooth ?t within the inner cylindrical
generally in shape to the innerwalls of the re
wall of the lower section 24a of the jacket mem
cess 40."_The ‘botton'i‘or inner :wall 4|a of the
ber 24, the rib 20a carrying sealing rings 25 to
valve is preferably tapered so as to correspond
prevent leakage of the coolantgbetween the jux- .
substantially to‘ the taper of the piston head,
taposed surfaces of the portions 20a and 24a.
the construction being- vsuch that‘ the piston
The engine is provided with a cylinder head
head'will approach very closely the bottom of the
21 which'is cast with a depending wall or skirt
valve.“ when the piston is atthe outer end of
28 terminating adjacent the outer end of the cyl
inder and spaced therefrom to provide a liquid
cooling space or chamber 29 adapted to form a
continuation of the chamber 25. When the cyl
inder head is assembled the lower edge- of the
skirt or jacket portion 28 is drawn‘ down tightly
against the upper thickened edge 24b of the
jacket member 24, ‘there being a gasket 30 inter
its stroke;
' I
The valve member 4I'Iis'f'ormed with a, side
port "43 ._~communicating with the combustion
> chamberi42 and. adapted‘to register successively
during rotation of the'valve with‘a spark plug
44,_an exhaust passage or conduit 45, and an in
' take conduit or passage 46 in the cylinder head,
the direction} of rotation of the valve being indi
‘cated by the arrow in Fig. 3. As alsoshown in
this ?gure, the liquid‘coolant chamber 29 has
liquid tight joint.
'
'
extensions 29a in the‘ cylinder head extending
In the embodiment of Fig. -1 the outer end of
substantially around. the valve member 4| and
_'the cylinder is formedv with an outwardly ex 55 also extending along and in the height of the
tending annular flange 20b extending in juxta
outer walls of the exhaust and intake passages 45‘
posed relation to an‘ annular wall portion 3| of
and 45. Another portion 29b ‘of the coolant
the cylinder head. The annular ?ange¢2|lb of
chamber extends through the dividing wall be
an
annularreces's
32
.
the cylinder is formed with
tween these passages. From this construction it
_ at its inner side forming a vertical shoulder or 60 will be seen that substantially all portions of the
abutment33. The lower edge of the wall portion
cylinder, cylinder‘ head, valve'and'intake and ex
3| of the cylinder head is formed with an annular
haust passages,.which are subjected to. heating
rib 34 which ?ts into the recess 32 and abuts
during operation, are exposed to the cooling effect
against the shoulder 33. The upstanding annu
of-the liquid circulated through the water jackets.
posed betweenvthe juxtaposed surfaces of those
portions adapted to be compressed'to provide a
lar portion of the ?ange 20b,which surrounds
The coolant is'preferabIyv introduced into the
lower end of the chamber'25, circulated upwardly
through the communicating chambers, which have
a common outlet in the cylinder head.
during operation, to restrain outwar’d expansion
In addition to‘ the side port 43 the valve 4|
' of the'wall portion 3| relative to the cylinder. A 70 has‘ a central port or opening 41 at its inner
gasket 35 is interposed between the adjacent sur--v
‘end communicating with the cylinder. The valve
the annular rib 34 of the'cylinder head and which
has the vertical shoulder 33 engaging this rib 34,
3 forms in e?ect an expansion control ring adapted,
_faces of the portions 28b and -3|. This gasket>
- member 4| is also formed with a cooling chamber ,
may be of thelcopper-asbestos type é'apl‘able'iof ' ' 48 extending entirely around the combustion
sustaining high temperatures and pressure4-an'd
chamber. of the .valve‘member. This cooling
when the cylinder head is drawn down tightly
15
.,
I 3413,820 '7
.
chamber is/adapted to receive any suitable cooling
medium su'ch,~‘for example,‘ as’ metallic sodium,
,
'
v ' '
‘
6
I
I
structed and serve 'thepurposes vin accordance
with
.The‘
‘copending
embodiment
application
illustrated
Serial
ln'Fig:
No. 495,260.
5 differs
from the preceding‘emb'o'diment in that the ‘Joint
' which is sealed into the‘ chamber bymeans of
an expanding plug 48a."
_
wall 49 of vthe valve housing and may be con
t
In the present embodiment‘ the valve or rotor
41 is ‘driven at one-half engine or crankshaft ‘' between the wallsof the cylinderja'cket 24 and
speed. It is provided-with a projecting stem 49
the cylinder head‘jacket 28, lies below ithe wrist
through‘ the medium of which the driving mech- . pint2la when the piston 2| is at its extreme out
anism for the 'valve is connected.” The valve
er position. within the cylinder-20. In this em
_ housing portion 39 of the cylinder head ispror 10 bodiment the cylinder head jacket 28 has a de
vided with an annular recess 50 in its outer end‘ ' pendingskirt ‘H which terminates well below the
through which the valve stem 49 extends. I With
‘outer' end of the cylinder. The “ jacket 24 is,
in this recess is. located a cuplshaped spring
therefore, shortened as compared win its con-'
retainer member 5| ;ad,apted__to receive a com ‘ . struction'in'‘ Fig. lianda'sealing' gasket 12 is in
pression spring 52 surrounding the "valve stem 15 terpos‘ed between the meeting ‘edges of» these
49.. The outer end of the spring engages ‘a steel
Jackets and 'at a‘ point “below ‘the wrist pin 2|a.
coupling disk '53.. This disk isformed centrally
‘The jacket members“ is provided with ‘an in
thereof with an annular setv of?teeth 54 meshing fwardly projecting annular ‘flange 13' providing a
with corresponding teeth formed on the end of
seat for a sleeve “surrounding the‘oute‘r end of
the valve stem 49.‘ The valve stem is tapped to 20. the'cylind'er and spaced-therefrom’ to provide a '
, receive a threaded stud or boltv 56 which carries
a'nut 56a engageable with the coupling disk 53v
and adapted to be tightened to draw down the
‘chamber 15‘ for liquid coolant. The sleeve 14 is
also spaced from_ the jacket portion ‘H so as to
provide a chamber 16 for liquid coolant. The
disk and maintain its teeth 554 in- constant mesh
chamber 15‘ is "in constant communication with
with the teeth on theouter end of the valve 25 the chamber 25 through the medium of ducts or
stem. The spring'52 is,‘ therefore, held under
passages", and the chamber-16 is in constant
constant compression so as to yieldin'gly hold the _ communication 'with'the chamber 15 ‘through the
valve upwardlywithin the frusto-conical recess
medium" of transverse slots or ducts ‘18 similar ‘
40 in the valve housing. The strength of ‘this
to the ducts 39a illustrated in Fig. 4.
[spring and the amount of ' preloading thereof, is 3D From the foregoing construction it will be seen
such that the effort exerted by ‘the‘spring to
that the cylinder ‘?ange :20!) ‘is supported upon
' raise thervalve within the valve, housing is sufil-.
the projecting sleeve or‘?ange v‘l3 of- the /?xed
cient to substantially offset or equal the effort
_Jac_ket_24 through’ themedium of the sleeve ‘14, _
exerted during, the suction stroke of the, piston
I to draw the valve downwardly .and away from
The coupling" disk 53 is provided with external
teeth 55 meshing with internal teeth am on a
' v‘the latter providing communication at all times:
between the chamber .15 and the associated cool
ying'ehambers 16 and‘25, ‘By virtue of the con
struction‘illustrated in Fig. 5 it'is possible in
"overhauling the engine to remove the piston
ring gear 51. This gear initurn hasv external
without disconnecting it from '7 the crankshaft.
teeth 51b meshing with} the teeth of aivalve 40 The construction'in this embodiment permits the
:driving gear 58 secured ‘to a, longitudinally 'ex- . cylinder head and cylinder to be removed rela
tending Vtop shaft 16L _ The cylinder T‘head is
tively to the vjacket 24 without disturbingthe pis
formed with a housing 5-9 __provided with a re
_ ton, after which the pinila may‘ be withdrawn
movable closure 60 for housing the driving
to'perrnit removal of the piston;v Other than the
, .meshanism ‘located in the cylinder head.‘ ‘The 45 .:foregoing' the construction of the enginein the
,top shaft 6| at one end thereof carries av gear
a 62 meshing with a gear 63 secured tothe upper
end of a tower shaft“. This tower shaft ex
tends through'a tube‘or housing!” and carries
at its lower end a gear 66 meshing with a gear
61 secured to the crankshaft 237613 the engine.
It will be noted that the bottom ‘of thevalve
~memberj4l has a downwardly and outwardly
‘embodiment of Fig. 5 corresponds substantially
‘ to that previously described. ’
It'will: ‘be seenothat the presentllnvention pro- .
‘vides a veryaccuratecontrolgof the expansion;
rates of the cylinder head valve housing 3| and‘
rotatable ‘valve*4l. This valve'housing and also
the piston'cyli'nder are surrounded by a jacket’
within which a liquid coolant is circulated, thus
tapering contour “a corresponding'to the taper
providing‘ I substantially ~ uniform dissipation of
ing'contour of the piston head.‘ This tapering 55 heat. In’ preferredpractice the cylinder head
bottom portion Me of the valve terminatesv at ‘
(includingthe valve housing) is made of 'an alu- .
a point inward of the outer end of the cylinder
,, wall in an outwardly and upwardly tapering or '
minurn alloy whereas the rotary valve and the
cylinder are'formed of suitable ferrous alloys.
bevelled portion 68 which overlies the bevelled
' Hencefthe valve housingwillvhave a greater rate
, end 69 of the cylinder wall. A ‘clearance of any 60 of expansion than. either the. valve or cylinder,
the ‘latter two having substantially the same rate
few thousandths of an inch is at all times'ma'in
.tained between the bevelled or tapering bottom
portion 68 of the 'valve' and thebevelled end 68
of expansion.‘ i'Ordinarilyftherefom, the head
'will tend to-expand more rapidly or toga greater
of the cylinder wall so that at no timeduring
* degree thanthe valve, thus increasing the clear;
ances between the valve and valve housing which
will have ‘the undesirable 'result of causing oil
"operation will the valve contact the end?of’the
- cylinder.
This clearance, will be maintained
even during the suction stroke of the piston
since,’ as previously stated, the loadingof the
spring 52 is su?icient to: counteract the down
ward. pull on the valve during ‘the suction stroke.
The valvelmember is also preferably provided
with an exterior relief area 10 extending en
tirely around the valve and substantially the
height of thev side port 43. This annular relief
leakage especially during the suction stroke of
the piston. However, in accordance with the
present invention the valve housing has an an
Inular‘rib seated in'the recess 32 of the cylinder
and‘ abutting against the shoulder‘ 33. This
shoulder actsas a‘ restrainingabutment prevent
" ing outward movement of the'valve housing rel
ative to the cylinder. Hence, atconstant control
varea maybe formed either in'o‘thevalve orin the, 75 'over'the expansion of the housing with relation
2,418,820
_ to the cylinder and valve is maintained and the
desired operating ‘clearances between the valve
and valve housing are held substantially uniform
during operation. Much improved operation is,
therefore, achieved while reducing materiallythe.v
oil consumption.
inner end of the valve for restraining lateral ex~
, pansion of the head.
7. In aninternal combustion engine,-a cylin
der, a cylinder head having a portion provided
with a generally frusto-conical cavity,'a gener
ally frusto-conical valve in said cavity, said cyl
inder head being formed of metal having a great-
ercoefflcient of thermal expansion than the met
1. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
al of, said cylinder and valve, and means con
der, a cylinder head having a portion provided
trolled by the cylinder and abutting said head for
'with a generally frus‘to-conical cavity, a gener 10 maintaining the expansion rate of the'head ad
I claim:
I
ally frusto-conical valve in said cavity, said cyl
jacent the inner 'endof the valve'substantially
inder and valve being formed of ferrous metal
‘corresponding
to that of the valve.
- .
and said cylinder head being formed of'metal
8. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
having a greater coe?lcient of thermal expansion,
derua cylinder head having‘ a portion provided
and meanson the cylinder engaging said head 15 with a generally frusto-conical cavity, a gener
for restraining lateral expansion of said head at
‘ ally frusto-conical valve in said cavity, said cyl
the locality of its bearing engagement with the
inder head being formed of metal'having a ‘great
valve at the inner end of the latter.
’
er coe?icient of‘thermal expansion than, the met
2. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin- _
al of said cylinder and valve, and abutment
der, 3. cylinder head having a portion provided 20' means controlled by the cylinder for restraining
with a generally frusto-conical cavity, a general—
any substantial lateral expansion of the inner
,ly frusto-conical valvewin said cavity, said cylin
wall portion of said, cavity relatively to the ad
der and valve being formed of ferrous metal and
jacent portions of the valve.
'
'
said cylinder head being formed of metal having
9. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
a greater coefficient of thermal expansion, and 25 der,
2. cylinder head, a rotatable valve in said
annular means on said cylinder engaging said
'head,
a-liquid cooling jacket: surrounding the
head for restraining lateral expansion of said
cylinder, a second liquid cooling jacket on the
head at the locality of its. bearing engagement
head surrounding said valve, outwardly project
with the valve at the inner end of the latter.
ing ,?ange means on the cylinder terminating in
3. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
der,a_cylinder head having a. portion provided
with a generally frusto-conical cavity, a general
spaced relation to said second'jacket, projecting
named jacket underlying said
_ means on ,the ?rst
?ange means‘ at a distance therebelow, a member
interposed between said projecting means and
?ange means for supporting the cylinder on said
35
said cylinder head being formed of metal having
?rst namedjacket, sealing means between said
ly frusto-conical valve in said cavity, said cylin
der and valve being formed of ferrous metal and
a greater coefficient of thermal expansion, and
an abutment ring on said cylinder engaging the
head adjacent the locality of its bearing engage
ment with the inner‘ end of the valve for restraim
flange means and the cylinder head, sealing
means between said jackets, and means‘ for draw
ing down the head upon said cylinder and first
40 named jacket to compress said sealing means.
ing ‘lateral expansion of the head.
10., In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
4. In an internal combustionengine, a cylinder,
rrder head having a generally frusto-conical cav-'
a cylinder head having a portion provided with
. ity, a generally frusto-conical rotatable valve in
a generally frusto-conical cavity, a. generally
said cavity, said head comprising spaced outer
frusto-conicalvalve in said cavity, said cylinder ~
inner walls extending around the valve pro
and, valve being formed of ferrous metal andsaid 45 and
viding a liquid cooling chamber, a cylinder, a
cylinder head being formed of metal having a
jacket surrounding the cylinder providing a liq
greater coe?icient of thermal expansion, and
,uid
cooling chamber ‘communicating with the
means controlled by the cylinder engaging said
first named chamber with the ‘outer end of the
head for maintaining the expansion ,rate of the
jacket in sealingfengagement with the inner end
head adjacent therinner end of the valve sub‘? 50 of said outer wall, the outer end of the cylinder
stantially, corresponding to that of the valve.
and the inner end of said inner wall having abut
5. In an ‘internal combustion engine, a cylinder,
ting means adjacent the inner end: of the valve
a cylinder head having a portion provided with
for restraining lateral expansion of the head ad
a generally frusto-conical cavity, a generally
jacent the inner end of the valve, said abutting
55
frusto-conical valve in said cavity, said cylinder
means being separated from said outer wall by
and valve being formed of ferrous metal and said
said‘?rst named cooling chamber.
cylinder head being formed of ‘metal having a
11. In an internal combustion engine, 9. cyl
greater coe?icient of thermal expansion, and
inder head having a generally frusto-conicalcav
abutment means controlled by the cylinder ‘for
agenerally frusto-conical rotatable valve in
restraining any substantial lateral expansion of 60 ity,
said cavity, said head comprising spaced outer
the inner wall portion of said cavity relatively to
and inner walls extending around the valve pro
vthe adjacent portions of the valve, said abutq
viding a liquid cooling chamber, a cylinder, a
ment meanscomprising an annular shoulder on
' jacket surrounding the cylinder providing a liq
the outer end of the cylinder abutting against
um cooling chamber communicating with the first
65
_an annular portion of the head ?tting within‘
named chamber with the outer end of the jacket
said shoulder.
in sealing engagement‘with the inner end of said
6. In an internal combustion engine, a, cyl
outer wall, the inner end ‘of said inner wall hav
inder, a cylinder head having a portion’ provided
ing an ‘annular reces's‘and the outer end of the
with a ,geneoally frusto-conical cavity, a gener
cylinder‘ having an annular abutment ?tting
ally frusto-c nical valve in said cavity, said cyl a into said-recess and exposed to the cooling liquid
inder head b'eing formed of metal having a. great
in said ?rst chamber and also providing means
er coefficient of thermal expansion than the met
for restraining lateral expansion of the head ad
al of said cylinder and valve, and an abutment
jacent the inner end of the valve. '
ring on said cylinder engaging the head adjacent
12. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
75
the locality of its bearing engagement with the
2,418,820
>
10
9
der head having a generally frusto-conical cavity,
the valve at the inner end of the latter, and a
liquid cooling chamber in the head within which
said restraining means is exposed to cooling
a generally frusto-conical rotatable valve in said
cavity. said head comprising spaced outer and
inner walls extending around the valve providing
?uid.
a liquid cooling chamber, a cylinder, 9. jacket
surrounding the cylinder providing a liquid cool
ing chamber communicating with the ?rst named
chamber with the outer end of the jacket in
frusto-conical valve in said cavity, said cylinder
vand valve being formed of'ferrous metal and
sealing engagement with the inner end 01 said
outer wall, the inner end of said inner wall hav
ing an annular recess around the outside theree I
10 said cylinder head being formed of metal having
‘a greater coemcient of thermal expansion, means
of and the outer end of the cylinder having an
annular abutment ?tting into said recess oppo-.
site the inner end of the valve and separated
_ from said outer wall by said ?rst named cooling 15
chamber.
-
16. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
der, a cylinder head having a portion provided
with a generally frusto-conical cavity, a generally
- ~'
13. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
der head having a generally frusto-conical'cavity, ,
a. generally frusto-conical rotatable valve in said
cavity, said head comprising spaced outer and
inner walls extending around the valve providing
a liquid cooling chamber, a cylinder having a lesser coe?icient of thermal expansion than said
cylinder head, a jacket surrounding the cylinder
providing a liquid cooling chamber communicat 25
' ing with the ?rst named chamber with the outer
end of the jacket in sealing engagement with the
inner end of said outer wall, the. outer end of , ,
the cylinder and the inner end of said inner wall
,
on said cylinder engaging the head adjacent the
inner end of said cavity for restraining lateral
expansion of said head at the locality of its bear
ing engagement with the valve at the inner end
of the latter, and a liquid cooling chamber in
the head within which said restraining means is
exposed‘ to cooling ?uid.
1'7. In an internal combustion éngine, a cylin- ~
der, 9. cylinder head having a ‘portion provided
with a generally frusto-conical cavity, a generally
frusto-conical valve in said cavity, said cylinder
and valve being formed of ferrous metal and said
cylinder head being formed of metal having a
greater coe?icient of thermal expansion, an abut- .
ment ring on said cylinder engaging the head ad
jacent the locality of itsbearing engagement with
the inner end of the valve for restraining lateral
expansion of the head, and a liquid coolingcham
having abutting-means adjacent the inner end
her in the head within which said abutment ring
of the valve for restraining lateralexpansion of 30 is exposed to cooling ?uid.
the head adjacent the inner end of the valve,
18. In an interval combustionengine, a cylin
said abutting means being separated from said
der, a, cylinder head having a portion provided
outer wall by said ?rst named cooling chamber.
with a generally frusto-conical cavity, a gener*
14. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin 35 ally frusto-conical valve in said cavity, said cylin
der head having a generally frusto-conical cav
der and valve being formed'of ferrous'metal and
ity, a generally frusto-conical rotatable valve in
said cylinder head being formed of metal having
said cavity, said head comprising spaced outer
a greater coe?icient of thermal expansion, abut
and inner walls extending around the valve pro
‘viding a liquid cooling chamber, a cylinder‘hav
' ing a lesser coef?cient of thermal expansion than
ment means controlled by the cylinder for re~
‘straining any, substantial lateral expansion of
the inner'wall portion of said cavity relatively to
the-adjacent portions of the valve, said abutment
said-cylinder head, a jacket surrounding the cyl
inder providing a liquid cooling chamber com
means. comprising'an annular shoulder on the
municating with the ?rst named chamber with
outer end of the cylinder abutting against an
the outer end of the jacket in sealing engage 45 annular portion of the head ?tting within said
ment with the inner end of said outer wall, the
shoulde'igand a liquid cooling chamber in the‘
innenend of said inner wall having an annular
head within which said shoulder is exposed to
recess and the outer end of the cylinder having
an annular abutment fitting into said recess and
cooling
?uid.
‘
‘
'
»
I
‘
v
19. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin
exposed to the cooling liquid in said ?rst chamber 50 der, a cylinder head having a portion provided ’
and also providing means for restraining lateral
expansion of the head adjacent the inner end of
the valve.
'
. with a generally frusto-conical cavity, a generally
frusto-conical valvein said cavity, said cylinder
head being formed of metal having a greater co
‘15. In an internal combustion engine, a cylin- I e?icient of thermal expansion than the metal of
‘der, a cylinder head having a portion provided 55 said cylinder and valve, an abutment ring on
with a generally frusto-conical cavity, a generally
said cylinder engaging the head adjacent the
frusto-conical valve in saidcavity, said cylinder _
locality of its bearing engagement with the inner
> and valve being formed of ferrous metal and said
end of the valve for restraining lateral expansiqon
cylinrler head being formed of metal having a
of the head, and a liquid cooling chamber in
greater coe?lcient of thermal expansion, abutting 60 the head within which'said abutment ring is ex
means interposed between the cylinder and head
posed to cooling ?uid.
.ior restraining lateral expansion of said head
CLARENCE E. FRANK.
at the locality of its bearing engagement with
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