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1.1m. 7, 1947»
a. A. swENNEs
AMÈHIBIAN VEHICLE
Filed Jan. 12, 1944
2,413,850
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
@m
Jan. 7, 1947.
B. A. swx-:NNES
2,413,850
AIIPHIBIAN VEHICLE
med aan. 12, 1944
____
_
|ÍlI.I.L
Ll í
\m«N.
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
2,413,850
Patented Jan. 7, 1947
-~ UNITED STATES -PATEN ri OFFICE ,
AMPmBIAN vaincra
Benjamin
Swennes, Rockford, lll., assigner `to
Borg-Warner'Corporation, Chicago, Ill., a cor
pnmian of Iliinois
I Applicaties january 12, >1944, serial No. 517,940..
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~ isolana».
(ci. 11s-1)
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land and to mount on and pass over
My 1invention relates~` ten amphibiany vehicles. -» s direction. oversubstantial
height. It' is thus an
and more' particularly to auch vehicles havins l, obstaclesof
object
to
provide,
adjacent
the endof the vehicle
movable tracks on their l.exteriors 'which are
opposite its streamlined end, portions of tracks
adapted to propel the vehicles either over land
on opposite sidesvof the vehicle which extend
or through the water. .
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upwardly and 'endwardly of the vehicle toeiîect.
Amphibian _vehicles having tracks Aon their exé '
passage ci' the vehicle over obstacles.
It is still another object »of my invention to
„provide a power transmission system in such a
- teriors adapted for propelling the vehicles over
land -«a1-'through the water have heretofore been , -_
used. The traction between thev tracks and the
waterV ,was provided by lugs fixed’ to the tracks.
The ends of these vehicles were preferably plane «
surfaces which slanted upwardly and endwardly
tracked amphibian vvehicle whichflfunctions to
selectively give one speed. ratio for driving the
v. tracks in» one direction for propelling the vehicle
through the water with its streamlined end >fore.
most and -to give a-plurality of speed ratios for
driving the tracks and for propelling the vehicle
fwith a minimum of drag. It has been -found 15 . overland
in the opposite directions.
with such a vehicle. however, that its slanted
f The invention consists ofthe novel construc
ends were not really streamlined’with respect to
' the Awater and that the vehicleI tended to push '.tions, arrangements and devices .to be herein- ~
after described and claimedy for carrying out the
the water ahead of it, and there was a substan
above stated objects and such otherobiects as
tial drag on the vehicle due to this action. The
will appear from the following -descriptionvof la
vehicle functioned in this manner instead of
certain preferred embodiment illustrated in vthe
of the vehicles sok that theoretically these vehicles
would tend to move over the surface of the water
skimming'over the’kwater due to itsgreat weight
-and. slow- speed.
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accompanying drawings, wherein: -
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It is one of the kobjects of my invention to
f provide an improved >tracked amphibiany vehicle _
Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of an amphibian
>-vehicle embodying the principles of the inven
which has a streamlined end and more particu
larly a tapered end for'l reducing the effect of '
- the vehicle in pushing the water ahead of it and
which would allow the vehicle to' cut >the water, 30.
whereby the drag on the vehicle is decreased and
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its speed is increased.' l
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The amphibian vehicles heretofore used have
lbeen provided with propelling tracks extending
tion;
Fig. 2'is a plan view‘of the amphibian vehicle; b
. Fig. 3 is van end lelevationi'il view of _the am
phibian vehicle; and
Fis. 4 is a diagrammatic view -of the -driving
mechanism for the tracks of the amphibian ve
hicle.
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Like characters of reference designate like parts
substantially the whole length-.of the vehicle. jin the several views. . .
Referring now to thedrawings, the illustrated
The tracks were thus of considerable length and 35' amphibian
vehicle comprises a vehicle body 1
weight, and due to _their inertia. considerable " which is’substantia'lly
water-tight. Thebody 1
power was required 'to start- and stop the tracks.
provided with a cargo space 8 therein, _and
It is a further object of my invention to provide ' is
a gate 9 is hingedly mounted on an end Iilof the
an improved amphibian vehicle'utilizing tracks
which extend for only a portion of the length- 40 body for providing access to the cargo space. The
gate 0 may be raised or lowered by any suitable
' of` the vehicle and .which thus are' of ïless lengthl
means. and the ygategwhen lowered is adapted
and weight and require considerably less power
to be used as a ramp for‘movingr cargo into the
t0 startend stop. It is also an object to posi
tion these tracks of shorter length adjacent the 45
~
An articulated A track il is disposed ' on each .
end of the vehicle opposite a tapered end thereof,
side of the vehicle body 1‘. Each of the tracks li
whereby the tracks do not interfere with the cut-.
is heldin looped configuration and is movably
ting throughlthe water by the vehicle, and it is
disposed with> respect to the body 1 by means
a further object- to provide an auxiliary lwheeled
supporting unit adjacent the streamlined end of sofof a sprocket wheel l2, an idler wheelf‘lß and
bogie wheels I4, l5, i6, l1 and I8. The sprocket
i the vehicle vfor supporting this end of the vehicle
wheel l2 is iournaled in the vehicle body 1 and
when the vehicle is on land. `
is driven by mechanism hereinafter to Vbe de
It is another object of my invention to provide
scribed, and the idler wheel is yieldingly sup
such an amphibian> vehicle having a streamlined
end to cut through the water which is so con 55 ported with respect to the body v1 by any suitable
means (not shown). The bugie wheels u to is n
structßd as to facilely travel inthe opposite
-cargo
space.
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2,413,850
4
are each individually yieldingly mounted with
of speed ratios are available for driving the tracks
respect to the vehicle body 1 by an arm I9 con
in the opposite direction to prop’el the vehicle with
nected with the body. 1 by means of a yieldable
its opposite end 22 foremost, and these speeds
torsion assembly 20 of any suitable construction.
The articulated tracks II are provided with lugs
2| thereon which function to provide traction
between the tracks and the water when the ve
hicle is in water. The tracks II are disposed
are intended for use primarily on land.
adjacent the end 22 of the body 1; and the tracks _
support this end of the body when the vehicle is 10
on land. The lugs 2l function also to provide
traction between the ground and the tracks,_
when the vehicle is on land, as is apparent.
The
transmission 38 preferably is automatic in shift
ing between the plurality of speed ratios for driv
ing the tracks Il in the direction for propelling
` the vehicle with its end 22 foremost. The differ
ential transmission 39 may be of any suitable
construction so' that either one of the sprockets`
I2 may be decreased in speed with respect to the
other sprocket at the will of the operator, in order
that the vehicle> may be turned in one direction
or the other. The track driving mechani-sm may
An auxiliary wheeled, body supporting unit 23
is provided for supporting the end l0 of the body 15 be suitably disposed in the body 1 adjacent the
1. This unit comprises idler wheels 24 and 25 ‘ end 22 of the vehicle with the motor 31 being in
rotatably mounted with respect to a member 264
the motor box 42 which is shown in Fig, 2.
which is yieldably connected to the body 1 by
The vehicle illustrated is particularly suited to
any suitable means (not shown). A large idler
be operated in one direction in water and in the
wheel 21 is connected with the member 23 by 20 other direction yon land, although it will be ap
means of a link 28, and an idler wheel 29 of the
parent that, if desired, the vehicle may be oper
same size as the wheel 21 and an idler wheel 30
of the same size as the wheels 24 and 25 are con
ated in both directions either on land or in water.
nected with the member 26 by means of links 3|
and 32, a-s shown. A track 33 is disposed in
looped configuration about the idler Wheels and
moves about the wheels. It will bev noted that
the unit 23 is partially disposed in a `cavity 3l'
When the vehicle is in water, the transmission
38 is preferably shifted to drive thevtracks II so
as to propel the vehicle with its tapered end III
foremost. With thevehicle moving through the
being in contact with theground whenthe ve
keel 36 functions to reduceA the drag of the aux
iliary supporting unit 23, as is apparent.` Any
of the speed ratios of -the transmission 38 for
driving the tracks Il in the opposite direction
may be utilized for reversing the vehicle in the
water, as is apparent. When the vehicle is oper
water in this direction, the tapered end I0 com
prising the slanting surfaces 35 functions to cut
provided in the bottom of the body 1 adjacent
the body end I 0, and the unit 23 functions to 30 the water and make facile the movement of the
support this end of the vehicle with the track 33 « body in this direction through the water. The
hic'e is on land.
`
The body 1 on its bottom adjacent the end Ill
of the body is provided with surfaces 35 which
slant upwardly toward this end of the body and
also sidewardly from the longitudinal center of
the body. The body 1 is thus streamlined and
tapered on this e'nd so that the body cuts the
ated on land, it is preferably run in the opposite
direction with its end 22 foremost, and the one
water as it passes therethrough with this end 40 of the plurality of speed ratios of transmission 38 A
at which the best operation is obtained for the
A pointed `keel 36 is provided on this
particular kind of terrain being traversed may be
end ofthe-body in its longitudinal center'4 and
used. With vthe vehicle moving in this direction
endwardly of the auxiliary supporting unit 23.
, foremost.
over land, the upwardly extending stretches of
'I'his keel functions to streamline the body 1 about
the supporting unit 23 and minimize the drag of 45 tracks between the bogie wheels I1 and the
-sprockets I2 function such `that the vehicle may
water on the unit 23.
mount and pass over obstacles.' The single speed
~ It will be observed that each of the tracks I I
ratiov of the transmission 38 in the opposite ydirec
has a portion or stretch between the bog'ie wheel
tion may be utilized for reversing the vehicle on
I1 and the sprocket wheel I2 which extends up
wardly and endwardly of the vehicle. When the 50 land, as is apparent. When the vehicle is being
driven from land to water, the end I0 of the
tracks II -are driven so as to propel the vehicle
vehicle is preferably driven into the water ñrst
with its end 22 foremost, these stretches of track
tend to run onto any obstacle the vehicle may
' so that the tracks II contact ground as long as
encounter, and the vehicle thereby mounts on and
possible. When the vehicle is being beached, the
end 22 of the vehicle is preferably driven fore
moves across the obstacle.
_
The driving mechanism for the tracks II in
cludes a motor 31 (see Fig. 4) having in tandem
therewith a transmission 38 which in turn is con
~nected with a controlled differential transmission >
most onto the beach so that the tracks I l contact
ground as soon as possible.
„
I wish it tobe understood that my invention
e is not to be limited to the specific constructions
39 by means of shafting 40. The transmis-sion 39 60 and arrangements shown and described, except
is connected to drive the sprockets I2 for‘the
only insofar as the claims may be so limited, as
tracks on opposite sides of the vehicle by means
it will be apparent to those skilled in the art
of suitable shafting Il. The motor 31 may be of - that changes maybe made without departing
any suitable type and is preferably an internal
from the principles of the invention.
combustion engine. The transmission 38 may be 65 I claim:
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controlled by any suitable means (not shown)
1. An amphibian vehicle' comprising in combi
and preferably provides one speed ratio in one
nation, a substantially water-tight body, a pair
direction and a plurality of speed ratios in the '
of tracks movably disposed von. opposite sides of
opposite direction. The arrangement of the vari
saidv body and adapted to propel the vehicle
~ ous parts of the driving mechanism is such that 70 either over land or through the water, said tracks
>the tracks II are driven in the single speed ratio
extending for only a portion oi the length of the
in a direction to propel the vehicle body 1 with
body and being> disposed adjacent an end of the
it-s streamlined end l0 foremost, and this speed
body, and an auxiliary body supporting means
ratio is intended for use as a reverse onland or
relatively movable with respect to the body and
for use as forward in the water. The plurality 1 disposed adjacent its opposite end and function
alriaezso-A "
» ingï1with fthetracks to supportthebody when I
>the vehicle is propeiled'overland.
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said body,l adjacent ’ gone end _thereofwon ,its
_ bottom slantingV .upwardly ,toward said vend
bination, a substantially water-tight i,vehicle
andtoward its sides so that this end of the body
„isf tapered for facilitating-*passage of the vehicle
body, said body on oney end thereof being stream
lined .for facilitatingv passage of thefvehicle
:through `they water withëthis. end foremost, a
pairfof tracks movablydìsposed on. opposite sides
._of tracks movablyfdisposed on opposite sides of
_said body and adaptedto propel the Vehicle either
over land or through »the wateneach ofl said
` v2.-.An amphibian vehiclevcomprising'in com
i throughîthewater with this end foremost, a pair
‘ tracks having a portion adjacent theopposite end
xof said body and adapted. to propel the vehicle
either over land or through the water, saidV tracks 10 ,of said‘body extending upwardly and endwardly
`of the body wherebythe vehicle »may mount _and
extending for only a portion of the length ofthe
pass over raised obstacles when propelled with
>said opposite end foremost, and a _motor in__said
body adapted for- driving said tracks. either in a
ing means for said body adjacent its stream
lined end functioning with said tracks to support 15 direction to propel the »vehicle _throughthevwater
with itstaperedend foremost or inthe opposite
the bodyfwhen _the vehicle is propelled over
body and being disposed adjacent the opposite
lend ofthe body, vand auxiliary wheeled support
land.
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_ direction to propel the vehicle over land with its
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3. An amphibian vehiciecomprlsing in com
bination, a substantially water-tight vehicle body,
-other end foremost.`
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7.- An amphibian vehicle comprising in com- « '
said body on one endl thereof‘ being stream»` 20 bination, a substantially water-tight vehicle body,
said _body on one end thereof being streamlined
lined for facilitating passage vof Íthe vehicle
throughv the water `with’ït-his end foremost, a -Afor _facilitatingv paSSagevof the vehicle through
¿the waterwlth this end- foremost, a pair of _tracks
pair of tracks on opposite sides of said body, said
' movably disposed on opposite sides-` of said body
` tracks each being movably disposed with respect
to the body and held in looped configuration by 25 and adapted to> propel the vehicle either over land
means of a pair of track-supporting wheels and ~
a plurality of body supporting bogie wheels run
ning on the track and the'tracks- being adapted
when driven to propel‘ftheV` vehicle either >over
land or through the water, said tracks extend-r 30
ing for only‘a portion ofthe length of the‘body
. and being disposed adjacent the opposite endof
lor through the water', said tracks extendingfor
only a portion of the length of the body and being
disposed adjacentk the oppositefend _of :the body,
`an auxiliary wheeled supportingy means for vsaid
body> adjacent its 4streamlinedfend- _functioning
with said tracks to support _the bodywhen `_the
vehicle vis propelled over` land, eachof said tracks
v having afportion on said opposite end ofthe body
the body,‘and auxiliary wheeled supporting means
extending upwardly and endwardly of thebody
tioning withy said tracks to support the body 35 whereby the vehiclemay mount andpass over
raised obstacles when propelled with said opposite
when the vehicle ispropelled overl land.
for said body adjacent its streamlined end func
end foremost, and a motor in said body adapted
for driving the tracksleither ina direction. to
propel the vehicle throughthe water with its
. said body on one end thereof being -streamlined
a for facilitatingpassage of the vehicle through the, 40 streamlinedxend foremostl or in theopposite di
vrection to rpropel _the-vehicle over land With- its
water with this -end foremost, a pair of tracks
4. An amphibian vehicle comprising in com
bination, a substantially water-tight vehicle body,
ymovably disposed on opposite- sides of said body
and adaptedV -to propel'the vehicle 'either vover
land Vor through the water, said _tracks extending
-other end foremost.
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" `8.` An amphibian vehicle'comprising incom
- bination, asubstantially water-tight vehicle body,
for only a >portion of the lengthfof lthe body and » 45 said body on one end thereof being streamlined
i forfacilltating passageof the vehicle throughzthe
"being disposed'adjacent the c_nàposite‘endv of the
water with this end foremost, a pairof tracks on
body, and an auxiliary body supporting unit ad
vjacent the streamlined end of the body and func
"opposite sides of- said body, said tracks each being
lmovably disposed'l with respect to the body and
tioning with the tracks to support the' body when
the vehicle is propelled over land, said vauxiliary-- '50 held- in- looped configuration by» meansof a pair
of ytrack-supporting wheels and a plurality of
unit comprising va track movable‘on a plurality
body supporting' ‘bogiey wheelsl running;y on the
of idler wheels and being disposed in the longitu
dinal center of the vehicle and partially in a ' track and the tracks being adapted when ‘driven
to propel .the vehicley either over land or through
cavity _in the bottom of the vehicleprovided
the water, said tracks extending‘for only a por
tion of the length of the'body andbeing disposed
5‘. An lamphibian vehicle comprising in coni-y
adjacent the opposite end ofthe body, each Iof
_ vbination, a substantially water-tight vehicle body,
therefor.'
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, said body- being tapered on one end thereof
`» said 'tracks having a‘portion on said opposite end
' foremost, a pair of tracks movably disposed on-
pass over raised obstacles when propelled with
>of the body extending upwardly and endwardly of
whereby to cut'the water and facilitate passage
ofthe vehicle Athrough the water with that end 60 the body whereby the- vehicle may r'nountr and
said opposite end foremost, auxiliary wheeled
opposite sides of said body and adapted to propel
~ supporting means for said body adjacent ‘its
the vehicle either over land or'thro'ugh the water,
_each of said tracks having a portion adjacent _ streamlined end` functioning with said tracks to
' the opposite end of said body extending upwardly “support the body when .the vehicle is propelled
over land, and a motorin said body adapted for
andendwardly of the body whereby the vehicle
driving said tracks either in a direction to propel
may mount and 'pass over raised obstacles when
the vehicle through' the water with its stream
propelled with said-opposite end foremost,-and
lined end foremost or in the opposite >direction to
a motor in said"body adapted for driving said
- tracks either in a direction for 'propellingl the 70 propel the vehicle over land with its otherr end
vehicle through the water with its tapered end
foremost.
foremost or in the opposite direction _to propel
the vehicle over land with its other end foremost.
_
6. An amphibian vehicle comprising in com-
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.9.'An amphibian vehicle comprising in com
bination, a substantially water-tight vehicle body,
said body adiacent one end thereof on its bottom
bination, a substantially water-tight vehicle body, 75 slanting upwardly toward said end and toward
' 2,413,850
7
.
its :sides so that this end of the body is tapered
for-facilitating passage of the vehicle through
said body.v being tapered on;one .end whereby to
cut the water and facilitate passage> of the ve
the water with this end foremost, a pair of tracks
on opposite sides of said body, said tracks each
hicle through the water with >that end foremost,
a pair of tracks movably disposed on- opposite
sides of said body and extending for only a por->
' beingmovably-disposed with respect to the body
and held ináloogd configuration by means of a
- tion of the length of: the `body and disposed ad
' pair of track-supporting wheels and a plurality
jacent the opposite vend of the body, said tracks
of body-'supporting bogie wheels running on the
track and the tracks being adapted-when driven
being adapted to‘propel the vehicle eitherover
land or through the water and-each track having
to l«propel the vehicle either over land or through 10 a portion on'said opposite end ofthe body ex-_
tending upwardly and endwardly of the body'
the‘water, said tracks extending for only a por
tion of the length of the body and being dis
whereby the vehicle may‘mount ‘andpass over
posed adjacent the opposite end of thebody, an
raised obstacles when the vehicleis-moving with
auxiliary body> supporting unit comprising a
said opposite end foremost,` auxiliary wheeled
supporting means for said body adjacent its ta
track movable on a plurality of» idler wheels, said
unit being disposed adjacent said tapered body
pered end functioning withv said tracks to support
the body when the_.vehicle is propelled over land.
end on the longitudinal center of the body and
partially in a cavity provided in the; bottom of
a motor in said body, and means operatively con
the body, each of said tracks having a portion
necting said motor and said tracks for driving
said tracks and yincluding a transmission, said
transmission providing one ratio for driving the
tracks in a directionto propelthe vehicle through
adjacent'said opposite end of the body extending so
upwardly and endwardly of the body whereby the
vehicle may mount ~and pass over raised obstacles
when propelled with said opposite end foremost, , ,- the water with its tapered end‘foremost and pro
viding a plurality of ratios-fordriving the tracks
and a motor in said body adapted for driving i
`in the opposite direction for propellingv the vehicle „
said tracks either in a direction for propelling the
over land with its said opposite end foremost.
13. An amphibian vehicle comprising, in com
vehicle through the water with said tapered end
-foremost. or inthe opposite direction for pro
bination, a 'substantially water-tight vehicle body
'pelling the vehicle over land with saidopposite
body end foremost.
having one end shaped ,to facilitate passage
_
1 10. An amphibian vehicle comprising in combi
through the water when `driven with that end
_ nat‘on, a substantially water-tight vehicle body,
f foremost, driving mean's including a pair of tracks -
disposed ;on cpposite sides of vsaid vehicle adja
cent the end opposite said shaped end and adapt
ed normally yand selectively to propel the vehicle
of the vehicle through the water with thatv end
orentost, a pair of tracks movably disposed on 35 through the waterwith-‘s‘aid shaped end foremost and over land with 4its other end foremost, -and '
opposite sides of said body and adapted to propel
a gate at one> end-of said vehicle, said gate when
. the vehicle either over land or throughthe Wa
in closed position forming aportion of the vehicle
ter, 'a motor in said body. and means operatively
body and when in open position forming a means
connecting said motor and said tracksy for driv
of access to the interior of said body. v »
ing the tracks and including 'a transmission, said
said body- being tapered on one end thereof
whereby to cut the. waterl and facilitate passage
_ 14, An amphibian vehicle comprising, in com
' e >transmission providing one speed ratio for driv
_
ing the track‘s in a direction to propel‘the vehicle
through the water with its tapered body end
foremost and providing a plurality of speed ratios
bination, a substantially vwater-tight vehicle ybody
.having yoneV end shaped Ato facilitate passage
through »the water when driven with that end
fo; >driving the tracks in the opposite direction
foremost, kmeans defining a cargo space ’within
said body, a gate positioned ; above said shaped
end and adjacent said cargo space, and driving
fo i
propelling the vehicle over land with its op-'
posite body end foremost.
ß
means including a pairyof tracks disposed Aon 0p
posite sides of said body adjacent the end opposite
11. An amphibian vehicle comprising'in com
bination, a substantially water-tight vehicle body,
said> body being tapered on one end whereby to 60; said shaped end and adapted normally and selec'
tively` to propel `the lvehicle -through the water
' `cut the water and facilitate passage of the vehicle
with said shaped end foremost and over land with
through the water with this end foremost, s. pair>
of tracks movably disposed on opposite sides of
its other end foremost. ,
'
- :said body and adapted to propel the vehicle either
' , over land or'through the water, each of said 55
tracks having s. portion adjacent 'the opposite
end of said body extending upwardly and end
.wardly of the body whereby the vehicle may
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15.' An amphibian vehicle comprising..in com
bination, a substantially water-tight vehicle body
'having o_ne end tapered _to' facilitate passage
through the water_."when driven with that end
foremost, meansdefining a cargo space within
said body, driving. means-includingy a pair of
mount and pass over raised obstacles when pro- i
pelled with said opposite end foremost, a motor 60 tracks disposed _on opposite sides of. said body
in said body, "and means operatively connecting
adjacent the end opposite said shaped end and
adapted normallyand selectively to «propel the
said motor and said tracks for driving the tracks
Vand including a transmission, said transmission
vehicle through ¿the water with said shaped end
" providing one speed ratio for driving the tracks
v foremost and overland with its` other end fore
ì the water with its tapered end foremost and pro
most, and a gate adjacent said cargo space and
forming inits closed position ,a wall portion of
viding a plurality of speed ratios for driving the
. said vehicle body, said gate being located'above
’ vin a direction for propelling the vehicle through 65
tracks in the opposite direction for propelling the
said tapered end >and beingç‘hinged at its own
vehicle over land with its said opposite end fore
lower edge whereby it is adapted when lowered
most.
_
v12. An amphibian vehicle comprising in combi-v
nation, a substantially water-tight vehiclebody,
70 from its closed position to serve asa ramp leading '
'
to or from said cargo space. ,
BENJAinNMÃ. swnNNns.
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