1.1m. 7, 1947» a. A. swENNEs AMÈHIBIAN VEHICLE Filed Jan. 12, 1944 2,413,850 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 @m Jan. 7, 1947. B. A. swx-:NNES 2,413,850 AIIPHIBIAN VEHICLE med aan. 12, 1944 ____ _ |ÍlI.I.L Ll í \m«N. 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 2,413,850 Patented Jan. 7, 1947 -~ UNITED STATES -PATEN ri OFFICE , AMPmBIAN vaincra Benjamin Swennes, Rockford, lll., assigner `to Borg-Warner'Corporation, Chicago, Ill., a cor pnmian of Iliinois I Applicaties january 12, >1944, serial No. 517,940.. - ~ isolana». (ci. 11s-1) ` 2 land and to mount on and pass over My 1invention relates~` ten amphibiany vehicles. -» s direction. oversubstantial height. It' is thus an and more' particularly to auch vehicles havins l, obstaclesof object to provide, adjacent the endof the vehicle movable tracks on their l.exteriors 'which are opposite its streamlined end, portions of tracks adapted to propel the vehicles either over land on opposite sidesvof the vehicle which extend or through the water. . ‘ î ' 2 ' upwardly and 'endwardly of the vehicle toeiîect. Amphibian _vehicles having tracks Aon their exé ' passage ci' the vehicle over obstacles. It is still another object »of my invention to „provide a power transmission system in such a - teriors adapted for propelling the vehicles over land -«a1-'through the water have heretofore been , -_ used. The traction between thev tracks and the waterV ,was provided by lugs fixed’ to the tracks. The ends of these vehicles were preferably plane « surfaces which slanted upwardly and endwardly tracked amphibian vvehicle whichflfunctions to selectively give one speed. ratio for driving the v. tracks in» one direction for propelling the vehicle through the water with its streamlined end >fore. most and -to give a-plurality of speed ratios for driving the tracks and for propelling the vehicle fwith a minimum of drag. It has been -found 15 . overland in the opposite directions. with such a vehicle. however, that its slanted f The invention consists ofthe novel construc ends were not really streamlined’with respect to ' the Awater and that the vehicleI tended to push '.tions, arrangements and devices .to be herein- ~ after described and claimedy for carrying out the the water ahead of it, and there was a substan above stated objects and such otherobiects as tial drag on the vehicle due to this action. The will appear from the following -descriptionvof la vehicle functioned in this manner instead of certain preferred embodiment illustrated in vthe of the vehicles sok that theoretically these vehicles would tend to move over the surface of the water skimming'over the’kwater due to itsgreat weight -and. slow- speed. ' ' - - accompanying drawings, wherein: - " It is one of the kobjects of my invention to f provide an improved >tracked amphibiany vehicle _ Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of an amphibian >-vehicle embodying the principles of the inven which has a streamlined end and more particu larly a tapered end for'l reducing the effect of ' - the vehicle in pushing the water ahead of it and which would allow the vehicle to' cut >the water, 30. whereby the drag on the vehicle is decreased and » its speed is increased.' l f v The amphibian vehicles heretofore used have lbeen provided with propelling tracks extending tion; Fig. 2'is a plan view‘of the amphibian vehicle; b . Fig. 3 is van end lelevationi'il view of _the am phibian vehicle; and Fis. 4 is a diagrammatic view -of the -driving mechanism for the tracks of the amphibian ve hicle. . . l» s Like characters of reference designate like parts substantially the whole length-.of the vehicle. jin the several views. . . Referring now to thedrawings, the illustrated The tracks were thus of considerable length and 35' amphibian vehicle comprises a vehicle body 1 weight, and due to _their inertia. considerable " which is’substantia'lly water-tight. Thebody 1 power was required 'to start- and stop the tracks. provided with a cargo space 8 therein, _and It is a further object of my invention to provide ' is a gate 9 is hingedly mounted on an end Iilof the an improved amphibian vehicle'utilizing tracks which extend for only a portion of the length- 40 body for providing access to the cargo space. The gate 0 may be raised or lowered by any suitable ' of` the vehicle and .which thus are' of ïless lengthl means. and the ygategwhen lowered is adapted and weight and require considerably less power to be used as a ramp for‘movingr cargo into the t0 startend stop. It is also an object to posi tion these tracks of shorter length adjacent the 45 ~ An articulated A track il is disposed ' on each . end of the vehicle opposite a tapered end thereof, side of the vehicle body 1‘. Each of the tracks li whereby the tracks do not interfere with the cut-. is heldin looped configuration and is movably ting throughlthe water by the vehicle, and it is disposed with> respect to the body 1 by means a further object- to provide an auxiliary lwheeled supporting unit adjacent the streamlined end of sofof a sprocket wheel l2, an idler wheelf‘lß and bogie wheels I4, l5, i6, l1 and I8. The sprocket i the vehicle vfor supporting this end of the vehicle wheel l2 is iournaled in the vehicle body 1 and when the vehicle is on land. ` is driven by mechanism hereinafter to Vbe de It is another object of my invention to provide scribed, and the idler wheel is yieldingly sup such an amphibian> vehicle having a streamlined end to cut through the water which is so con 55 ported with respect to the body v1 by any suitable means (not shown). The bugie wheels u to is n structßd as to facilely travel inthe opposite -cargo space. v . _ l 2,413,850 4 are each individually yieldingly mounted with of speed ratios are available for driving the tracks respect to the vehicle body 1 by an arm I9 con in the opposite direction to prop’el the vehicle with nected with the body. 1 by means of a yieldable its opposite end 22 foremost, and these speeds torsion assembly 20 of any suitable construction. The articulated tracks II are provided with lugs 2| thereon which function to provide traction between the tracks and the water when the ve hicle is in water. The tracks II are disposed are intended for use primarily on land. adjacent the end 22 of the body 1; and the tracks _ support this end of the body when the vehicle is 10 on land. The lugs 2l function also to provide traction between the ground and the tracks,_ when the vehicle is on land, as is apparent. The transmission 38 preferably is automatic in shift ing between the plurality of speed ratios for driv ing the tracks Il in the direction for propelling ` the vehicle with its end 22 foremost. The differ ential transmission 39 may be of any suitable construction so' that either one of the sprockets` I2 may be decreased in speed with respect to the other sprocket at the will of the operator, in order that the vehicle> may be turned in one direction or the other. The track driving mechani-sm may An auxiliary wheeled, body supporting unit 23 is provided for supporting the end l0 of the body 15 be suitably disposed in the body 1 adjacent the 1. This unit comprises idler wheels 24 and 25 ‘ end 22 of the vehicle with the motor 31 being in rotatably mounted with respect to a member 264 the motor box 42 which is shown in Fig, 2. which is yieldably connected to the body 1 by The vehicle illustrated is particularly suited to any suitable means (not shown). A large idler be operated in one direction in water and in the wheel 21 is connected with the member 23 by 20 other direction yon land, although it will be ap means of a link 28, and an idler wheel 29 of the parent that, if desired, the vehicle may be oper same size as the wheel 21 and an idler wheel 30 of the same size as the wheels 24 and 25 are con ated in both directions either on land or in water. nected with the member 26 by means of links 3| and 32, a-s shown. A track 33 is disposed in looped configuration about the idler Wheels and moves about the wheels. It will bev noted that the unit 23 is partially disposed in a `cavity 3l' When the vehicle is in water, the transmission 38 is preferably shifted to drive thevtracks II so as to propel the vehicle with its tapered end III foremost. With thevehicle moving through the being in contact with theground whenthe ve keel 36 functions to reduceA the drag of the aux iliary supporting unit 23, as is apparent.` Any of the speed ratios of -the transmission 38 for driving the tracks Il in the opposite direction may be utilized for reversing the vehicle in the water, as is apparent. When the vehicle is oper water in this direction, the tapered end I0 com prising the slanting surfaces 35 functions to cut provided in the bottom of the body 1 adjacent the body end I 0, and the unit 23 functions to 30 the water and make facile the movement of the support this end of the vehicle with the track 33 « body in this direction through the water. The hic'e is on land. ` The body 1 on its bottom adjacent the end Ill of the body is provided with surfaces 35 which slant upwardly toward this end of the body and also sidewardly from the longitudinal center of the body. The body 1 is thus streamlined and tapered on this e'nd so that the body cuts the ated on land, it is preferably run in the opposite direction with its end 22 foremost, and the one water as it passes therethrough with this end 40 of the plurality of speed ratios of transmission 38 A at which the best operation is obtained for the A pointed `keel 36 is provided on this particular kind of terrain being traversed may be end ofthe-body in its longitudinal center'4 and used. With vthe vehicle moving in this direction endwardly of the auxiliary supporting unit 23. , foremost. over land, the upwardly extending stretches of 'I'his keel functions to streamline the body 1 about the supporting unit 23 and minimize the drag of 45 tracks between the bogie wheels I1 and the -sprockets I2 function such `that the vehicle may water on the unit 23. mount and pass over obstacles.' The single speed ~ It will be observed that each of the tracks I I ratiov of the transmission 38 in the opposite ydirec has a portion or stretch between the bog'ie wheel tion may be utilized for reversing the vehicle on I1 and the sprocket wheel I2 which extends up wardly and endwardly of the vehicle. When the 50 land, as is apparent. When the vehicle is being driven from land to water, the end I0 of the tracks II -are driven so as to propel the vehicle vehicle is preferably driven into the water ñrst with its end 22 foremost, these stretches of track tend to run onto any obstacle the vehicle may ' so that the tracks II contact ground as long as encounter, and the vehicle thereby mounts on and possible. When the vehicle is being beached, the end 22 of the vehicle is preferably driven fore moves across the obstacle. _ The driving mechanism for the tracks II in cludes a motor 31 (see Fig. 4) having in tandem therewith a transmission 38 which in turn is con ~nected with a controlled differential transmission > most onto the beach so that the tracks I l contact ground as soon as possible. „ I wish it tobe understood that my invention e is not to be limited to the specific constructions 39 by means of shafting 40. The transmis-sion 39 60 and arrangements shown and described, except is connected to drive the sprockets I2 for‘the only insofar as the claims may be so limited, as tracks on opposite sides of the vehicle by means it will be apparent to those skilled in the art of suitable shafting Il. The motor 31 may be of - that changes maybe made without departing any suitable type and is preferably an internal from the principles of the invention. combustion engine. The transmission 38 may be 65 I claim: ' . controlled by any suitable means (not shown) 1. An amphibian vehicle' comprising in combi and preferably provides one speed ratio in one nation, a substantially water-tight body, a pair direction and a plurality of speed ratios in the ' of tracks movably disposed von. opposite sides of opposite direction. The arrangement of the vari saidv body and adapted to propel the vehicle ~ ous parts of the driving mechanism is such that 70 either over land or through the water, said tracks >the tracks II are driven in the single speed ratio extending for only a portion oi the length of the in a direction to propel the vehicle body 1 with body and being> disposed adjacent an end of the it-s streamlined end l0 foremost, and this speed body, and an auxiliary body supporting means ratio is intended for use as a reverse onland or relatively movable with respect to the body and for use as forward in the water. The plurality 1 disposed adjacent its opposite end and function alriaezso-A " » ingï1with fthetracks to supportthebody when I >the vehicle is propeiled'overland. - i . , _ . said body,l adjacent ’ gone end _thereofwon ,its _ bottom slantingV .upwardly ,toward said vend bination, a substantially water-tight i,vehicle andtoward its sides so that this end of the body „isf tapered for facilitating-*passage of the vehicle body, said body on oney end thereof being stream lined .for facilitatingv passage of thefvehicle :through `they water withëthis. end foremost, a pairfof tracks movablydìsposed on. opposite sides ._of tracks movablyfdisposed on opposite sides of _said body and adaptedto propel the Vehicle either over land or through »the wateneach ofl said ` v2.-.An amphibian vehiclevcomprising'in com i throughîthewater with this end foremost, a pair ‘ tracks having a portion adjacent theopposite end xof said body and adapted. to propel the vehicle either over land or through the water, saidV tracks 10 ,of said‘body extending upwardly and endwardly `of the body wherebythe vehicle »may mount _and extending for only a portion of the length ofthe pass over raised obstacles when propelled with >said opposite end foremost, and a _motor in__said body adapted for- driving said tracks. either in a ing means for said body adjacent its stream lined end functioning with said tracks to support 15 direction to propel the »vehicle _throughthevwater with itstaperedend foremost or inthe opposite the bodyfwhen _the vehicle is propelled over body and being disposed adjacent the opposite lend ofthe body, vand auxiliary wheeled support land. ' » ` 1 -' y _ direction to propel the vehicle over land with its ' 3. An amphibian vehiciecomprlsing in com bination, a substantially water-tight vehicle body, -other end foremost.` > - ' v - 7.- An amphibian vehicle comprising in com- « ' said body on one endl thereof‘ being stream»` 20 bination, a substantially water-tight vehicle body, said _body on one end thereof being streamlined lined for facilitating passage vof Íthe vehicle throughv the water `with’ït-his end foremost, a -Afor _facilitatingv paSSagevof the vehicle through ¿the waterwlth this end- foremost, a pair of _tracks pair of tracks on opposite sides of said body, said ' movably disposed on opposite sides-` of said body ` tracks each being movably disposed with respect to the body and held in looped configuration by 25 and adapted to> propel the vehicle either over land means of a pair of track-supporting wheels and ~ a plurality of body supporting bogie wheels run ning on the track and the'tracks- being adapted when driven to propel‘ftheV` vehicle either >over land or through the water, said tracks extend-r 30 ing for only‘a portion ofthe length of the‘body . and being disposed adjacent the opposite endof lor through the water', said tracks extendingfor only a portion of the length of the body and being disposed adjacentk the oppositefend _of :the body, `an auxiliary wheeled supportingy means for vsaid body> adjacent its 4streamlinedfend- _functioning with said tracks to support _the bodywhen `_the vehicle vis propelled over` land, eachof said tracks v having afportion on said opposite end ofthe body the body,‘and auxiliary wheeled supporting means extending upwardly and endwardly of thebody tioning withy said tracks to support the body 35 whereby the vehiclemay mount andpass over raised obstacles when propelled with said opposite when the vehicle ispropelled overl land. for said body adjacent its streamlined end func end foremost, and a motor in said body adapted for driving the tracksleither ina direction. to propel the vehicle throughthe water with its . said body on one end thereof being -streamlined a for facilitatingpassage of the vehicle through the, 40 streamlinedxend foremostl or in theopposite di vrection to rpropel _the-vehicle over land With- its water with this -end foremost, a pair of tracks 4. An amphibian vehicle comprising in com bination, a substantially water-tight vehicle body, ymovably disposed on opposite- sides of said body and adaptedV -to propel'the vehicle 'either vover land Vor through the water, said _tracks extending -other end foremost. - .- - i. _ - " `8.` An amphibian vehicle'comprising incom - bination, asubstantially water-tight vehicle body, for only a >portion of the lengthfof lthe body and » 45 said body on one end thereof being streamlined i forfacilltating passageof the vehicle throughzthe "being disposed'adjacent the c_nàposite‘endv of the water with this end foremost, a pairof tracks on body, and an auxiliary body supporting unit ad vjacent the streamlined end of the body and func "opposite sides of- said body, said tracks each being lmovably disposed'l with respect to the body and tioning with the tracks to support the' body when the vehicle is propelled over land, said vauxiliary-- '50 held- in- looped configuration by» meansof a pair of ytrack-supporting wheels and a plurality of unit comprising va track movable‘on a plurality body supporting' ‘bogiey wheelsl running;y on the of idler wheels and being disposed in the longitu dinal center of the vehicle and partially in a ' track and the tracks being adapted when ‘driven to propel .the vehicley either over land or through cavity _in the bottom of the vehicleprovided the water, said tracks extending‘for only a por tion of the length of the'body andbeing disposed 5‘. An lamphibian vehicle comprising in coni-y adjacent the opposite end ofthe body, each Iof _ vbination, a substantially water-tight vehicle body, therefor.' „ _ » ` ' _ ` _ _ , said body- being tapered on one end thereof `» said 'tracks having a‘portion on said opposite end ' foremost, a pair of tracks movably disposed on- pass over raised obstacles when propelled with >of the body extending upwardly and endwardly of whereby to cut'the water and facilitate passage ofthe vehicle Athrough the water with that end 60 the body whereby the- vehicle may r'nountr and said opposite end foremost, auxiliary wheeled opposite sides of said body and adapted to propel ~ supporting means for said body adjacent ‘its the vehicle either over land or'thro'ugh the water, _each of said tracks having a portion adjacent _ streamlined end` functioning with said tracks to ' the opposite end of said body extending upwardly “support the body when .the vehicle is propelled over land, and a motorin said body adapted for andendwardly of the body whereby the vehicle driving said tracks either in a direction to propel may mount and 'pass over raised obstacles when the vehicle through' the water with its stream propelled with said-opposite end foremost,-and lined end foremost or in the opposite >direction to a motor in said"body adapted for driving said - tracks either in a direction for 'propellingl the 70 propel the vehicle over land with its otherr end vehicle through the water with its tapered end foremost. foremost or in the opposite direction _to propel the vehicle over land with its other end foremost. _ 6. An amphibian vehicle comprising in com- . ' - ' « ' .9.'An amphibian vehicle comprising in com bination, a substantially water-tight vehicle body, said body adiacent one end thereof on its bottom bination, a substantially water-tight vehicle body, 75 slanting upwardly toward said end and toward ' 2,413,850 7 . its :sides so that this end of the body is tapered for-facilitating passage of the vehicle through said body.v being tapered on;one .end whereby to cut the water and facilitate passage> of the ve the water with this end foremost, a pair of tracks on opposite sides of said body, said tracks each hicle through the water with >that end foremost, a pair of tracks movably disposed on- opposite sides of said body and extending for only a por-> ' beingmovably-disposed with respect to the body and held ináloogd configuration by means of a - tion of the length of: the `body and disposed ad ' pair of track-supporting wheels and a plurality jacent the opposite vend of the body, said tracks of body-'supporting bogie wheels running on the track and the tracks being adapted-when driven being adapted to‘propel the vehicle eitherover land or through the water and-each track having to l«propel the vehicle either over land or through 10 a portion on'said opposite end ofthe body ex-_ tending upwardly and endwardly of the body' the‘water, said tracks extending for only a por tion of the length of the body and being dis whereby the vehicle may‘mount ‘andpass over posed adjacent the opposite end of thebody, an raised obstacles when the vehicleis-moving with auxiliary body> supporting unit comprising a said opposite end foremost,` auxiliary wheeled supporting means for said body adjacent its ta track movable on a plurality of» idler wheels, said unit being disposed adjacent said tapered body pered end functioning withv said tracks to support the body when the_.vehicle is propelled over land. end on the longitudinal center of the body and partially in a cavity provided in the; bottom of a motor in said body, and means operatively con the body, each of said tracks having a portion necting said motor and said tracks for driving said tracks and yincluding a transmission, said transmission providing one ratio for driving the tracks in a directionto propelthe vehicle through adjacent'said opposite end of the body extending so upwardly and endwardly of the body whereby the vehicle may mount ~and pass over raised obstacles when propelled with said opposite end foremost, , ,- the water with its tapered end‘foremost and pro viding a plurality of ratios-fordriving the tracks and a motor in said body adapted for driving i `in the opposite direction for propellingv the vehicle „ said tracks either in a direction for propelling the over land with its said opposite end foremost. 13. An amphibian vehicle comprising, in com vehicle through the water with said tapered end -foremost. or inthe opposite direction for pro bination, a 'substantially water-tight vehicle body 'pelling the vehicle over land with saidopposite body end foremost. having one end shaped ,to facilitate passage _ 1 10. An amphibian vehicle comprising in combi through the water when `driven with that end _ nat‘on, a substantially water-tight vehicle body, f foremost, driving mean's including a pair of tracks - disposed ;on cpposite sides of vsaid vehicle adja cent the end opposite said shaped end and adapt ed normally yand selectively to propel the vehicle of the vehicle through the water with thatv end orentost, a pair of tracks movably disposed on 35 through the waterwith-‘s‘aid shaped end foremost and over land with 4its other end foremost, -and ' opposite sides of said body and adapted to propel a gate at one> end-of said vehicle, said gate when . the vehicle either over land or throughthe Wa in closed position forming aportion of the vehicle ter, 'a motor in said body. and means operatively body and when in open position forming a means connecting said motor and said tracksy for driv of access to the interior of said body. v » ing the tracks and including 'a transmission, said said body- being tapered on one end thereof whereby to cut the. waterl and facilitate passage _ 14, An amphibian vehicle comprising, in com ' e >transmission providing one speed ratio for driv _ ing the track‘s in a direction to propel‘the vehicle through the water with its tapered body end foremost and providing a plurality of speed ratios bination, a substantially vwater-tight vehicle ybody .having yoneV end shaped Ato facilitate passage through »the water when driven with that end fo; >driving the tracks in the opposite direction foremost, kmeans defining a cargo space ’within said body, a gate positioned ; above said shaped end and adjacent said cargo space, and driving fo i propelling the vehicle over land with its op-' posite body end foremost. ß means including a pairyof tracks disposed Aon 0p posite sides of said body adjacent the end opposite 11. An amphibian vehicle comprising'in com bination, a substantially water-tight vehicle body, said> body being tapered on one end whereby to 60; said shaped end and adapted normally and selec' tively` to propel `the lvehicle -through the water ' `cut the water and facilitate passage of the vehicle with said shaped end foremost and over land with through the water with this end foremost, s. pair> of tracks movably disposed on opposite sides of its other end foremost. , ' - :said body and adapted to propel the vehicle either ' , over land or'through the water, each of said 55 tracks having s. portion adjacent 'the opposite end of said body extending upwardly and end .wardly of the body whereby the vehicle may x . , p 15.' An amphibian vehicle comprising..in com bination, a substantially water-tight vehicle body 'having o_ne end tapered _to' facilitate passage through the water_."when driven with that end foremost, meansdefining a cargo space within said body, driving. means-includingy a pair of mount and pass over raised obstacles when pro- i pelled with said opposite end foremost, a motor 60 tracks disposed _on opposite sides of. said body in said body, "and means operatively connecting adjacent the end opposite said shaped end and adapted normallyand selectively to «propel the said motor and said tracks for driving the tracks Vand including a transmission, said transmission vehicle through ¿the water with said shaped end " providing one speed ratio for driving the tracks v foremost and overland with its` other end fore ì the water with its tapered end foremost and pro most, and a gate adjacent said cargo space and forming inits closed position ,a wall portion of viding a plurality of speed ratios for driving the . said vehicle body, said gate being located'above ’ vin a direction for propelling the vehicle through 65 tracks in the opposite direction for propelling the said tapered end >and beingç‘hinged at its own vehicle over land with its said opposite end fore lower edge whereby it is adapted when lowered most. _ v12. An amphibian vehicle comprising in combi-v nation, a substantially water-tight vehiclebody, 70 from its closed position to serve asa ramp leading ' ' to or from said cargo space. , BENJAinNMÃ. swnNNns.