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Jan. 7, 1947.
E. P. ROSS
TORPEDO DIRECT-CIR
Filed June 20, 1941
,GYRO ANGLE
. 2,413,846
‘2 smug-sheet '2 '
2359. iitbuo l Emilio
rs
Patented Jan. 7, 1947
2,413,846
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,413,846
TOBPEDO DIRECTOR
Elliott P. Ross, Forest Hills, N. Y., assignor to
Ford Instrument Company, Inc., Long Island
City, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application June 20, 1941, Serial No. 398,951
5 Claims. (Cl. 235—-.61.5)
1
2
This invention relates to apparatus for use in
directing the training of torpedo tubes or for use
in setting the gyroscope controlling the course of
the torpedo, in order that the torpedo shall be
given a course such that it will hit a moving
this lateral rate of the target and the topedo
speed the collision course of the torpedo relative
to the line‘ of bearing is readily obtained.
The fundamental features of this invention
will be more readily understood and may be car-'
target taking into consideration the bearing of
ried into e?ect by reference to the following
the target relative to the ?ring ship, the relative
description and the accompanying drawings, in
rate of movement of the target across the line ‘of
which:
bearing, the range to the target, the course and
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic representation of the
speed of the ?ring ship, the speed of the torpedo 10 problem solved by the invention;
and the elapsed time between the moment of
Fig. 2 is a schematic representation of a form
obtaining the desired angle from the apparatus
of the invention.
and the discharge of the torpedo.
Referring particularly to Fig. 1, the observing
According to the present invention means are
station on the ?ring ship is designated as O, and
provided for observing the bearing of the target
the line O—O’ represents the centerline of the
relative to the ?ring ship, and a variable speed
?ring ship. The angle (BSI) is the observed
device or integrator is provided for continuously
relative bearing of the target measured relative
generating corresponding values of true bearing,
to the centerline (0-0’) of the ship. The point
which are combined with the course of the ?ring .
Tl represents the observed position of the target
ship to give values of generated bearing relative 20 and the length of the line O-Tl represents the
to the ship which may be compared with the
observed range (RI). The rate of change of
observed value or may be used to drive the sight
bearing due to the relative movement of the tar
to keep it pointed at the target. The setting of
get and ?ring ship is designated as dB which
the rate member of the integrator represents the
when multiplied by the dead time (tD) gives the
angular rate of change of bearing of the target 25 angular change of bearing (Dt) during the dead
when the generated values continuously agree
time as expressed in the equation,
with the observed values or the sight is driven at
Dt=tD-dB
(1)
a rate which keeps it pointed at the target. The
The relative bearing of the target at the end
elapsed time, which is generally known as “dead
time,” is allowed for by a multiplier which mul 30 of the dead time is designated as BS and is ex
pressed by the equation,
tiplies the rate setting of the integrator by the
dead time to give the change of bearing during
BS=BSl+Dt
(Z)
that time. Means are also provided whereby the
The relative position of the target at the end
product of this multiplication is combined with
the present value of bearing to give an advanced 35 of the dead time is designated T and the line OT
represents the range (R) at the end of the dead
value equal to what the bearing will be when the
time. The course of the ?ring ship (CO) is meas
torpedo is discharged. The balance of the solu
ured from a line O-N, representing north, to the
tion of the problem is based on this advance
centerline O—O' of the ?ring ship. The true
value. The angular rate of change of bearing
obtained from the rate setting of the integrator 40 bearing of the target at the point T is designated
as B and is expressed by the equation,
is due to the movement of both the target and
own ship. This rate of change of bearing is con
verted to the lateral rate of relative movement’
The rate of change of bearing (dB) is prefer
across the line of bearing of the ?ring ship and
target by a mechanism which multiplies the an 45 ably obtained by generating or integrating values
of true bearing (B) which are compared with
gular rate by the range. Since the solution for
the corresponding observed values. When the
the torpedo de?ection angle requires only the
generated values of bearing continue to remain
‘rate of lateral movement of the target, the rate
equal to the observed values it is known that the
of lateral movement due to the ?ring ship is
deducted from the total lateral rate to give the 50 rate set on the integrator is correct. The lateral
rate of relative movement (RdB) of the target
rate due to the target. The lateral rate due to
and own ship is obtained by multiplying the
the ?ring ship is obtained from a component
angular rate (123) by the range (R) as expressed
solver the vector of which is set in accordance
mathematically in the equation,
with the bearing of the target relative to the ?r
ing ship and the speed of the ?ring ship. From 55
2,413,846
4
3
The lateral rate (RdB) is also equal to the
algebraic sum of the components of rate of move
ment of the target and ?ring ship, which are
designated as XT and X0 respectively.
relation is expressed by the equation,
RdB=XT+XO
This
ting of rate of change of bearing (dB), as repre
sented by the rotation of shafting I2, by gears 22.
The second input to multiplier I8 is the screw 23
which positions a pin 24 relative to the center 20
U! in accordance with the dead time (tD) . The screw
(5)
23 is driven by a shaft 25 through a universal
joint in line with the pivot 26. The shaft 25 drives
The value of the component of movement X0
of the ?ring ship \is expressed by the equation
XO=SO~sin BS
(6)
in which SO represents the speed of the ?ring
25. The dial 26 is read against a, ?xed index 28
to indicate dead time (tD) and is positioned by a
a dial 26 by means of a worm 21 mounted on shaft
hand-crank 29 connected to the shaft 25. The
output sector 30 of the multiplier I8 is positioned
ship. Since the speed SO and the angle BS are
by the pin 24 acting through a slot in a cross
known the Value of the component X0 is readily
shaped member 3| which is pivoted at one end to
obtainable and since the total relative lateral rate 15 the output sector 30 by a pin 32 and at the other
(RdB) is known the value of the component XT
end to an arm 33 by a pin 34. The output sector
is obtained by transposing Equation 5 as follows:
30 is pivoted about a pin 35 and the arm 33 is
pivoted about a pin 36.
XT=RdB-XO
(7)
Shafting 31 is positioned by the output sector
The de?ection angle (DT) or o?set of the tor 20 30 in accordance with the deflection (Dt) due to
pedo course from the bearing of the target at the
the dead time (tD). Shafting 3‘! and shafting 3,
time of discharge is obtained as a function of the
the rotation of which represents the observed rela
cross component rate of movement (XT) of the
tive bearing (BSI), are connected through differ
target and the torpedo speed (SG) by solving the
ential 38 to drive shafting 39 to represent rela
equation
25 tive bearing (BS) as indicated in Equation 2. The
output member 8 of the integrator 5 rotates one
is 8G
(8)
member of the differential 40 in accordance with
increments of‘ true target bearing (B). A sec
since for small angles the angle is proportional to
ond member of the differential 40 is positioned in
the sine.
The collision path of the torpedo and a target, 30 accordance with ship’s course (CO) by shaft 4|
and a servo-motor 42 which is controlled by a, re
having a cross component rate of movement equal
ceiver motor 43 through contacts 44. The receiver
to XT, as obtained by the solution of Equation 7
motor 43 is positioned in accordance with ship’s
is represented by the line O—C |--C which is offset
course (CO) by a transmitter (not shown) at a
from the line OT by the angle DT. The direction
35 master compass. The third member of differential
of the line O--C|——C relative to the centerline
40 actuates a shaft 45 and one member of a differ
(O—O') of the ?ring ship, which is known as
ential 46 in accordance with generated relative
gyro angle (BQ) , is expressed by the equation,
bearing (BS) as seen from Equation 3.
BG=BS+DT
A sec
(9)
ond member of differential 46 ispositioned by
It is to be noted that the actual course and speed 40 shafting 39 the rotation of which represents ob
served relative bearing (BS). The third member
of the target are not required to be known as the
of differential 46 actuates a shaft 41 to which is
cross component of movement XT. of the target
attached a pointer 48 which is read against a ?xed
has been otherwise obtained. The target may be
dial 49. It will be seen that when the pointer 48
on any course and speed which would give the
cross component XT obtained, for example, the 45 remains stationary the rate member ‘I of the in
tegrator 5 is set to the correct value of rate of
value of the component XT may have been due to
change of bearing (dB).
a target having a speed ST and on a course CT
The two inputs of multiplier 50, which is in all
relative to north, as indicated by the line T-N,
respects similar to multiplier I8, are set in ac
or it may have been due to a target having a speed
50 cordance with the rate of change of bearing (dB)
STI on a course CTI. In the case of the ?rst ex
by gear 5| which is actuated by shafting I2 and in
ample the point of intercept or collision of the
accordance with range (R) by shaft 52, which is‘
target and torpedo is at the point C and in the
positioned by a hand-crank 53. The shaft 52
second case it is at the point Cl .
drives a dial 54, through a worm 55, to indicate
Referring now to Fig. 2, the observed relative
bearing of the target (BS!) is obtained by a sight 55 range (R) when read against the ?xed index 56.
The output sector positions shaft 51 through gears
I mounted for training by a hand-crank, 2 through
58 to represent the lateral rate of relative move
shafting 3 and gears 4. An integrator 5, consist
ment (RdB) as will be seen from Equation 4.
ing essentially of a constant speed member 6, a
The lateral rate (X0) or cross component rate
rate member ‘I, and a variable speed output mem
of movement due to the ?ring ship is obtained
ber 8, is driven by a constant speed motor 9 con
from a component solver 59, the vector member
nected to the constant speed member 6 by gears
of which consists of gear 60, having a radial slot
Ill. The rate member ‘I is positioned by a hand
in which a pin 6| carried by a sliding block 62 is
crank II and shafting |2 which actuates a gear
positioned by a screw 63. The screw is rotated
l3 meshing with a rack |4 connected to the rate
member ‘I. The position of the rate member ‘I is 65 by a knob 64 to position the pin 6| at a radius,
from the center of the gear 60‘, proportional to
indicated by a dial I5 connected to the shafting
the speed of the ?ring ship. To facilitate this
|2 by worm l6. The dial I5 is read against a ?xed
setting an index line is provided on the block 62
index I‘! to indicate rate of change of bearing
which is read against the ship speed scale 65 grad
(dB).
A multiplier I8 multiplies dead time (tD) and 70 uated on the gear 60. The gear 60 is angularly po
sitioned by the shafting 39 in accordance with the
rate of change of bearing to give de?ection (Dt),
relative bearing (BS). A single component slide
due to dead time, in accordance with Equation 1.
66 is positioned by the pin 6| to represent the lat
One input of multiplier I8 is the arm l9 which is
eral rate X0 in accordance with Equation 6.
swung about the center 20 by the toothed sector
2| which is positioned in accordance with the set 75 The shafting 61 is positioned to represent the
2,413,846
5
6
lateral rate X0 by the rack 68 on the slide 66.
The two input members of differential 69 are
positioned by shaft 51 and shafting 61 so that the
modi?ed movement of the output member of the
integrating device and movement of the ?rst
output member positions shafting 10 to represent
the lateral rate XT of the target as seen from
Equation 7.
mentioned means and indicates the adjustment
of the rate member required to cause the rate of
movement of the output member to agree with the
rate of movement of the ?rst mentioned means,
The dividing mechanism ‘H is in all respects
means settable in accordance with the range be
similar to the multipliers ‘l8 and 50 except that
tween the ?ring ship and the target, multiplying
the input and output through the sectors are in
means having two input members, one actuated
terchanged. The shafting 10 positions the cross 10 in accordance with the position of ‘the rate set
shaped member 12 through the sector 13 in ac
ting member and the second in accordance with
cordance with the lateral rate of movement XT
the position of the range settable means, said
of the target and the pin ‘I4 is positioned in ac
multiplying means having an output member the
cordance with the torpedo speed (SG) by hand
position of which represents the lateral rate of
crank 15 and shaft 16. The value of the tor 15 relative movement between the ?ring ship and
pedo speed is indicated by a dial ‘H, which is
the target, means settable in accordance with the
driven by a worm 18 mounted on shaft 16. The
lateral rate of movement due to the ?ring ship,
dial TI is read against a ?xed index 19. The
second diiferential means interconnecting the
output arm 80 and sector 8| are positioned in
output member of the multiplying means and
accordance with the torpedo de?ection (DT) as
the last mentioned settable means, said second
seen from Equation 8.
differential having an output member the posi
Shafting 82 which is positioned by sector 8| in
tion of which represents the rate of lateral move
accordance with the torpedo de?ection (DT)
ment of the target, means for determining the
drives a dial 83 by worm 811 to indicate target
torpedo de?ection angle including two input ele
de?ection when read against a ?xed index 85.
ments one of which is movable in accordance with
The torpedo de?ection (DT) represented by rota
the position of the output member of the second
tion of shafting 82 is combined in differential 86
differential and the second is settable in accord
with the rotation of shaft 39 to drive the shaft
ance with the torpedo speed, said determining
ing 81 and the dial 88, through the worm 89, rela
means having an output element the position of
tive to the ?xed index 90 in accordance with the 30 which represents the torpedo de?ection angle,
gyro angle BG as in Equation 9.
and means actuated by the last mentioned output
Instead of the pointer 48, the shaft 41 may be
element and the position of the ?rst mentioned
provided with a hand-crank by which shaft 41
means for indicating the relative gyro angle.
will normally be held stationary so that the rota
2. In a torpedo director, means positionable in
tion of shaft 45 will rotate shafting 39 through
accordance with the observed bearing of a target
differential 46. Shafting 39 will then rotate
relative to a reference line on a ?ring ship, means
shafting 3 through differential 38 to drive the
settable in accordance with the angular rate of
sight I. Instead of the hand-crank 2 the operator
relative movement between the ?ring ship and
will use the hand-crank on shaft 41 to correct or
the target, means settable in accordance with a
shift the position of the sight and the rate at 40 desired time interval, a multiplying mechanism
which the sight is driven will be controlled by
having two input elements positioned by the set
the hand-crank H.
table means respectively, and an output element
Various other modi?cations will be apparent to
the position of which represents the product of
those skilled in the art, for example, the sight
the values represented by the position of the
may be located at a distance and connected to 45 input elements, means settable in accordance
the computing mechanism by electrical transmis
with the range between the ?ring ship and the
sion.
Continuous values of range may be gen
erated, in addition to bearing, and range values
target, a second multiplying mechanism having
two input elements positioned by the last men
may be predicted to determine the run of the tor
tioned settable means and the means settable in
pedo. The output values of de?ection and gyro 50 accordance with the angular rate of relative
angle may be transmitted to the torpedo station
movement between the ?ring ship and the target,
respectively, and an output element the position
the path of the torpedo when discharged from a
of which represents theproduct of the values
?xed tube.
represented by the position of the input elements,
Having now described my invention what I 55 means settable in accordance with the rate of
claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat
lateral movement due to the ?ring ship, differ
and corrections may be made for curvature of
ent is:
ential means actuated by the last mentioned set
1. In a torpedo director, means positionable in
table means and the position of the output ele
accordance with the observed bearing of a target
ment of the second multiplying mechanism, said
relative to a reference line on a ?ring ship, an 60 differential having an output member the posi
integrating device including an input member
tion of which represents the rate of lateral move
driven at a constant speed, an output member
ment of the target, means for determining the
and an adjustable rate setting member the posi
torpedo de?ection angle including two input ele
tion of which represents the rate of movement of
the output member, means movable in accordance 65 ments one of which is movable in accordance
with the position of the output member of the
with the true direction of the reference line,
differential and the second is settable in accord
means actuated by the last mentioned means for
ance with the torpedo speed, said determining
modifying the movement of the output member
means having an output element the position of
to cause the modi?ed movement to represent the
bearing of the target relative to the reference line, 70 which represents the torpedo de?ection angle,
means positionable by the ?rst mentioned means
differential means interconnecting the ?rst men
and the output of the ?rst mentioned multiplying
tioned means and the modi?ed movement of the
mechanism to represent an advanced bearing of
output member of the integrating device, said
the target and means actuated by the output ele
differential having a third member the movement
of which represents the difference between the, 75 ment which represents the torpedo de?ection
2,413,846
7
8
angle and the last mentioned means for indicat—
ing the relative gyro angle.
3. In a torpedo director, means positionable in
accordance with the observed bearing of a target
input members, one actuated in accordance with
the position of the rate member and the second
relative to a reference line on a ?ring ship, a
vector member jointly positionable by the output
variable speed mechanism including an input
member, an output member, and a rate member
positionable to control the rate of movement of
the output member, means for comparing the
movement of the output member with the move
ment of the ?rst mentioned means, a member
positionable in accordance with the course of the
?ring ship, means actuated by the last mentioned
member for modifying the comparing means,
member of the differential means and in accord
ance with the speed of the ?ring ship and having
a component member positioned thereby to rep
resent the lateral rate of movement due to the
?ring ship, second differential means intercon
means settable in accordance with the range be
tween the ?ring ship and the target, a multiply
ing mechanism having an output'member and
two input members, one actuated in accordance
with the position of the rate member and the
second in accordance with the position of the
range settable means, a component solver having
a vector member jointly positionable by the ?rst
mentioned means and in accordance with the
speed of the ?ring ship, and having a component
member positioned thereby to represent the
lateral rate of movement due to the ?ring ship,
differential means interconnecting the component
member and the output member of the multiply
ing mechanism, said di?erential means having an
output member the position of which represents
the rate of lateral movement of the target across
the observed bearing, and computing means hav
ing an output element representing the torpedo
in accordance with the range of the target from
the ?ring ship, a component solver having a
necting the component member and the output‘
member of the second multiplying mechanism,
said second differential means having an output
member the position of which represents the rate
of lateral movement due to the target, computing
means having an output element representing the
torpedo de?ection angle and input elements mov
able in accordance with the position of the output
member of the second di?erential means and
with the torpedo speed respectively, and means
jointly actuated by the torpedo de?ection deter
mining means and the output member of the
?rst mentioned differential means for indicating
the course of the torpedo relative to the reference
line.
5. In a torpedo directing mechanism, means
settable in accordance with the angular rate of
relative movement between a ?ring ship and a
target, means settable in accordance with the
range between the firing ship and the target, mul
tiplying means having two input members re
spectively actuated in accordance with the set
table means and an output member the position
of which represents the lateral rate of relative
de?ection angle and input elements movable in
accordance with the position of the output mem 35 movement of the ?ring ship and the target across
the line of bearing of the target from the ?ring
ber of the di?erential means and with the tor
pedo speed respectively.
ship, a component solver including a vector mem
ber settable in accordance with the speed of the
?ring ship and the direction of movement of the
relative to a reference line on a ?ring ship, a 40 ?ring ship with respect to the bearing of the
target and a component slide positioned by the
variable speed mechanism including an input
vector member to represent the rate of lateral
member, an output member, and a rate member
movement of the ?ring ship across the line of
positionable to control the rate of movement of
bearing to the target, differential means actuated
the output member, means for comparing the
movement of the output member with the move 45 in accordance with the position of the output
4. In a torpedo director, means positionable in
accordance with the observed bearing of a target
member of the multiplying means and said com
ponent slide to position a member to represent
positionable in accordance with the course of the
the lateral rate of movement of the target across
?ring ship, means actuated by the last mentioned
the line of bearing to the target, and a dividing
member for modifying the comparing means, a
multiplying mechanism having an output mem 50 mechanism having an input element movable in
accordance with the position of the last men
ber and two input elements, one of which is posi
tioned by the rate member and the second in ac- - tioned member, a second input element settable
in accordance with the torpedo speed, and an
cordance with a desired time interval, di?erential
output element connected to be positioned in ac
means interconnecting the ?rst mentioned means
and the output member of the multiplying mech ,55 cordance with the ?rst input divided by the
second input to represent the torpedo de?ection
anism, said di?erential means having an output
angle.
member the position of which represents an ad
ELLIOTT P. ROSS.
vance bearing of the target, a second multiplying
mechanism having an output member and two
ment of the ?rst mentioned means, a member
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